[pure-silver] Re: Old paper andDefendre 58-D

  • From: "Richard Knoppow" <dickburk@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>
  • To: "Pure-Silver Free" <pure-silver@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>
  • Date: Thu, 28 Feb 2008 08:52:18 -0800

----- Original Message ----- From: <C.Breukel@xxxxxxx>
To: <pure-silver@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Sent: Thursday, February 28, 2008 4:40 AM
Subject: [pure-silver] Old paper andDefendre 58-D

We had recently some discussion on how to process old
outdated photo
paper: I mentioned Defender 58-D. Got this through I guy on

He (Rlibersky) has now a very intersesting post up (at least
I think
it's interesting), with examples:

You might want to check out:




   Well, this was enough to get me to re-register with
apug. The images are interesting. They display a lot less
fog than I got trying some old Agfa and Kodak paper I've had
in storage for probably fifteen years. The warm tone stuff
was useless, it looked light struck.
   The strong yellow cast of some of the sample prints is
curious. This looks like overall stufiding rather than the
sort of chemical fog I would expect. A couple of samples
look OK, at least from the scans. Note that Azo and Velox
are very slow papers intended for contact printing and Opal
was a very slow enlarging paper. In general, the slower the
paper the less affected it will be by fog. I am astounded
that 1931 Velox would even produce an image.
Velox, which I used extensively at one time, has always had a definite bluish black almost regardless of the developer used. It was Kodak's standard paper for photofinishers and beginning amateurs. Actually a very good paper that I think would be popular now. Azo was a very slow (2/3rds the speed of Velox) contact paper but varied over the many decades it was made. At some times being neutral black and other versions being somewhat warm black. Professional Azo was a warm tone paper made simultaneously with regular Azo.
   Defender formulas were mostly Kodak formulas used with
permission. Kodak tried to keep Defender in business as a
protection against anti-trust actions. However, Defender did
have some unique formulas and 58D seems to be one of them.
Chlorhydroquinone (AKA Adurol) behaves similarly to a
mixture of Hydroquinone and Metol. It was occasionally used
as a warm tone developer. Chlorhydroquinone developers are
resistant to aerial fog, that is, oxidation fog from
exposure of the paper or film to the air during development.
This makes it suitable for use in drums and for
old-fashioned rack and tank motion picture processing. BTW,
Pyro is also resistant to aerial fog. However, this is not
the same source of fog that one finds in old stock. That
comes from the generation of development centers by slow
chemical change in the emulsion. 58D is worth trying if you
can find the chlorhydroquinone but I would not count on it
for any sort of magic results.
   FWIW here is the formula:

Defender 58D Chlor-Hydroquinone Developer (Stock Solution)
For warm tones on Varigam paper
Water (at 125F or 52C)                        500.0 ml
Sodium sulfite, dessicated                     16.0 grams
chlorhydroquinone                               4.0 grams
Sodium carbonate, anhydrous                    16.0 grams
Potassium bromide                               0.5 grams
Water to make                                   1.0 liter

Dilute one part stock to one part water for use.

If sodium carbonate, monohydrated is used the amount is 18.7

   The instructions are for Varigam which was a neutral
tone paper. They state:
   It is necessary to develop for 4 minutes at 68F to
obtain the maximum black of the paper, at which time the
tone is just perceptibly warmer than with 55D. Shorter
development times with increased exposure will sacrifice the
maximum black somewhat but warmer tones are obtained. Prints
developed in this seveloper when toned willl give warmer
tones throughout the seeries whan when 55D is used.

Note: Defender 55D is identical to Kodak D-52, AKA Selectol.

It seems to me that I've seen other chlorhydroquinone formulas but can't find any at the moment.

Richard Knoppow
Los Angeles, CA, USA

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