[lit-ideas] sex slavery, Canada-for Paul

  • From: Carol Kirschenbaum <carolkir@xxxxxxxx>
  • To: lit-ideas@xxxxxxxxxxxxx
  • Date: Thu, 01 Jun 2006 21:28:55 -0700





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     Factbook on Global Sexual Exploitation



          "Rules are like women, made to be violated." (Judge Denys Dionne, 
Quebec Court, 1989, "Judge: 'No sign' of violence," Andre Picard, The Globe 
and Mail, 9 October 1997)


          The impact of migrant trafficking on Canada is estimated at 
between $120 million to $400 million per year and accounts for approximately 
8,000 to 16,000 people arriving in Canada per year illegally. ("Organized 
Crime Impact Study," Solicitor General of Canada)

          Vietnamese and Chinese mafia are increasing operations in brothels 
in Toronto, Canada. They traffic in women from Southeast Asia. Agents pay 
recruiters up to $8,000 for a woman, who then sell the women to pimps for 
about $15,000. Agents take 10% of the earnings beyond the original contract. 
The women are forced to service buyers' 12 hours a day, 400 buyers or 
$400,000 to pay off their debt. Women are abused and terrorized, being 
beaten and reportedly burned with hot irons. (Rob Lamberti, "Sex Slaves: 
Fodder for Flesh Factories the Women Earn Nothing But Tips Until They Pay 
Off Their $40,000 Contracts," Toronto Sun, 10 May 1998)

          About twelve 16-30-year-old Asian girls and women were trafficked 
into Canada each week on visitor's permits and sold into prostitution. The 
girls and women were bought in North America for up to $15,000 by a network 
that made about U.S. $1. 4 - $2.2 million annually. The women are sold to 
brothel owners in Markham and Scarborough Toronto and Los Angeles and forced 
into $40,000 debt bondage. (Police, "Police Bust Sex-slave Ring" 11 
September 1997 & "Toronto police uncover sex slave ring," United Press 
International, 11 September 1997)

          1000 employment authorizations for foreign exotic dancers are 
issued every year. ("Canada's Paper for EU Conference on Trafficking in 
Women for Sexual Exploitation" 10-11 June 1996)

          Recruitment of exotic dancers into Canada is legal, and may be 
linked to the issues of trafficking and sexual exploitation. Women who enter 
Canada to work as exotic dancers are vulnerable to sexual and economic 
exploitation, deprivation of freedom, and can be coerced into criminal 
activities, whether they have entered legally or illegally. ("Canada's Paper 
for EU Conference on Trafficking in Women for Sexual Exploitation" 10-11 
June 1996)

          Male buyers in Canada are increasingly seeking Filipinas more so 
than Thai women, because they believe Filipinas pose less of risk for AIDS. 
(Rob Lamberti, "Sex Slaves: Fodder for Flesh Factories the Women Earn 
Nothing But TipsUntil They Pay Off Their $40,000 Contracts," Toronto Sun, 10 
May 1998)

          Methods and Techniques of Traffickers

          As many as 100 Honduran children have been smuggled overland into 
Canada from Honduras, by a professional drug ring trafficking children to 
Vancouver. The Honduran smugglers pay the childrens' transportation costs 
and help them across the Canadian border. Once in Vancouver, the traffickers 
put the children in apartments, help them file refugee claims and sign up 
for welfare. In return, the children are turned out on the street as 
indentured drug dealers. (Adrienne Turner, "Drug ring lures kids as dealers: 
Hondurans as young as 11 deal crack in Vancouver," Ottawa Citizen, 20 July 

          Many of the young girls that are trafficked and forced into 
prostitution in Canada are ferried from city to city, from Seattle to San 
Francisco to Oakland to Phoenix to Honolulu and Portland. The pimps move 
them every 3-4 weeks. (Portland Police Officer Doug Kosloske, The Province, 
19 December 1997)

          Motorcycle gangs and organized crime groups based in Eastern 
Europe and Asia, have trafficked foreign women to Canada under lawful 
pretexts, then forced the women into prostitution. ("Canada's Paper for EU 
Conference on Trafficking in Women for Sexual Exploitation" 10-11 June 1996)

          There have been a number of cases identified wherein women from 
Asia have been smuggled into the provinces of Quebec, Ontario and British 
Colombia for the purpose of having women work as lounge dancers and 
strippers. ("Canada's Paper for EU Conference on Trafficking in Women for 
Sexual Exploitation" 10-11 June 1996)

          There have been reports of extortion, coercion, rape and 
prostitution involving foreign exotic dancers, strip club managers and 
patrons. The women are vulnerable to sexual exploitation and coercion into 
criminal activities. Foreign exotic dancers tend to be recruited in their 
country of residence by "talent agencies". The talent agency pays all 
up-front costs associated with travel and initial accommodations. The loan 
becomes a form of debt-bondage. Many of these women do not speak French or 
English and are unfamiliar with the legal protections available to them 
under Canadian law. ("Canada's Paper for EU Conference on Trafficking in 
Women for Sexual Exploitation" 10-11 June 1996)

          Strip clubs located in Toronto and Montreal are suspected of 
sexually exploiting young Asian women from Thailand, Taiwan, the 
Philippines, Malaysia and other areas. The women were hired as foreign 
exotic dancers, but were put into prostitution. The women were coerced into 
having abortions when pregnant, with threats of being returned to their 
country of origin if they refused. The women had their passports taken away, 
and were held in seclusion when they were not performing. After an 
investigation, criminal charges were laid against the women. None of their 
abusers were charged. ("Canada's Paper for EU Conference on Trafficking in 
Women for Sexual Exploitation" 10-11 June 1996)


          A family run prostitution network in Canada made more than $1 
million in two years by prostituting foreign women. A man, his son, his 
wife, their daughter and daughter-in-law all recruited females who 
participated in the overall operation. Many of the 20 prostitutes -- aged 23 
to 39 -- were related to the operators by marriage or blood, Murarotto said. 
They worked out of apartments and each turned over at least $15,000 a year 
to the operators (George Christopoulos, "Family Ran Prostitution Ring," 
Toronto Sun, 16 May 1998)

          Xuong Han Luong faces charges of owning a brothel in Toronto, 
Canada, and living off the avails of prostitution. He held at least five 
Thai women in the brothel, forcing them into prostitution. Although the 
brothel was raided in 1996, police believe the same group reopened it. (Rob 
Lamberti, "Cops Raid Den of Thai Sex 'Salves' 2 Men Arrested For Running 
Bawdy House," Toronto Sun, 10 May 1998)

          Adam Jermaine Ingram, 20, and Kevin Roy Woods, 18 are accused of 
paying $3,000 to buy a 13-year-old girl from a man in Vancouver, Canada, 
abducting her and her friend and raping them while on route to San Diego. 
Their actions violate, among other laws, the 1948 White Slave Traffic Act, 
prohibiting the transport of minors across state lines with the intent of 
engaging in criminal activity. (Teen Girls Abducted,"The Province, 21 
December 1997)

          11 women, aged 18-25, from the former Soviet Union, were forced to 
become exotic dancers in a strip club. The women were recruited from the 
former Soviet Union with the promise that they would become highly paid 
models in Canada. They entered Canada illegally, and the traffickers took 
their passports and other identification and held them in Toronto. The women 
went to the police in April 1991. Two men were charged and fined $1000 and 
$2000. ("Canada's Paper for EU Conference on Trafficking in Women for Sexual 
Exploitation" 10-11 June 1996)

          One Asian woman who was trafficked into Canada 10 years ago at the 
age of 17, reports that agents traffic at least 30 Thai women into Canada 
per trip, and that there are at least 3 Thai agents in Toronto alone. (Rob 
Lamberti, "Sex Slaves: Fodder for Flesh Factories the Women Earn Nothing But 
Tips Until They Pay Off Their $40,000 Contracts," Toronto Sun, 10 May 1998)

          Policy and Law

          There is no section specifically on trafficking in women in the 
Criminal Code of Canada, and prostitution is not illegal in Canada, 
therefore Immigration Officers cannot refuse entry or issue a removal order 
to individuals solely on the grounds that they engage in prostitution. 
("Canada's Paper for EU Conference on Trafficking in Women for Sexual 
Exploitation" 10-11 June 1996)

          Official Response and Action

          Women are regularly transported back and forth across the 
Canadian-US border for the purpose of prostitution. Canadian law enforcement 
has long been aware of this. ("Canada's Paper for EU Conference on 
Trafficking in Women for Sexual Exploitation" 10-11 June 1996)

          750 criminal charges were filed against traffickers in one case of 
bringing women from Southeast Asia to Toronto for prostitution. (Bill 
Wallace & Benjamin Pimental, "San Jose Women Held After Raid in Sex Slave 
Case," San Francisco Chronicle, 13 September 1997)


          Prostituted women are 60-120 times more likely to be murdered than 
the general public. (Research by Dr. John Lowman, Paul Dillon, "Life On The 
Streets in Dangerous," Surrey Leader, 17 May 1998)

          The murder of prostituted women in Canada continues to rise. From 
1991-1995 63 prostituted women were murdered in Canada, 26 of which in 
British Columbia. More than half of the cases remains unsolved. Six to eight 
others were murdered in 1996 and 1997 in B.C. (Dr. John Lowman 
criminologist, Paul Dillon, "Life On The Streets in Dangerous," Surrey 
Leader, 17 May 1998)

          Three prostituted women in Toronto, Canada have been murdered. 
Police believe the murders are the result of a serial killer after one woman 
escaped an attack and reported it to the police. (Ian Timberlake, "Sex 
attacker hunted, Man in sketch may be tied to killings," Toronto Sun, 23 
June 1998)

          Statistics on the murders of prostitutes in the Vancouver area: 
1960-1977 1; 1978-1980 4; 1981-1985 12; and 1986-1995 60. (Jon Lowman, Greg 
Middleton, "Law Blamed for Hooker Murders," The Province)

          Within 5 days, two prostituted women were murdered in Vancouver. 
Many of the murders against prostituted women go unsolved, such as 19 
unsolved murders between 1988 and 1994. (Peter Montague, RCMP media liasion 
statistics, Dawn Brett, "Angry mourners demand action," Vancouver Sun, 14 
June 1997)

          Women and children in street prostitution comprise 1/3 of the 
1,500 people in the sex industry in Montreal. (Police estimates. 
"Prostitutes protest police sweep" Montreal Gazette, 23 June 1998)

          The Coalition for the Rights of Sex Workers, a lobby group 
representing about 5,000 prostituted persons, escorts, strippers and 
phone-sex operators in Montreal, held a small demonstration at the riding 
office of Quebec Employment Minister Louise Harel. They were demanding the 
same rights as other workers in the province. Coalition spokeswoman 
Marie-Claude Charlebois said working conditions in the sex trade are 
deplorable. "We're sick of having no say when it comes to wages, working 
hours or working environment," she said. Women engaged in prostitution on 
the streets often work in dangerous, isolated areas that offer no protection 
against violence from clients, pimps and even police, Charlebois said. ("Sex 
Workers seek rights", Ottawa Sun, 6 September 1998)

          There are 10,000 prostitutes in the Greater Toronto Area, and more 
than 4,000 women are in the escort trade. One hour costs a minimum of $150, 
with half usually going to the agency. Women escorts are "busiest" during 
corporate conventions held in the area. A recent trend is for women to 
operate as "independents" that book their own dates and run ads on the 
Internet. (Detective Mark Marple of Peel Region Police Nick Pron, "Dating 
Services Bring Boom Times to Prostitution," Toronto Star, 1997)

          Of 25 prostitutes known to be on the streets of Sudbury, Canada 
half are under 15 years old and some are as young as 11. (Police, Wayne 
Chamberlain, "Half of Sudbury Prostitutes Under 15 Years Old, Police Say: 
Streetwalkers a growing problem in Nickel City," The Sudbury Star, 13 April 

          70 to 80% of those involved in the Canadian sex industry began as 
children. And 80 to 95% are fleeing sexual abuse that usually began at home. 
(Kimberly Daum, "Sexually Exploitated Children in Canada: The Law is Not on 
Their Side," Opinion/Essays, 17 October 1996)

          In Canada, the escort service has become a booming underground 
economy, at an estimated $1/2 billion annually. The number of agencies has 
increased from just a few a decade ago to more than 125 in the Greater 
Toronto Area alone. Men run most of the 25 larger agencies in the Greater 
Toronto Area, the biggest of which employs about 100 women. Other small 
agencies have between 2 and 6 women. (Toronto Star investigation, Nick Pron, 
"Dating Services Bring Boom Times to Prostitution," Toronto Star, 1997)

          Setting records is part of the competition among escort agencies. 
12 men reportedly bought one woman in one night. One agency auctioned a 
woman as a virgin. The "bidding war" resulted in a record hour fee of $800. 
(Police files, Nick Pron "Dating Services Bring Boom Times to Prostitution" 
Toronto Star (1997)

          200-300 juveniles in prostitution in Vancouver are routinely 
arrested on prostitution-related charges. (Youth workers, Kimberly Daum, 
"Sexually Exploitated Children in Canada: The Law is Not on Their Side," 
Opinion/Essays, 17 October 1996)

          Hundreds of children under 17 years old are being exploited in the 
sex industry in Vancouver, Canada. Middle-aged male buyers are increasingly 
seeking girls as young as 11. The police are not trusted by the children, 
who have targeted them for arrests rather than the perpetrators. (Child 
advocates, Mark Clayton, "To Curb Vancouver's Big Trade in Child Sex, Police 
Nab 'Johns'," Christian Science Monitor, 1997)

          Children in prostitution are charged 59 times more often than are 
the male buyers in Vancouver. In six years, only 6 men were charged in 
Vancouver for buying children in prostitution. Two were convicted. During 
the same time period, 354 children were charged for involvement in 
prostitution. (Vancouver: Predator and Pedophile Paradise, a study by John 
Turvey, executive director of Downtown Eastside Youth Activities Society, 
Mark Clayton, "To Curb Vancouver's Big Trade in Child Sex, Police Nab 'Johns'," 
Christian Science Monitor, 1997)

          10% of the 100 to 200 women in street prostitution in Calgary, 
Canada, are under the 18 years of age. (Helen Dolik "Help group for families 
is launched" Calgary Herald, 11 August 1997)


          Three men sexually assaulted, threatened to kill and prostituted a 
13-year-old girl in Toronto and Oshawa, Canada for 18 months. The men 
collected $100,000 from selling her as a prostitute. Robert Christian 
Chattaway, 20, of Scarboro, was charged with kidnapping, aggravated sexual 
assault, procuring, living on the avails of a prostitute under 18 and having 
dangerous weapons. Warrants are issued for the two other men. (Mike 
Beauparlant Detective of the Juvenile Task Force, Tom Godfrey, "Child Forced 
to Hook Man Held After Girl, 13, Assaulted," Toronto Sun, 18 April 1998)

          Jalil Ali-Akbar Bahrami, a violent pimp, convicted of 60 offenses 
of drug trafficking, assault with a deadly weapon and living off the avails 
of prostitution was freed from prison and sent to his native Iran after 
claiming he is not using drugs and that he has found God. (Kelly Harris, 
"Violent Offender Finds God, Is Freed," Sun Media, 27 May 1998)

          Suspected serial killer Terry Driver, admitted he used prostitutes 
from the time he was 15, when he gave food to homeless children in exchange 
for sex. He also admitted that he used three women who were later found 
dead. [Holly Horwood, "Is Terry Driver a Serial Killer?" The Province, 17 
October 1997)

          Organized crime by motorcycle gangs, such as 'Hell's Angels,' are 
involved in drug trafficking and prostitution. More than 50 people have been 
killed in Quebec over four years, in a turf war between the Hell's Angels 
and a rival gang called the Rock Machine ("Canada plans to take on biker 
gangs," United Press International, 23 April 1998)

          A cocaine epidemic is closely linked with Yellowknife's 
prostitution and pornography trade. A group of girls were selling sex for 
cocaine. A man faces trial for trafficking cocaine as well as possessing 
about 1300 pornographic videos, including some with local women. Alcohol and 
drug use was linked to child sexual abuse and trauma. (Arlene Hache, 
Yellowknife Women's Centre, "Coke epidemic in Northest Territories; Child 
sexual abuse called root of drug abuse in North," Canadian Press, 26 October 

          Philip Grassi, 49, a Vancouver firefighter and North Vancouver 
minor hockey coach was arrested and charged for soliciting a prostitute, who 
was really an undercover police officer. He said his constitutional rights 
were violated by the Vancouver police department's policy of naming men 
arrested for prostitution offences. (Gerry Bellett, "Being Identified As A 
John Violates My Rights, Says Firefighter: Vancouver father of two takes 
police department to court," Vancouver Sun, 20 June 1997)

          Two missing Calgary girls, aged 15 and 16, recruited into 
prostitution by a sex trade ring on Vancouver's streets have been rescued 
and safely returned home. A key factor in solving the case was the use of 
the Deter and Identify Sex trade Consumers (DISC) computer system, developed 
by two Vancouver police officers. (Peter Smith, "Girls Home Safe", Calgary 
Sun, 15 August 1998)

          Policy and Law

          A new law in Canada, the Protection of Children Involved in 
Prostitution Act, increased the fines for both pimps and male buyers to 
$25,000 from $2,000. Pimps and male buyers are warning their peers of the 
new law, via the Internet. (Bart Johnson, "Creeps Scraed Off Internet Warns 
Pimps, Johns That Sex With Underage Hookers In Alberta is Child Abuse," 
Edmonton Sun, 1 May 1998)

          The Protection of Children Involved in Prostitution Act in Canada 
will provide the legal means to remove children in prostitution from the 
streets and put them back into their homes or into protective custody. It 
also calls for higher fines on anyone encouraging children into 
prostitution. (Rob Flanagan, "Bartolucci s bill passes second reading," 
Sudbury Star, 29 May 1998)

          In April 1998, Sudbury Regional Police launched the DISC (deter, 
identify, sex trade, consumers) program. The program targets the anonymity 
of the johns who buy sex from women in prostitution. The operation has 
focused on Elgin and Durham streets, and the Medina Lane area, after regular 
business hours. People who speak to, stand with, or continually drive by the 
prostitutes can be stopped, watched or be asked to provide identification by 
the police. In the first five months, police charged 16 men and seven women 
with prostitution-related offences through the DISC program. Two of the 
cases involved prostitutes younger than 16 years of age. (Staff writer, 
"Prostitution on the rise in Sudbury, group says", Sudbury Star, 14 August 

          Aggravated pimping, in cases involving violence and commercial 
exploitation of youth, mandates a minimum sentence of five years 
imprisonment. ("Canada's Paper for EU Conference on Trafficking in Women for 
Sexual Exploitation" 10-11 June 1996)

          In Alberta the Child Welfare Act was amended to classify the 
hiring of prostitutes under 18 as child abuse. Convicted buyers face fines 
up to $2,000 or six months in jail. ("Alberta Justice Minister Wants Jail 
for Johns,"Associated Press, 1997)

          In 1997, new federal legislation made it an offense to seek the 
sexual services of a person believed to less than 18. The new law also sets 
a minimum five-year federal prison sentence - with a 14-year maximum - for 
pimps who coerce juveniles into prostitution through violence or 
intimidation. ("Alberta Justice Minister Wants Jail for Johns,"Associated 
Press, 1997)

          In Toronto, Canada, prostitution is not illegal, but communicating 
or discussing sex for cash is one of four Criminal Code offenses governing 
the escort agency trade. (Nick Pron, "Dating Services Bring Boom Times to 
Prostitution," Toronto Star, 1997)

          In The Greater Toronto Area, Now Magazine was charged in 1990 with 
14 counts of "communicating" for the purpose of prostitution because of its 
escort agency ads in the classified section. The charges were dropped in 
what one crown prosecutor called a "political decision" and the advertising 
floodgates were opened. (Nick Pron "Dating Services Bring Boom Times to 
Prostitution" Toronto Star (1997)

          The Edmonton Police plan to form a prostitution committee to curb 
prostitution. One strategy will be to seize the cars of male buyers. (Robert 
Noce, Jerry Ward, "Skin Trade Committee Urged", Edmonton Sun, 23 July 1998)

          The city of Vancouver collects approximately $6,500 from each of 
the 100 'body rub parlors' and escort agencies. (Jon Lowman, Greg Middleton, 
"Law Blamed for Hooker Murders," The Province)

          In the "Shame the johns" Campaign, Vancouver, British Columbia 
police plan to release the names of men suspected of trying to buy women in 
prostitution. ("Police Unfazed By Suit," The Province, 2 September 1997)

          A person convicted of living off the avails of child prostitution 
was judged by a British Columbia government screening program as being "no 
risk," and allowed to keep a job that involves contact with children. 
(Stewart Bell, Vancouver Sun, October 1997)

          Official Response and Action

          Police in Sudbury, Canada are launching a Deter, Identify, Sex 
Trade, Consumers Program to combat the growing number of prostitutes, 
particularly underage girls. The program targets the anonymity of the buyers 
in order to deter them. Cst. Corinne Fewster, an officer with the Sudbury 
Regional Police's Drug and Morality Squad said they hope to reduce the 
demand by targeting buyers. (Wayne Chamberlain, "Half of Sudbury Prostitutes 
Under 15 Years Old, Police Say: Streetwalkers a growing problem in Nickel 
City," The Sudbury Star, 13 April 1998)

          Calgary is one of just two cities in North America where the 
number of girls in prostitution is declining. Until 1994 when the Street 
Teams operation began, the number of girls under 18 in prostitution had been 
rising. There were 400 girls in prostitution or at risk of starting. That 
figure dropped to 276 in 1996, and 243 in 1997. Every night, Street Teams 
volunteers patrol the strolls, LRT stations and malls, talking girls off the 
street and warning those who might be recruited by pimps (Don Braid, "Street 
Teams Head Deserves Order of Canada," Calgary Sun, 15 May 1998)

          Under a new program in Vancouver, Canada, 30 percent of first time 
offenders of solicitation for prostitution are eligible to attend the "john 
school" instead of prosecution. This proposal seeks to curb male 
solicitation before it becomes repeat behavior. Men will pay Canada $400 to 
attend the "school" instead of a fine. (Shane McCune, "Police board Oks 
'john school' idea," Vancouver Province, 26 June 1998)

          In the last 2 weeks of February 1997, as a result of the testimony 
of children, 10 male buyers were arrested and charged with soliciting for 
prostitution. (Mark Clayton, "To Curb Vancouver's Big Trade in Child Sex, 
Police Nab 'Johns'," Christian Science Monitor, 1997)

          The British Columbia government pledged $3 million to help street 
kids and teen prostitutes by hiring more outreach workers and creating "safe 
houses" in four communities for those who want to leave prostitution. (Ian 
Bailey, "Pimps not easy to spot, sex-trade worker warns," CP, 12 March 1998)

          Judge Judith Kay ruled that an eight-year-old girl must be allowed 
unsupervised visits to her maternal grandmother who runs an escort agency in 
Victoria. The girl's mother opposed the decision. ("Judge says girls must 
visit grandmother who runs escort service," Vancouver Sun, 5 December 1997

          The disappearance of Crystal Dawn Jack is not being investigated 
adequately by Halifax police and friends and co-workers think it is because 
she was involved in prostitution. Jack vanished sometime in early to 
mid-July 1997. Halifax regional police spokes-man Constable Gary Martin said 
the police are doing all they can considering the lack of physical evidence 
that would indicate a violent crime has been committed. (Richard Dooley, 
"Look harder for woman, friends say," The Daily News, 23 August 1998)

          Police investigate allegations that police officers in Sudbury, 
Ontario, had sex with prostituted children. A social worker at a youth 
correctional center testified that police officers, supposed to protect 
teenagers involved in prostitution, sometimes had sex with them. A local 
prostituted woman backed up the allegation, saying she first had sex with a 
police officer for money when she was 14 years old, and has since had sex 
with other officers. She said officers supplied child prostitutes with 
narcotic drugs to keep them quiet. The chief of police did not think the 
allegations were true, but ordered an internal investigation. ("Police face 
probe for alleged child sex," United Press International, 17 August 1998)

          NGO Action

          Teens involved in prostitution may be helped by a support network 
that a group in Sudbury is working to create. The group consists of a number 
of public service groups, community agencies and politicians. Teens enter 
prostitution for various reasons, including as an escape from an abusive 
home life, a way to support drug habits, and others are lured into it. Most 
have low self-esteem, many have been abused in past relationships, and some 
are parents. A number on Sudbury streets are under the age of 16. (Debbie 
Shipley, "Effort under way to reach out to teen prostitutes," Star)

          Official Corruption and Collaboration

          "If what we're doing is so bad, then why are police officers and 
politicians some of our better customers?" Among the range of buyers include 
schoolboys to grandfathers, lawyers, top civil servants, businessmen, the 
laborer next door. Most are married. Some are in their 70s. All of their 
names are on computerized databases in escort agency offices. (One escort 
agency owner, Nick Pron, "Dating Services Bring Boom Times to Prostitution," 
Toronto Star, 1997)

          Rural Canadian Mounted Police officer Lyndon Dorrington, 31 was 
found guilty of soliciting a prostitute after, the woman he approached 
revealed herself as an undercover police officer. He claimed he was doing 
research for a course. ("Cops Research Argument Doesn't Fly," Calgary 
Herald, 8 August 1997)

          Assistant Crown Attorney Agnew Johnston in Thunder Bay, Ontario, 
was discovered having been exploiting minors for prostitution. He has been 
appealing disbarment since 1994.

          Prostitution Tourism

          Policy and Law

          Canada discarded the principle of double jeopardy, so a person can 
be prosecuted for extra-territorial crimes of sex exploitation both in the 
country where the crime is commited and in Canada. ("Child sexploitation 
within law's reach," The Nation, 2 July 1997)

          In 1997, Canada made it illegal for citizens to have sex with 
children in foreign countries. Each year, thousands of western tourists 
travel to impoverished Third World countries and Eastern Europe to buy 
children in prostitution. (Ian Bailey, "Ex-prostitute offers reality check 
on tactic against sex tourism," CP, 12 March 1998)

          According to Canadian law, men who buy a child in prostitution in 
a foreign country face up to 10 years in prison, while in Canada, they face 
5 years in prison. (Police, Kimberly Daum, "Sexually Exploitated Children in 
Canada: The Law is Not on Their Side," Opinion/Essays, 17 October 1996)

          Canadian customs agents and police have special powers to 
prosecute child pornography peddlers and child-sex tourists under Bill C-27, 
passed in 1997. (Tom Godfrey, "Sex tourists targeted," Toronto Sun, 11 
September 1998)

          Official Response and Action

          Canadian Yves Banville travelled throughout Africa (southern 
Africa, Zambia, and Madagascar) as a sex tourist for months. He collected 
hundreds of pornographic photos, and raped girls as young as 8. He has been 
arrested and charged with one count of possession and one count importation 
of child pornography. (Larry Pynn, "Child-porn importer fined $300," The 
Vancouver Sun, 23 March 1998)

          Canadians returning home from child-sex tourism vacations in 
certain European and Third World countries are being arrested at airports 
across the country. Customs officials targeted pornography smugglers and 
child-sex tourists in Project Offspray, conducted from Aug. 26, 1998 to 
Sept. 7, 1998. Custom officials called the crackdown a success, as the 
project netted several child-sex peddlers. The Customs department is working 
with international police agencies and G-8 (industrialized) countries to go 
after pornography dealers. There are currently no child-sex tourism cases 
before Canadian courts. (Tom Godfrey, "Sex tourists targeted," Toronto Sun, 
11 September 1998)

          Regulation of the sex industry is being debated by an Edmonton 
Police Commission task force. The task force is working to keep the sex 
industry out of residential areas. The establishments of red-light districts 
and tougher laws will be considered, after information about prostitution 
has been collected. The Chief of Police opposes the establishment of 
red-light districts saying this would contribute to the victimization of 
women. (Ian McDougall, "Red-light districts pondered," Edmonton Sun, 24 
September 1998)



          Gord Malcolm, former Ajax-Pickering News Advertiser editor, was 
sentenced to 23 months in jail for possessing and distributing child porn. 
Malcolm was arrested in a police sting at a motel where he was supposed to 
meet a 12-year-old girl for sex. 816 images of child pornography and 2,000 
images of bestiality and bondage pornography were seized at his residence. 
(Kevin Hann, "Internet perv behind bars, Ex-editor in kiddie porn sting," 
Toronto Sun, 1 July 1998)

          Police seized 53 rolls of undeveloped film, three video-cassette 
recorders, computer equipment, more than 400 videotapes, 15 CD-ROMs and 41 
floppy disks from Michael Andrew Gibbon, who is under investigation for 
offering to sell child pornography on an government Internet website 
fronting as a pornography site. (Andy Ivens, The Province, 16 December 1997)

          Four girls, aged 12-14 were found during a child pornography bust. 
They were taken into custody by police and released on their own at 4 a.m.. 
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police criticized the Children and Family's 
Ministries for failure to provide services and protection for the girls. 
(Stweart Bell & Kim Pemberton, Vancouver Sun, February 1998)

          James Ritchie, a retired military officer who downloaded children 
pronography from the Internet has been sentenced to 15 months in jail. More 
than 1,000 images and nearly 700 fictional stories obtained through the 
Internet were found by Provincial Police. Ritchie was sentenced to 15 months 
in jail, the harshest sentence since the 1993 Criminal Code amendment 
targeted child pornography. ("Ex-officer jailed for child porn," Vancouver 
Sun, 21 September 1997)

          Police seized a home computer of a Kitimat, Canada, man containing 
an album of about 10,000 images and video clips of child pornography. 
Internet cops, from the Co-ordinated Law Enforcement Unit and Canada 
Customs, who regularly monitor chat rooms on the World Wide Web, were 
supplied with the photographs which led to the arrest. The man faces charges 
of distribution of child pornography and possession of child pornography as 
a result of illegal activities on the Internet. ("Net used to nab Kitimat 
man," The Province)

          Toronto Child Pornography Ring:

          A police probe uncovered a child pornography business in Don 
Mills, Toronto, Canada after complaints from the Illinois Attorney General 
Internet Criminal Activity Unit and Australia. About a dozen girls aged 14 
to 16 were filmed naked or with men having sex with them. Digital photos or 
video of the sessions were transmitted on a child pornography Internet site, 
which charged subscription fees of $15 to $80. A man had been operating the 
site for about a year and had about 1,000 subscribers.

          The girls were recruited by the man or a third party and police 
believe some of the girls were runaways. The man also had access to an 
agency specializing in child models, which would send him girls. "He would 
pay them to pose for shots or to have sex," Detective O'Mara said, adding 
that the cameras were hidden in the apartment. In some instances, the 
victims didn't know they were being photographed.

          Police seized thousands of photos and computer equipment when they 
searched the apartment in August 1998. Some photos showed girls as young as 
five involved in various sexual activity. Stephen Bauer, 23, has been 
charged with three counts of making child pornography, distributing child 
pornography, living off the avails of prostitution, exercising control, 
sexual exploitation and communicating for the purpose of prostitution. (Tom 
Godfrey, "Cops bust porno den," Toronto Sun, 9 September 1998)

          Policy and Law

          Importing child pornography on the Internet is treated as an 
offence equally serious as the attempt to import any other form of 
pornography into Canada. ("Net used to nab Kitimat man," The Province)

        Organized and Institutionalized Sexual Exploitation and Violence

          Sixty men were arrested and charged with child exploitation of 
teenage boys from 1993 to 1995. (Don Murray, "Man Aquitted on Sex Charges," 
London Free Press, 25 April 1998)

          A 40-year-old pedophile ring wherein dozens of children were 
victimized, was uncovered in Cornwall; perpetrators include local officials 
and Catholic priests. ("Police form task force to probe pedophile ring," 
Canadian Press, 8 October 1997)

          Ontario Police are investigating a pedophile group, which includes 
Roman Catholic clergy and public officials, that has operated for decades in 
Cornwall. The men have been abusing boys from 1957 until at least 1994, and 
the abuse may still be happening. ("Police Investigate Alleged Sex Ring," 
Chronicle Journal Thunder Bay, 27 July 1997)

          Pastor Anthony Gifford, 55, sexually assaulted 5 women members of 
the "moms and tots" program of the Wesley Mimico United Church. Gifford 
exploited most of the women aboard his yacht, the "Love Boat". The women 
went to him for counseling on their personal and marital problems. (Nick 
Pron, "Church Calls Accused Minister 'danger'," Toronto Star, 12 February 

          308 of the 843 low-income, inner city women attending a community 
health center in Winnipeg reported being sexually abused, mostly as 
children. The prevalence of sexual abuse was higher among aboriginal women 
(45%) versus non-aboriginal women (31%). Lead author of the three-year 
study, Dr. T. Kue Young, a professor in the department of community health 
sciences at the University of Manitoba, reports in the study that women who 
had been sexually abused were more likely to have had sexual intercourse 
before 12 years of age, had multiple partners and had a history of sexually 
transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea, chlamydia and genital warts. Young 
said women who have been sexually abused are also more likely to be 
unemployed, separated or divorced and they were also more likely to have 
been pregnant five or more times. (Sharon Lem, "Abuse linked to later sex 
woes", 25 August 1998)

          Official Response and Action

          Internet stalking, including sexual harassment of former 
girlfriends, is being investigated by police in Newfoundland. Stalking by 
e-mail is just one of many emerging criminal trends which raise concerns 
about security and privacy on the Internet, said Royal Canadian Mounted 
Police Constable Bruce Fillier, a computer crimes specialist. He said he 
investigates about one complaint of e-mail stalking per month, but no 
charges have ever been made. Both federal and provincial officials are 
looking at ways to crackdown Internet criminal activity such as e-mail 
stalking and child pornography offences. (Will Hilliard, The Evening 
Telegram, 6 September 1998)

          Policy and Law

          In 1993, Ottawa passed a bill outlawing stalking, making it a 
crime to knowingly cause a person to fear for his or her life or the safety 
of someone else. The Criminal Code defines stalking or criminal harassment 
as repeatedly following or communicating with a person; watching or 
harassing a person at home or at work; or engaging in threatening conduct 
toward a person or his or her family. Criminal harassment, upon conviction, 
is punishable by up to five years in prison. (Will Hilliard, The Evening 
Telegram, 6 September 1998)


          Factbook Table of Contents            CATW Homepage

          Coalition Against Trafficking in Women
          Factbook on Global Sexual Exploitation
          Donna M. Hughes, Laura Joy Sporcic, Nadine Z. Mendelsohn and 
Vanessa Chirgwin

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