[pskmail] Re: SSL error for gmail using pskmail_server

  • From: Pär Crusefalk <per@xxxxxxxxxxxx>
  • To: pskmail@xxxxxxxxxxxxx
  • Date: Tue, 10 Jun 2014 09:04:03 +0200

Hi Stephen,

The previous discussion about this SSL thing on the list here suggests
that it is a bug.
Quoting what Rein had to say about it then:

"what does 'ls -l /usr/share/perl5/IO/Socket/SSL.pm' say?

I remember having to change this file to make it work. You probably have
original perl lib. which has a bug in some distros... see:


          invalid SSL_version specified at /usr/share/perl5 - Launchpad

    bugs.launchpad.net › Ubuntu
    <https://launchpad.net/ubuntu> › “sendemail” package
    <https://launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/sendemail> › Bugs
    Oct 28, 2012 – invalid SSL_version specified at
    /usr/share/perl5/IO/Socket/SSL.pm line 332. Ubuntu · “sendemail”
    package · Bugs; Bug #1072299. Reported *...*

If yours is > 80k bytes it is the wrong one...
Try the attached one, that is the one I am using on PI4TUE..."

Maybe the fix you did is fine also for incoming but if not I have
attached the file here.

Regarding incoming pop messages there is a test script you can use to
easily see if you can get the messages from gmail.
It's in websvn and you should be able to see it here:

That script does what the server does so when that works you should be fine.

73, Per

Stephen Rector skrev 2014-06-10 07:06:
> And the solution for the bug in the SSL.pm perl script is (from a debian 
> site):
> Replace the first string with the second:
> m{^(!?)(?:(SSL(?:v2|v3|v23|v2/3))|(TLSv1[12]?))$}i
> m{^(!?)(?:(SSL(?:v2|v3|v23|v2/3))|(TLSv1[12]?))}i
> With this fix I’m now able to send outbound messages on gmail. Inbound ones 
> are not available over the server - it still reports invalid email settings. 
> But - there is progress!
> Now - my test messages have text that says:  "PSKmail message from none” 
> Where does this “none” come from? I wonder if I have to set "none” = “user” 
> to receive emails sent to this “none” entity. 
> Steve NU7B
> On Jun 9, 2014, at 9:13 PM, NU7B wrote:
>> I see from searching the archive that this is a known issue - not sure where 
>> to find the non-buggy SSL perl script. Rein’s emails seem always to have 
>> their text redacted….
>> No pain, no gain…  8^)
>> Steve
>> On Jun 9, 2014, at 8:40 PM, NU7B wrote:
>>> Server progress report:
>>> I’ve got a good RF link between my client and test server radios now. The 
>>> next issue I’m seeing was found using debug-mode verbosity on the server. 
>>> When I try to send outbound mail for gmail, with proper smtp and account 
>>> settings, I get the following report:
>>> --------
>>> Receiving email
>>> Error sending mail : invalid SSL_version specified at 
>>> /usr/share/perl5/IO/Socket/SSL.pm line 332
>>> --------
>>> Not sure yet if this is a version issue or perhaps a missing library (since 
>>> puppy linux is barebones by philosophy). Has anyone run into this? I have 
>>> TLS enabled for the account since gmail requires it - using port 587.
>>> Steve NU7B

#!/usr/bin/perl -w
# IO::Socket::SSL:
#        a drop-in replacement for IO::Socket::INET that encapsulates
#        data passed over a network with SSL.
# Current Code Shepherd: Steffen Ullrich <steffen at genua.de>
# Code Shepherd before: Peter Behroozi, <behrooz at fas.harvard.edu>
# The original version of this module was written by
# Marko Asplund, <marko.asplund at kronodoc.fi>, who drew from
# Crypt::SSLeay (Net::SSL) by Gisle Aas.

package IO::Socket::SSL;

use IO::Socket;
use Net::SSLeay 1.21;
use Exporter ();
use Errno qw( EAGAIN ETIMEDOUT );
use Carp;
use strict;

use constant {
        SSL_VERIFY_NONE => Net::SSLeay::VERIFY_NONE(),
        SSL_VERIFY_PEER => Net::SSLeay::VERIFY_PEER(),
        # from openssl/ssl.h, should be better in Net::SSLeay
        SSL_SENT_SHUTDOWN => 1,

# non-XS Versions of Scalar::Util will fail
        eval { use Scalar::Util 'dualvar'; dualvar(0,'') };
        die "You need the XS Version of Scalar::Util for dualvar() support"
                if $@;


        # These constants will be used in $! at return from SSL_connect,
        # SSL_accept, generic_read and write, thus notifying the caller
        # the usual way of problems. Like with EAGAIN, EINPROGRESS..
        # these are especially important for non-blocking sockets

        my $x = Net::SSLeay::ERROR_WANT_READ();
        use constant SSL_WANT_READ      => dualvar( \$x, 'SSL wants a read 
first' );
        my $y = Net::SSLeay::ERROR_WANT_WRITE();
        use constant SSL_WANT_WRITE => dualvar( \$y, 'SSL wants a write first' 

        @EXPORT = qw(
                $SSL_ERROR GEN_DNS GEN_IPADD

my @caller_force_inet4; # in case inet4 gets forced we store here who forced it
my $can_ipv6;           # true if we successfully enabled ipv6 while loading


        # if we have IO::Socket::INET6 we will use this not IO::Socket::INET, 
        # it can handle both IPv4 and IPv6. If we don't have INET6 available 
fall back
        # to INET
        if ( ! eval {
                require Socket6;
                Socket6->import( 'inet_pton' );
                require IO::Socket::INET6;
                @ISA = qw(IO::Socket::INET6);
                $can_ipv6 = 1;
        }) {
                @ISA = qw(IO::Socket::INET);
        $VERSION = '1.53';
        $GLOBAL_CONTEXT_ARGS = {};

        #Make $DEBUG another name for $Net::SSLeay::trace
        *DEBUG = \$Net::SSLeay::trace;

        *ERROR = \$SSL_ERROR;

        # Do Net::SSLeay initialization

sub DEBUG {
        $DEBUG>=shift or return; # check against debug level
        my (undef,$file,$line) = caller;
        my $msg = shift;
        $file = '...'.substr( $file,-17 ) if length($file)>20;
        $msg = sprintf $msg,@_ if @_;
        print STDERR "DEBUG: $file:$line: $msg\n";

        # import some constants from Net::SSLeay or use hard-coded defaults
        # if Net::SSLeay isn't recent enough to provide the constants
        my %const = (
                NID_CommonName => 13,
                GEN_DNS => 2,
                GEN_IPADD => 7,
        while ( my ($name,$value) = each %const ) {
                no strict 'refs';
                *{$name} = UNIVERSAL::can( 'Net::SSLeay', $name ) || sub { 
$value };

        # check if we have something to handle IDN
        local $SIG{__DIE__}; local $SIG{__WARN__}; # be silent
        if ( eval { require Net::IDN::Encode }) {
                *{idn_to_ascii} = \&Net::IDN::Encode::domain_to_ascii;
        } elsif ( eval { require Net::LibIDN }) {
                *{idn_to_ascii} = \&Net::LibIDN::idn_to_ascii;
        } elsif ( eval { require URI; URI->VERSION(1.50) }) {
                *{idn_to_ascii} = sub { URI->new("http://"; . shift)->host }
        } else {
                # default: croak if we really got an unencoded international 
                *{idn_to_ascii} = sub {
                        my $domain = shift;
                        return $domain if $domain =~m{^[a-zA-Z0-9-_\.]+$};
                        croak "cannot handle international domains, please 
install Net::LibIDN, Net::IDN::Encode or URI"

# Export some stuff
# inet4|inet6|debug will be handeled by myself, everything
# else will be handeld the Exporter way
sub import {
        my $class = shift;

        my @export;
        foreach (@_) {
                if ( /^inet4$/i ) {
                        # explicitly fall back to inet4
                        @ISA = 'IO::Socket::INET';
                        @caller_force_inet4 = caller(); # save for warnings for 
'inet6' case
                } elsif ( /^inet6$/i ) {
                        # check if we have already ipv6 as base
                        if ( ! UNIVERSAL::isa( $class, 'IO::Socket::INET6' )) {
                                # either we don't support it or we disabled it 
by explicitly
                                # loading it with 'inet4'. In this case 
re-enable but warn
                                # because this is probably an error
                                if ( $can_ipv6 ) {
                                        @ISA = 'IO::Socket::INET6';
                                        warn "IPv6 support re-enabled in 
__PACKAGE__, got disabled in file $caller_force_inet4[1] line 
                                } else {
                                        die "INET6 is not supported, missing 
Socket6 or IO::Socket::INET6";
                } elsif ( /^:?debug(\d+)/ ) {
                } else {
                        push @export,$_

        @_ = ( $class,@export );
        goto &Exporter::import;

# You might be expecting to find a new() subroutine here, but that is
# not how IO::Socket::INET works.  All configuration gets performed in
# the calls to configure() and either connect() or accept().

#Call to configure occurs when a new socket is made using
#IO::Socket::INET.      Returns false (empty list) on failure.
sub configure {
        my ($self, $arg_hash) = @_;
        return _invalid_object() unless($self);

        # work around Bug in IO::Socket::INET6 where it doesn't use the
        # right family for the socket on BSD systems:
        # http://rt.cpan.org/Ticket/Display.html?id=39550
        if ( $can_ipv6 && ! $arg_hash->{Domain} &&
                ! ( $arg_hash->{LocalAddr} || $arg_hash->{LocalHost} ) &&
                (my $peer = $arg_hash->{PeerAddr} || $arg_hash->{PeerHost})) {
                # set Domain to AF_INET/AF_INET6 if there is only one choice
                ($peer, my $port) = IO::Socket::INET6::_sock_info( 
$peer,$arg_hash->{PeerPort},6 );
                my @res = Socket6::getaddrinfo( 
$peer,$port,AF_UNSPEC,SOCK_STREAM );
                if (@res == 5) {
                        $arg_hash->{Domain} = $res[0];
                        DEBUG(2,'set domain to '.$res[0] );

        # force initial blocking
        # otherwise IO::Socket::SSL->new might return undef if the
        # socket is nonblocking and it fails to connect immediatly
        # for real nonblocking behavior one should create a nonblocking
        # socket and later call connect explicitly
        my $blocking = delete $arg_hash->{Blocking};

        # because Net::HTTPS simple redefines blocking() to {} (e.g
        # return undef) and IO::Socket::INET does not like this we

        # set Blocking only explicitly if it was set
        $arg_hash->{Blocking} = 1 if defined ($blocking);

        $self->configure_SSL($arg_hash) || return;

                || return $self->error("@ISA configuration failed");

        $self->blocking(0) if defined $blocking && !$blocking;
        return $self;

sub configure_SSL {
        my ($self, $arg_hash) = @_;

        my $is_server = $arg_hash->{'SSL_server'} || $arg_hash->{'Listen'} || 0;

        my %default_args = (
                Proto => 'tcp',
                SSL_server => $is_server,
                SSL_use_cert => $is_server,
                SSL_check_crl => 0,
                SSL_version     => 'sslv23',
                SSL_verify_mode => SSL_VERIFY_NONE,
                SSL_verify_callback => undef,
                SSL_verifycn_scheme => undef,  # don't verify cn
                SSL_verifycn_name => undef,    # use from PeerAddr/PeerHost

        # common problem forgetting SSL_use_cert
        # if client cert is given but SSL_use_cert undef assume that it
        # should be set
        if ( ! $is_server && ! defined $arg_hash->{SSL_use_cert}
                && ( grep { $arg_hash->{$_} } qw(SSL_cert SSL_cert_file))
                && ( grep { $arg_hash->{$_} } qw(SSL_key SSL_key_file)) ) {
                $arg_hash->{SSL_use_cert} = 1

        # SSL_key_file and SSL_cert_file will only be set in defaults if
        # SSL_key|SSL_key_file resp SSL_cert|SSL_cert_file are not set in
        # $args_hash
        foreach my $k (qw( key cert )) {
                next if exists $arg_hash->{ "SSL_${k}" };
                next if exists $arg_hash->{ "SSL_${k}_file" };
                $default_args{ "SSL_${k}_file" } = $is_server
                        ?  "certs/server-${k}.pem"
                        :  "certs/client-${k}.pem";

        # add only SSL_ca_* if not in args
        if ( ! exists $arg_hash->{SSL_ca_file} && ! exists 
$arg_hash->{SSL_ca_path} ) {
                if ( -f 'certs/my-ca.pem' ) {
                        $default_args{SSL_ca_file} = 'certs/my-ca.pem'
                } elsif ( -d 'ca/' ) {
                        $default_args{SSL_ca_path} = 'ca/'

        #Replace nonexistent entries with defaults
        %$arg_hash = ( %default_args, %$GLOBAL_CONTEXT_ARGS, %$arg_hash );

        #Avoid passing undef arguments to Net::SSLeay
        defined($arg_hash->{$_}) or delete($arg_hash->{$_}) foreach (keys 

        my $vcn_scheme = delete $arg_hash->{SSL_verifycn_scheme};
        if ( $vcn_scheme && $vcn_scheme ne 'none' ) {
                # don't access ${*self} inside callback - this seems to create
                # circular references from the ssl object to the context and 

                # use SSL_verifycn_name or determine from PeerAddr
                my $host = $arg_hash->{SSL_verifycn_name};
                if (not defined($host)) {
                        if ( $host = $arg_hash->{PeerAddr} || 
$arg_hash->{PeerHost} ) {
                                $host =~s{:[a-zA-Z0-9_\-]+$}{};
                $host ||= ref($vcn_scheme) && $vcn_scheme->{callback} && 
                $host or return $self->error( "Cannot determine peer hostname 
for verification" );

                my $vcb = $arg_hash->{SSL_verify_callback};
                $arg_hash->{SSL_verify_callback} = sub {
                        my ($ok,$ctx_store,$certname,$error,$cert) = @_;
                        $ok = $vcb->($ok,$ctx_store,$certname,$error,$cert) if 
                        $ok or return;
                        my $depth = 
                        return $ok if $depth != 0;

                        # verify name
                        my $rv = verify_hostname_of_cert( 
$host,$cert,$vcn_scheme );
                        # just do some code here against optimization because 
x509 has no
                        # increased reference and CRYPTO_add is not available 
from Net::SSLeay
                        return $rv;

        ${*$self}{'_SSL_arguments'} = $arg_hash;
        ${*$self}{'_SSL_ctx'} = IO::Socket::SSL::SSL_Context->new($arg_hash) || 
        ${*$self}{'_SSL_opened'} = 1 if $is_server;

        return $self;

sub _set_rw_error {
        my ($self,$ssl,$rv) = @_;
        my $err = Net::SSLeay::get_error($ssl,$rv);
        $SSL_ERROR =
                $err == Net::SSLeay::ERROR_WANT_READ()  ? SSL_WANT_READ :
                $err == Net::SSLeay::ERROR_WANT_WRITE() ? SSL_WANT_WRITE :
        $! ||= EAGAIN;
        ${*$self}{'_SSL_last_err'} = $SSL_ERROR if ref($self);
        return 1;

#Call to connect occurs when a new client socket is made using
sub connect {
        my $self = shift || return _invalid_object();
        return $self if ${*$self}{'_SSL_opened'};  # already connected

        if ( ! ${*$self}{'_SSL_opening'} ) {
                # call SUPER::connect if the underlying socket is not connected
                # if this fails this might not be an error (e.g. if $! = 
                # and socket is nonblocking this is normal), so keep any error
                # handling to the client
                DEBUG(2, 'socket not yet connected' );
                $self->SUPER::connect(@_) || return;
                DEBUG(2,'socket connected' );
        return $self->connect_SSL;

sub connect_SSL {
        my $self = shift;
        my $args = @_>1 ? {@_}: $_[0]||{};

        my ($ssl,$ctx);
        if ( ! ${*$self}{'_SSL_opening'} ) {
                # start ssl connection
                DEBUG(2,'ssl handshake not started' );
                ${*$self}{'_SSL_opening'} = 1;
                my $arg_hash = ${*$self}{'_SSL_arguments'};

                my $fileno = ${*$self}{'_SSL_fileno'} = fileno($self);
                return $self->error("Socket has no fileno") unless (defined 

                $ctx = ${*$self}{'_SSL_ctx'};  # Reference to real context
                $ssl = ${*$self}{'_SSL_object'} = 
                        || return $self->error("SSL structure creation failed");

                Net::SSLeay::set_fd($ssl, $fileno)
                        || return $self->error("SSL filehandle association 

                if ( my $cl = $arg_hash->{SSL_cipher_list} ) {
                        Net::SSLeay::set_cipher_list($ssl, $cl )
                                || return $self->error("Failed to set SSL 
cipher list");

                $arg_hash->{PeerAddr} || $self->_update_peer;
                my $session = $ctx->session_cache( $arg_hash->{PeerAddr}, 
$arg_hash->{PeerPort} );
                Net::SSLeay::set_session($ssl, $session) if ($session);

        $ssl ||= ${*$self}{'_SSL_object'};

        $SSL_ERROR = undef;
        my $timeout = exists $args->{Timeout}
                ? $args->{Timeout}
                : ${*$self}{io_socket_timeout}; # from IO::Socket
        if ( defined($timeout) && $timeout>0 && $self->blocking(0) ) {
                DEBUG(2, "set socket to non-blocking to enforce 
timeout=$timeout" );
                # timeout was given and socket was blocking
                # enforce timeout with now non-blocking socket
        } else {
                # timeout does not apply because invalid or socket non-blocking
                $timeout = undef;

        my $start = defined($timeout) && time();
        for my $dummy (1) {
                #DEBUG( 'calling ssleay::connect' );
                my $rv = Net::SSLeay::connect($ssl);
                DEBUG( 3,"Net::SSLeay::connect -> $rv" );
                if ( $rv < 0 ) {
                        unless ( $self->_set_rw_error( $ssl,$rv )) {
                                $self->error("SSL connect attempt failed with 
unknown error");
                                delete ${*$self}{'_SSL_opening'};
                                ${*$self}{'_SSL_opened'} = -1;
                                DEBUG(1, "fatal SSL error: $SSL_ERROR" );
                                return $self->fatal_ssl_error();

                        DEBUG(2,'ssl handshake in progress' );
                        # connect failed because handshake needs to be completed
                        # if socket was non-blocking or no timeout was given 
return with this error
                        return if ! defined($timeout);

                        # wait until socket is readable or writable
                        my $rv;
                        if ( $timeout>0 ) {
                                my $vec = '';
                                vec($vec,$self->fileno,1) = 1;
                                DEBUG(2, "waiting for fd to become ready: 
                                $rv =
                                        $SSL_ERROR == SSL_WANT_READ ? select( 
$vec,undef,undef,$timeout) :
                                        $SSL_ERROR == SSL_WANT_WRITE ? select( 
undef,$vec,undef,$timeout) :
                        } else {
                                DEBUG(2,"handshake failed because no more time" 
                                $! = ETIMEDOUT
                        if ( ! $rv ) {
                                DEBUG(2,"handshake failed because socket did 
not became ready" );
                                # failed because of timeout, return
                                $! ||= ETIMEDOUT;
                                delete ${*$self}{'_SSL_opening'};
                                ${*$self}{'_SSL_opened'} = -1;
                                $self->blocking(1); # was blocking before

                        # socket is ready, try non-blocking connect again after 
recomputing timeout
                        DEBUG(2,"socket ready, retrying connect" );
                        my $now = time();
                        $timeout -= $now - $start;
                        $start = $now;

                } elsif ( $rv == 0 ) {
                        delete ${*$self}{'_SSL_opening'};
                        DEBUG(2,"connection failed - connect returned 0" );
                        $self->error("SSL connect attempt failed because of 
handshake problems" );
                        ${*$self}{'_SSL_opened'} = -1;
                        return $self->fatal_ssl_error();

        DEBUG(2,'ssl handshake done' );
        # ssl connect successful
        delete ${*$self}{'_SSL_opening'};
        $self->blocking(1) if defined($timeout); # was blocking before

        $ctx ||= ${*$self}{'_SSL_ctx'};
        if ( $ctx->has_session_cache ) {
                my $arg_hash = ${*$self}{'_SSL_arguments'};
                $arg_hash->{PeerAddr} || $self->_update_peer;
                my ($addr,$port) = ( $arg_hash->{PeerAddr}, 
$arg_hash->{PeerPort} );
                my $session = $ctx->session_cache( $addr,$port );
                $ctx->session_cache( $addr,$port, 
Net::SSLeay::get1_session($ssl) ) if !$session;

        tie *{$self}, "IO::Socket::SSL::SSL_HANDLE", $self;

        return $self;

# called if PeerAddr is not set in ${*$self}{'_SSL_arguments'}
# this can be the case if start_SSL is called with a normal IO::Socket::INET
# so that PeerAddr|PeerPort are not set from args
sub _update_peer {
        my $self = shift;
        my $arg_hash = ${*$self}{'_SSL_arguments'};
        eval {
                my ($port,$addr) = sockaddr_in( getpeername( $self ));
                $arg_hash->{PeerAddr} = inet_ntoa( $addr );
                $arg_hash->{PeerPort} = $port;

#Call to accept occurs when a new client connects to a server using
sub accept {
        my $self = shift || return _invalid_object();
        my $class = shift || 'IO::Socket::SSL';

        my $socket = ${*$self}{'_SSL_opening'};
        if ( ! $socket ) {
                # underlying socket not done
                DEBUG(2,'no socket yet' );
                $socket = $self->SUPER::accept($class) || return;
                DEBUG(2,'accept created normal socket '.$socket );

        $self->accept_SSL($socket) || return;
        DEBUG(2,'accept_SSL ok' );

        return wantarray ? ($socket, getpeername($socket) ) : $socket;

sub accept_SSL {
        my $self = shift;
        my $socket = ( @_ && UNIVERSAL::isa( $_[0], 'IO::Handle' )) ? shift : 
        my $args = @_>1 ? {@_}: $_[0]||{};

        my $ssl;
        if ( ! ${*$self}{'_SSL_opening'} ) {
                DEBUG(2,'starting sslifying' );
                ${*$self}{'_SSL_opening'} = $socket;
                my $arg_hash = ${*$self}{'_SSL_arguments'};
                ${*$socket}{'_SSL_arguments'} = { %$arg_hash, SSL_server => 0 };
                my $ctx = ${*$socket}{'_SSL_ctx'} = ${*$self}{'_SSL_ctx'};

                my $fileno = ${*$socket}{'_SSL_fileno'} = fileno($socket);
                return $socket->error("Socket has no fileno") unless (defined 

                $ssl = ${*$socket}{'_SSL_object'} = 
                        || return $socket->error("SSL structure creation 

                Net::SSLeay::set_fd($ssl, $fileno)
                        || return $socket->error("SSL filehandle association 

                if ( my $cl = $arg_hash->{SSL_cipher_list} ) {
                        Net::SSLeay::set_cipher_list($ssl, $cl )
                                || return $socket->error("Failed to set SSL 
cipher list");

        $ssl ||= ${*$socket}{'_SSL_object'};

        $SSL_ERROR = undef;
        #DEBUG(2,'calling ssleay::accept' );

        my $timeout = exists $args->{Timeout}
                ? $args->{Timeout}
                : ${*$self}{io_socket_timeout}; # from IO::Socket
        if ( defined($timeout) && $timeout>0 && $socket->blocking(0) ) {
                # timeout was given and socket was blocking
                # enforce timeout with now non-blocking socket
        } else {
                # timeout does not apply because invalid or socket non-blocking
                $timeout = undef;

        my $start = defined($timeout) && time();
        for my $dummy (1) {
                my $rv = Net::SSLeay::accept($ssl);
                DEBUG(3, "Net::SSLeay::accept -> $rv" );
                if ( $rv < 0 ) {
                        unless ( $socket->_set_rw_error( $ssl,$rv )) {
                                $socket->error("SSL accept attempt failed with 
unknown error");
                                delete ${*$self}{'_SSL_opening'};
                                ${*$socket}{'_SSL_opened'} = -1;
                                return $socket->fatal_ssl_error();

                        # accept failed because handshake needs to be completed
                        # if socket was non-blocking or no timeout was given 
return with this error
                        return if ! defined($timeout);

                        # wait until socket is readable or writable
                        my $rv;
                        if ( $timeout>0 ) {
                                my $vec = '';
                                vec($vec,$socket->fileno,1) = 1;
                                $rv =
                                        $SSL_ERROR == SSL_WANT_READ ? select( 
$vec,undef,undef,$timeout) :
                                        $SSL_ERROR == SSL_WANT_WRITE ? select( 
undef,$vec,undef,$timeout) :
                        } else {
                                $! = ETIMEDOUT
                        if ( ! $rv ) {
                                # failed because of timeout, return
                                $! ||= ETIMEDOUT;
                                delete ${*$self}{'_SSL_opening'};
                                ${*$socket}{'_SSL_opened'} = -1;
                                $socket->blocking(1); # was blocking before

                        # socket is ready, try non-blocking accept again after 
recomputing timeout
                        my $now = time();
                        $timeout -= $now - $start;
                        $start = $now;

                } elsif ( $rv == 0 ) {
                        $socket->error("SSL connect accept failed because of 
handshake problems" );
                        delete ${*$self}{'_SSL_opening'};
                        ${*$socket}{'_SSL_opened'} = -1;
                        return $socket->fatal_ssl_error();

        DEBUG(2,'handshake done, socket ready' );
        # socket opened
        delete ${*$self}{'_SSL_opening'};
        ${*$socket}{'_SSL_opened'} = 1;
        $socket->blocking(1) if defined($timeout); # was blocking before

        tie *{$socket}, "IO::Socket::SSL::SSL_HANDLE", $socket;

        return $socket;

####### I/O subroutines ########################

sub generic_read {
        my ($self, $read_func, undef, $length, $offset) = @_;
        my $ssl = $self->_get_ssl_object || return;
        my $buffer=\$_[2];

        $SSL_ERROR = undef;
        my $data = $read_func->($ssl, $length);
        if ( !defined($data)) {
                $self->_set_rw_error( $ssl,-1 ) || $self->error("SSL read 

        $length = length($data);
        $$buffer = '' if !defined $$buffer;
        $offset ||= 0;
        if ($offset>length($$buffer)) {
                $$buffer.="\0" x ($offset-length($$buffer));  #mimic behavior 
of read

        substr($$buffer, $offset, length($$buffer), $data);
        return $length;

sub read {
        my $self = shift;
        return $self->generic_read(
                $self->blocking ? \&Net::SSLeay::ssl_read_all : 

# contrary to the behavior of read sysread can read partial data
sub sysread {
        my $self = shift;
        return $self->generic_read( \&Net::SSLeay::read, @_ );

sub peek {
        my $self = shift;
        if (Net::SSLeay::OPENSSL_VERSION_NUMBER() >= 0x0090601f) {
                return $self->generic_read(\&Net::SSLeay::peek, @_);
        } else {
                return $self->error("SSL_peek not supported for OpenSSL < 

sub generic_write {
        my ($self, $write_all, undef, $length, $offset) = @_;

        my $ssl = $self->_get_ssl_object || return;
        my $buffer = \$_[2];

        my $buf_len = length($$buffer);
        $length ||= $buf_len;
        $offset ||= 0;
        return $self->error("Invalid offset for SSL write") if 
        return 0 if ($offset == $buf_len);

        $SSL_ERROR = undef;
        my $written;
        if ( $write_all ) {
                my $data = $length < $buf_len-$offset ? substr($$buffer, 
$offset, $length) : $$buffer;
                ($written, my $errs) = Net::SSLeay::ssl_write_all($ssl, $data);
                # ssl_write_all returns number of bytes written
                $written = undef if ! $written && $errs;
        } else {
                $written = Net::SSLeay::write_partial( 
$ssl,$offset,$length,$$buffer );
                # write_partial does SSL_write which returns -1 on error
                $written = undef if $written < 0;
        if ( !defined($written) ) {
                $self->_set_rw_error( $ssl,-1 )
                        || $self->error("SSL write error");

        return $written;

# if socket is blocking write() should return only on error or
# if all data are written
sub write {
        my $self = shift;
        return $self->generic_write( scalar($self->blocking),@_ );

# contrary to write syswrite() returns already if only
# a part of the data is written
sub syswrite {
        my $self = shift;
        return $self->generic_write( 0,@_ );

sub print {
        my $self = shift;
        my $string = join(($, or ''), @_, ($\ or ''));
        return $self->write( $string );

sub printf {
        my ($self,$format) = (shift,shift);
        return $self->write(sprintf($format, @_));

sub getc {
        my ($self, $buffer) = (shift, undef);
        return $buffer if $self->read($buffer, 1, 0);

sub readline {
        my $self = shift;

        if ( not defined $/ or wantarray) {
                # read all and split

                my $buf = '';
                my $was_blocking = $self->blocking(1);
                while (1) {
                        my $rv = $self->sysread($buf,2**16,length($buf));
                        if ( ! defined $rv ) {
                                next if $!{EINTR} or $!{EAGAIN};
                                $self->blocking(0) if ! $was_blocking;
                        } elsif ( ! $rv ) {
                $self->blocking(0) if ! $was_blocking;

                if ( ! defined $/ ) {
                        return $buf
                } elsif ( ref($/)) {
                        my $size = ${$/};
                        die "bad value in ref \$/: $size" unless $size>0;
                        return $buf=~m{\G(.{1,$size})}g;
                } elsif ( $/ eq '' ) {
                        return $buf =~m{\G(.*\n\n+|.+)}g;
                } else {
                        return $buf =~m{\G(.*$/|.+)}g;

        # read only one line
        if ( ref($/) ) {
                my $size = ${$/};
                # read record of $size bytes
                die "bad value in ref \$/: $size" unless $size>0;
                my $buf = '';
                my $was_blocking = $self->blocking(1);
                while ( $size>length($buf)) {
                        my $rv = 
                        if ( ! defined $rv ) {
                                next if $!{EINTR} or $!{EAGAIN};
                                $self->blocking(0) if ! $was_blocking;
                        } elsif ( ! $rv ) {
                $self->blocking(0) if ! $was_blocking;
                return $buf;

        my ($delim0,$delim1) = $/ eq '' ? ("\n\n","\n"):($/,'');

        if ( Net::SSLeay::OPENSSL_VERSION_NUMBER() < 0x0090601f ) {
                # no usable peek - need to read byte after byte
                die "empty \$/ is not supported if I don't have peek" if 
$delim1 ne '';
                my $buf = '';
                my $was_blocking = $self->blocking(1);
                while (1) {
                        my $rv = $self->sysread($buf,1,length($buf));
                        if ( ! defined $rv ) {
                                next if $!{EINTR} or $!{EAGAIN};
                                $self->blocking(0) if ! $was_blocking;
                        } elsif ( ! $rv ) {
                        index($buf,$delim0) >= 0 and last;
                $self->blocking(0) if ! $was_blocking;
                return $buf;

        # find first occurence of $delim0 followed by as much as possible 
        my $buf = '';
        my $eod = 0;  # pointer into $buf after $delim0 $delim1*
        my $was_blocking = $self->blocking(1);
        my $ssl = $self->_get_ssl_object or return;
        while (1) {

                # block until we have more data or eof
                my $poke = Net::SSLeay::peek($ssl,1);
                if ( ! defined $poke or $poke eq '' ) {
                        next if $!{EINTR} or $!{EAGAIN};

                my $skip = 0;

                # peek into available data w/o reading
                my $pending = Net::SSLeay::pending($ssl);
                if ( $pending and 
                        ( my $pb = Net::SSLeay::peek( $ssl,$pending )) ne '' ) {
                        $buf .= $pb
                } else {
                        $self->blocking(0) if ! $was_blocking;
                        return $buf eq '' ? ():$buf;
                if ( !$eod ) {
                        my $pos = index( $buf,$delim0 );
                        if ( $pos<0 ) {
                                $skip = $pending
                        } else {
                                $eod = $pos + length($delim0); # pos after 

                if ( $eod ) {
                        if ( $delim1 ne '' ) {
                                # delim0 found, check for as much delim1 as 
                                while ( index( $buf,$delim1,$eod ) == $eod ) {
                                        $eod+= length($delim1);
                        $skip = $pending - ( length($buf) - $eod );

                # remove data from $self which I already have in buf
                while ( $skip>0 ) {
                        if ($self->sysread(my $p,$skip,0)) {
                                $skip -= length($p);
                        $!{EINTR} or $!{EAGAIN} or last;

                if ( $eod and ( $delim1 eq '' or $eod < length($buf))) {
                        # delim0 found and there can be no more delim1 pending
        $self->blocking(0) if ! $was_blocking;
        return substr($buf,0,$eod);

sub close {
        my $self = shift || return _invalid_object();
        my $close_args = (ref($_[0]) eq 'HASH') ? $_[0] : {@_};

        return if ! $self->stop_SSL(
                SSL_fast_shutdown => 1,
                _SSL_ioclass_downgrade => 0,

        if ( ! $close_args->{_SSL_in_DESTROY} ) {
                untie( *$self );
                undef ${*$self}{_SSL_fileno};
                return $self->SUPER::close;
        return 1;

sub stop_SSL {
        my $self = shift || return _invalid_object();
        my $stop_args = (ref($_[0]) eq 'HASH') ? $_[0] : {@_};
        $stop_args->{SSL_no_shutdown} = 1 if ! ${*$self}{_SSL_opened};

        if (my $ssl = ${*$self}{'_SSL_object'}) {
                my $shutdown_done;
                if ( $stop_args->{SSL_no_shutdown} ) {
                        $shutdown_done = 1;
                } else {
                        my $fast = $stop_args->{SSL_fast_shutdown};
                        my $status = Net::SSLeay::get_shutdown($ssl);
                        if ( $fast && $status != 0) {
                                # shutdown done, either status has  
                                # SSL_SENT_SHUTDOWN or SSL_RECEIVED_SHUTDOWN or 
                                # so the handshake is at least in process
                                $shutdown_done = 1;
                        } elsif ( ( $status & SSL_SENT_SHUTDOWN ) == 0 ) {
                                # need to initiate/continue shutdown
                                local $SIG{PIPE} = 'IGNORE';
                                for my $try (1,2 ) {
                                        my $rv = Net::SSLeay::shutdown($ssl);
                                        if ( $rv < 0 ) {
                                                # non-blocking socket?
                                                $self->_set_rw_error( $ssl,$rv 
                                                # need to try again
                                        } elsif ( $rv
                                                || ( $rv == 0 && $fast )) {
                                                # shutdown finished
                                                $shutdown_done = 1;
                                        } else {
                                                # shutdown partly initiated 
(e.g. one direction)
                                                # call again
                        } elsif ( $status & SSL_RECEIVED_SHUTDOWN ) {
                                # SSL_SENT_SHUTDOWN is done already (previous 
                                # and because SSL_RECEIVED_SHUTDOWN is done 
also we
                                # consider the shutdown done
                                $shutdown_done = 1;

                return if ! $shutdown_done;
                delete ${*$self}{_SSL_object};

        if ($stop_args->{'SSL_ctx_free'}) {
                my $ctx = delete ${*$self}{'_SSL_ctx'};
                $ctx && $ctx->DESTROY();

        if (my $cert = delete ${*$self}{'_SSL_certificate'}) {

        ${*$self}{'_SSL_opened'} = 0;

        if ( ! $stop_args->{_SSL_in_DESTROY} ) {

                my $downgrade = $stop_args->{_SSL_ioclass_downgrade};
                if ( $downgrade || ! defined $downgrade ) {
                        # rebless to original class from start_SSL
                        if ( my $orig_class = delete 
${*$self}{'_SSL_ioclass_upgraded'} ) {
                                bless $self,$orig_class;
                                # FIXME: if original class was tied too we need 
to restore the tie
                        # remove all _SSL related from *$self
                        my @sslkeys = grep { m{^_?SSL_} } keys %{*$self};
                        delete @{*$self}{@sslkeys} if @sslkeys;
        return 1;

sub fileno {
        my $self = shift;
        my $fn = ${*$self}{'_SSL_fileno'};
                return defined($fn) ? $fn : $self->SUPER::fileno();

####### IO::Socket::SSL specific functions #######
# _get_ssl_object is for internal use ONLY!
sub _get_ssl_object {
        my $self = shift;
        my $ssl = ${*$self}{'_SSL_object'};
        return IO::Socket::SSL->error("Undefined SSL object") unless($ssl);
        return $ssl;

# _get_ctx_object is for internal use ONLY!
sub _get_ctx_object {
        my $self = shift;
        my $ctx_object = ${*$self}{_SSL_ctx};
        return $ctx_object && $ctx_object->{context};

# default error for undefined arguments
sub _invalid_object {
        return IO::Socket::SSL->error("Undefined IO::Socket::SSL object");

sub pending {
        my $ssl = shift()->_get_ssl_object || return;
        return Net::SSLeay::pending($ssl);

sub start_SSL {
        my ($class,$socket) = (shift,shift);
        return $class->error("Not a socket") unless(ref($socket));
        my $arg_hash = (ref($_[0]) eq 'HASH') ? $_[0] : {@_};
        my %to = exists $arg_hash->{Timeout} ? ( Timeout => delete 
$arg_hash->{Timeout} ) :();
        my $original_class = ref($socket);
        my $original_fileno = (UNIVERSAL::can($socket, "fileno"))
                ? $socket->fileno : CORE::fileno($socket);
        return $class->error("Socket has no fileno") unless defined 

        bless $socket, $class;
        $socket->configure_SSL($arg_hash) or bless($socket, $original_class) && 

        ${*$socket}{'_SSL_fileno'} = $original_fileno;
        ${*$socket}{'_SSL_ioclass_upgraded'} = $original_class;

        my $start_handshake = $arg_hash->{SSL_startHandshake};
        if ( ! defined($start_handshake) || $start_handshake ) {
                # if we have no callback force blocking mode
                DEBUG(2, "start handshake" );
                my $blocking = $socket->blocking(1);
                my $result = ${*$socket}{'_SSL_arguments'}{SSL_server}
                        ? $socket->accept_SSL(%to)
                        : $socket->connect_SSL(%to);
                $socket->blocking(0) if !$blocking;
                return $result ? $socket : (bless($socket, $original_class) && 
        } else {
                DEBUG(2, "dont start handshake: $socket" );
                return $socket; # just return upgraded socket


sub new_from_fd {
        my ($class, $fd) = (shift,shift);
        # Check for accidental inclusion of MODE in the argument list
        if (length($_[0]) < 4) {
                (my $mode = $_[0]) =~ tr/+<>//d;
                shift unless length($mode);
        my $handle = $ISA[0]->new_from_fd($fd, '+<')
                || return($class->error("Could not create socket from file 

        # Annoying workaround for Perl 5.6.1 and below:
        $handle = $ISA[0]->new_from_fd($handle, '+<');

        return $class->start_SSL($handle, @_);

sub dump_peer_certificate {
        my $ssl = shift()->_get_ssl_object || return;
        return Net::SSLeay::dump_peer_certificate($ssl);

        my %dispatcher = (
                issuer =>  sub { Net::SSLeay::X509_NAME_oneline( 
Net::SSLeay::X509_get_issuer_name( shift )) },
                subject => sub { Net::SSLeay::X509_NAME_oneline( 
Net::SSLeay::X509_get_subject_name( shift )) },
        if ( $Net::SSLeay::VERSION >= 1.30 ) {
                # I think X509_NAME_get_text_by_NID got added in 1.30
                $dispatcher{commonName} = sub {
                        my $cn = Net::SSLeay::X509_NAME_get_text_by_NID(
                                Net::SSLeay::X509_get_subject_name( shift ), 
                        $cn =~s{\0$}{}; # work around Bug in Net::SSLeay <1.33
        } else {
                $dispatcher{commonName} = sub {
                        croak "you need at least Net::SSLeay version 1.30 for 
getting commonName"

        if ( $Net::SSLeay::VERSION >= 1.33 ) {
                # X509_get_subjectAltNames did not really work before
                $dispatcher{subjectAltNames} = sub { 
Net::SSLeay::X509_get_subjectAltNames( shift ) };
        } else {
                $dispatcher{subjectAltNames} = sub {
                        croak "you need at least Net::SSLeay version 1.33 for 
getting subjectAltNames"

        # alternative names
        $dispatcher{authority} = $dispatcher{issuer};
        $dispatcher{owner}     = $dispatcher{subject};
        $dispatcher{cn}        = $dispatcher{commonName};

        sub peer_certificate {
                my ($self, $field) = @_;
                my $ssl = $self->_get_ssl_object or return;

                my $cert = ${*$self}{_SSL_certificate}
                        ||= Net::SSLeay::get_peer_certificate($ssl)
                        or return $self->error("Could not retrieve peer 

                if ($field) {
                        my $sub = $dispatcher{$field} or croak
                                "invalid argument for peer_certificate, valid 
are: ".join( " ",keys %dispatcher ).
                                "\nMaybe you need to upgrade your Net::SSLeay";
                        return $sub->($cert);
                } else {
                        return $cert

        # known schemes, possible attributes are:
        #  - wildcards_in_alt (0, 'leftmost', 'anywhere')
        #  - wildcards_in_cn (0, 'leftmost', 'anywhere')
        #  - check_cn (0, 'always', 'when_only')

        my %scheme = (
                # rfc 4513
                ldap => {
                        wildcards_in_cn  => 0,
                        wildcards_in_alt => 'leftmost',
                        check_cn         => 'always',
                # rfc 2818
                http => {
                        wildcards_in_cn  => 'anywhere',
                        wildcards_in_alt => 'anywhere',
                        check_cn         => 'when_only',
                # rfc 3207
                # This is just a dumb guess
                # RFC3207 itself just says, that the client should expect the
                # domain name of the server in the certificate. It doesn't say
                # anything about wildcards, so I forbid them. It doesn't say
                # anything about alt names, but other documents show, that alt
                # names should be possible. The check_cn value again is a guess.
                # Fix the spec!
                smtp => {
                        wildcards_in_cn  => 0,
                        wildcards_in_alt => 0,
                        check_cn         => 'always'
                none => {}, # do not check

        $scheme{www}  = $scheme{http}; # alias
        $scheme{xmpp} = $scheme{http}; # rfc 3920
        $scheme{pop3} = $scheme{ldap}; # rfc 2595
        $scheme{imap} = $scheme{ldap}; # rfc 2595
        $scheme{acap} = $scheme{ldap}; # rfc 2595
        $scheme{nntp} = $scheme{ldap}; # rfc 4642
        $scheme{ftp}  = $scheme{http}; # rfc 4217

        # function to verify the hostname
        # as every application protocol has its own rules to do this
        # we provide some default rules as well as a user-defined
        # callback

        sub verify_hostname_of_cert {
                my $identity = shift;
                my $cert = shift;
                my $scheme = shift || 'none';
                if ( ! ref($scheme) ) {
                        DEBUG(3, "scheme=$scheme cert=$cert" );
                        $scheme = $scheme{$scheme} or croak "scheme $scheme not 

                # get data from certificate
                my $commonName = $dispatcher{cn}->($cert);
                my @altNames = $dispatcher{subjectAltNames}->($cert);
                DEBUG(3,"identity=$identity cn=$commonName alt=@altNames" );

                if ( my $sub = $scheme->{callback} ) {
                        # use custom callback
                        return $sub->($identity,$commonName,@altNames);

                # is the given hostname an IP address? Then we have to convert 
to network byte order [RFC791][RFC2460]

                my $ipn;
                if ( $identity =~m{:} ) {
                        # no IPv4 or hostname have ':'  in it, try IPv6.
                        #  make sure that Socket6 was loaded properly
                        UNIVERSAL::can( __PACKAGE__, 'inet_pton' ) or croak
                                q[Looks like IPv6 address, make sure that 
Socket6 is loaded or make "use IO::Socket::SSL 'inet6'];
                        $ipn = inet_pton(AF_INET6,$identity) 
                                or croak "'$identity' is not IPv6, but neither 
IPv4 nor hostname";
                } elsif ( $identity =~m{^\d+\.\d+\.\d+\.\d+$} ) {
                         # definitly no hostname, try IPv4
                        $ipn = inet_aton( $identity ) or croak "'$identity' is 
not IPv4, but neither IPv6 nor hostname";
                } else {
                        # assume hostname, check for umlauts etc
                        if ( $identity =~m{[^a-zA-Z0-9_.\-]} ) {
                                $identity =~m{\0} and croak("name '$identity' 
has \\0 byte");
                                $identity = idn_to_ascii($identity) or
                                        croak "Warning: Given name '$identity' 
could not be converted to IDNA!";

                # do the actual verification
                my $check_name = sub {
                        my ($name,$identity,$wtyp) = @_;
                        $wtyp ||= '';
                        my $pattern;
                        ### IMPORTANT!
                        # we accept only a single wildcard and only for a 
single part of the FQDN
                        # e.g *.example.org does match www.example.org but not 
                        # The RFCs are in this regard unspecific but we don't 
want to have to
                        # deal with certificates like *.com, *.co.uk or even *
                        # see also 
                        if ( $wtyp eq 'anywhere' and $name 
=~m{^([a-zA-Z0-9_\-]*)\*(.+)} ) {
                                $pattern = qr{^\Q$1\E[a-zA-Z0-9_\-]*\Q$2\E$}i;
                        } elsif ( $wtyp eq 'leftmost' and $name =~m{^\*(\..+)$} 
) {
                                $pattern = qr{^[a-zA-Z0-9_\-]*\Q$1\E$}i;
                        } else {
                                $pattern = qr{^\Q$name\E$}i;
                        return $identity =~ $pattern;

                my $alt_dnsNames = 0;
                while (@altNames) {
                        my ($type, $name) = splice (@altNames, 0, 2);
                        if ( $ipn and $type == GEN_IPADD ) {
                                # exakt match needed for IP
                                # $name is already packed format (inet_xton)
                                return 1 if $ipn eq $name;

                        } elsif ( ! $ipn and $type == GEN_DNS ) {
                                $name =~s/\s+$//; $name =~s/^\s+//;
                                        and return 1;

                if ( ! $ipn and (
                        $scheme->{check_cn} eq 'always' or
                        $scheme->{check_cn} eq 'when_only' and !$alt_dnsNames)) 
                                and return 1;

                return 0; # no match

sub verify_hostname {
        my $self = shift;
        my $host = shift;
        my $cert = $self->peer_certificate;
        return verify_hostname_of_cert( $host,$cert,@_ );

sub get_cipher {
        my $ssl = shift()->_get_ssl_object || return;
        return Net::SSLeay::get_cipher($ssl);

sub errstr {
        my $self = shift;
        return ((ref($self) ? ${*$self}{'_SSL_last_err'} : $SSL_ERROR) or '');

sub fatal_ssl_error {
        my $self = shift;
        my $error_trap = ${*$self}{'_SSL_arguments'}->{'SSL_error_trap'};
        $@ = $self->errstr;
        if (defined $error_trap and ref($error_trap) eq 'CODE') {
        } elsif ( ${*$self}{'_SSL_ioclass_upgraded'} ) {
                # downgrade only
        } else {
                # kill socket

sub get_ssleay_error {
        #Net::SSLeay will print out the errors itself unless we explicitly
        #undefine $Net::SSLeay::trace while running print_errs()
        local $Net::SSLeay::trace;
        return Net::SSLeay::print_errs('SSL error: ') || '';

sub error {
        my ($self, $error, $destroy_socket) = @_;
        $error .= Net::SSLeay::ERR_error_string(Net::SSLeay::ERR_get_error());
        DEBUG(2, $error."\n".$self->get_ssleay_error());
        $SSL_ERROR = dualvar( -1, $error );
        ${*$self}{'_SSL_last_err'} = $SSL_ERROR if (ref($self));

        my $self = shift || return;
        $self->close(_SSL_in_DESTROY => 1, SSL_no_shutdown => 1)
                if ${*$self}{'_SSL_opened'};

#######Extra Backwards Compatibility Functionality#######
sub socket_to_SSL { IO::Socket::SSL->start_SSL(@_); }
sub socketToSSL { IO::Socket::SSL->start_SSL(@_); }
sub kill_socket { shift->close }

sub issuer_name { return(shift()->peer_certificate("issuer")) }
sub subject_name { return(shift()->peer_certificate("subject")) }
sub get_peer_certificate { return shift() }

sub context_init {
        return($GLOBAL_CONTEXT_ARGS = (ref($_[0]) eq 'HASH') ? $_[0] : {@_});

sub set_default_context {
        $GLOBAL_CONTEXT_ARGS->{'SSL_reuse_ctx'} = shift;

sub set_default_session_cache {
        $GLOBAL_CONTEXT_ARGS->{SSL_session_cache} = shift;

sub set_ctx_defaults {
        my %args = @_;
        while ( my ($k,$v) = each %args ) {
                $k =~s{^(SSL_)?}{SSL_};
                $GLOBAL_CONTEXT_ARGS->{$k} = $v;

sub opened {
        my $self = shift;
        return IO::Handle::opened($self) && ${*$self}{'_SSL_opened'};

sub opening {
        my $self = shift;
        return ${*$self}{'_SSL_opening'};

sub want_read  { shift->errstr == SSL_WANT_READ }
sub want_write { shift->errstr == SSL_WANT_WRITE }

#Redundant IO::Handle functionality
sub getline { return(scalar shift->readline()) }
sub getlines {
        return(shift->readline()) if wantarray();
        croak("Use of getlines() not allowed in scalar context");

#Useless IO::Handle functionality
sub truncate { croak("Use of truncate() not allowed with SSL") }
sub stat     { croak("Use of stat() not allowed with SSL" ) }
sub setbuf   { croak("Use of setbuf() not allowed with SSL" ) }
sub setvbuf  { croak("Use of setvbuf() not allowed with SSL" ) }
sub fdopen   { croak("Use of fdopen() not allowed with SSL" ) }

#Unsupported socket functionality
sub ungetc { croak("Use of ungetc() not implemented in IO::Socket::SSL") }
sub send   { croak("Use of send() not implemented in IO::Socket::SSL; use 
print/printf/syswrite instead") }
sub recv   { croak("Use of recv() not implemented in IO::Socket::SSL; use 
read/sysread instead") }

package IO::Socket::SSL::SSL_HANDLE;
use strict;
use vars qw($HAVE_WEAKREF);
use Errno 'EBADF';

        local ($@, $SIG{__DIE__});

        #Use Scalar::Util or WeakRef if possible:
        eval "use Scalar::Util qw(weaken isweak); 1" or
                eval "use WeakRef";
        $HAVE_WEAKREF = $@ ? 0 : 1;

        my ($class, $handle) = @_;
        weaken($handle) if $HAVE_WEAKREF;
        bless \$handle, $class;

sub READ     { ${shift()}->sysread(@_) }
sub READLINE { ${shift()}->readline(@_) }
sub GETC     { ${shift()}->getc(@_) }

sub PRINT    { ${shift()}->print(@_) }
sub PRINTF   { ${shift()}->printf(@_) }
sub WRITE    { ${shift()}->syswrite(@_) }

sub FILENO   { ${shift()}->fileno(@_) }

sub TELL     { $! = EBADF; return -1 }
sub BINMODE  { return 0 }  # not perfect, but better than not implementing the 

sub CLOSE {                                                      #<---- Do not 
change this function!
        my $ssl = ${$_[0]};
        local @_;

package IO::Socket::SSL::SSL_Context;
use Carp;
use strict;

*DEBUG = *IO::Socket::SSL::DEBUG;

# should be better taken from Net::SSLeay, but they are not (yet) defined there

# Note that the final object will actually be a reference to the scalar
# (C-style pointer) returned by Net::SSLeay::CTX_*_new() so that
# it can be blessed.
sub new {
        my $class = shift;
        #DEBUG( "$class @_" );
        my $arg_hash = (ref($_[0]) eq 'HASH') ? $_[0] : {@_};

        my $ctx_object = $arg_hash->{'SSL_reuse_ctx'};
        if ($ctx_object) {
                return $ctx_object if 
($ctx_object->isa('IO::Socket::SSL::SSL_Context') and

                # The following "double entendre" applies only if someone passed
                # in an IO::Socket::SSL object instead of an actual context.
                return $ctx_object if ($ctx_object = 

        my $ctx;
        foreach ($arg_hash->{'SSL_version'}) {
                $ctx = /^sslv2$/i ? Net::SSLeay::CTX_v2_new()    :
                           /^sslv3$/i ? Net::SSLeay::CTX_v3_new()        :
                           /^tlsv1$/i ? Net::SSLeay::CTX_tlsv1_new() :

        $ctx || return IO::Socket::SSL->error("SSL Context init failed");

        Net::SSLeay::CTX_set_options($ctx, Net::SSLeay::OP_ALL());

        # SSL_MODE_ACCEPT_MOVING_WRITE_BUFFER makes syswrite return if at least 
        # buffer was written and not block for the rest
        # SSL_MODE_ENABLE_PARTIAL_WRITE can be necessary for non-blocking 
because we
        # cannot guarantee, that the location of the buffer stays constant
        Net::SSLeay::CTX_set_mode( $ctx,

        my $verify_mode = $arg_hash->{SSL_verify_mode};
        if ( $verify_mode != Net::SSLeay::VERIFY_NONE() and
            ( defined $arg_hash->{SSL_ca_file} || defined 
$arg_hash->{SSL_ca_path}) and
                ! Net::SSLeay::CTX_load_verify_locations(
                        $ctx, $arg_hash->{SSL_ca_file} || 
'',$arg_hash->{SSL_ca_path} || '') ) {
                return IO::Socket::SSL->error("Invalid certificate authority 

        if ($arg_hash->{'SSL_check_crl'}) {
                if (Net::SSLeay::OPENSSL_VERSION_NUMBER() >= 0x0090702f) {
                    if ($arg_hash->{'SSL_crl_file'}) {
                        my $bio = 
Net::SSLeay::BIO_new_file($arg_hash->{'SSL_crl_file'}, 'r');
                        my $crl = Net::SSLeay::PEM_read_bio_X509_CRL($bio);
                        if ( $crl ) {
Net::SSLeay::X509_STORE_add_crl(Net::SSLeay::CTX_get_cert_store($ctx), $crl);
                        } else {
                            return IO::Socket::SSL->error("Invalid certificate 
revocation list");
                } else {
                        return IO::Socket::SSL->error("CRL not supported for 
OpenSSL < v0.9.7b");

        if ($arg_hash->{'SSL_server'} || $arg_hash->{'SSL_use_cert'}) {
                my $filetype = Net::SSLeay::FILETYPE_PEM();

                if ($arg_hash->{'SSL_passwd_cb'}) {

                if ( my $pkey= $arg_hash->{SSL_key} ) {
                        # binary, e.g. EVP_PKEY*
                        Net::SSLeay::CTX_use_PrivateKey($ctx, $pkey)
                                || return IO::Socket::SSL->error("Failed to use 
Private Key");
                } elsif ( my $f = $arg_hash->{SSL_key_file} ) {
                        Net::SSLeay::CTX_use_PrivateKey_file($ctx, $f, 
                                || return IO::Socket::SSL->error("Failed to 
open Private Key");

                if ( my $x509 = $arg_hash->{SSL_cert} ) {
                        # binary, e.g. X509*
                        # we habe either a single certificate or a list with
                        # a chain of certificates
                        my @x509 = ref($x509) eq 'ARRAY' ? @$x509: ($x509);
                        my $cert = shift @x509;
                        Net::SSLeay::CTX_use_certificate( $ctx,$cert )
                                || return IO::Socket::SSL->error("Failed to use 
                        foreach my $ca (@x509) {
                                Net::SSLeay::CTX_add_extra_chain_cert( $ctx,$ca 
                                        || return 
IO::Socket::SSL->error("Failed to use Certificate");
                } elsif ( my $f = $arg_hash->{SSL_cert_file} ) {
                        Net::SSLeay::CTX_use_certificate_chain_file($ctx, $f)
                                || return IO::Socket::SSL->error("Failed to 
open Certificate");

                if ( my $dh = $arg_hash->{SSL_dh} ) {
                        # binary, e.g. DH*
                        Net::SSLeay::CTX_set_tmp_dh( $ctx,$dh )
                                || return IO::Socket::SSL->error( "Failed to 
set DH from SSL_dh" );
                } elsif ( my $f = $arg_hash->{SSL_dh_file} ) {
                        my $bio = Net::SSLeay::BIO_new_file( $f,'r' )
                                || return IO::Socket::SSL->error( "Failed to 
open DH file $f" );
                        my $dh = Net::SSLeay::PEM_read_bio_DHparams($bio);
                        $dh || return IO::Socket::SSL->error( "Failed to read 
PEM for DH from $f - wrong format?" );
                        my $rv = Net::SSLeay::CTX_set_tmp_dh( $ctx,$dh );
                        Net::SSLeay::DH_free( $dh );
                        $rv || return IO::Socket::SSL->error( "Failed to set DH 
from $f" );

        my $verify_cb = $arg_hash->{SSL_verify_callback};
        my $verify_callback = $verify_cb && sub {
                my ($ok, $ctx_store) = @_;
                my ($certname,$cert,$error);
                if ($ctx_store) {
                        $cert = 
                        $error = 
                        $certname = 
                        $error &&= Net::SSLeay::ERR_error_string($error);
                DEBUG(3, "ok=$ok cert=$cert" );
                return $verify_cb->($ok,$ctx_store,$certname,$error,$cert);

        Net::SSLeay::CTX_set_verify($ctx, $verify_mode, $verify_callback);

        if ( my $cb = $arg_hash->{SSL_create_ctx_callback} ) {

        $ctx_object = { context => $ctx };
        $ctx_object->{has_verifycb} = 1 if $verify_callback;
        DEBUG(3, "new ctx $ctx" );
        $CTX_CREATED_IN_THIS_THREAD{$ctx} = 1;

        if ( my $cache = $arg_hash->{SSL_session_cache} ) {
                # use predefined cache
                $ctx_object->{session_cache} = $cache
        } elsif ( my $size = $arg_hash->{SSL_session_cache_size}) {
                return IO::Socket::SSL->error("Session caches not supported for 
Net::SSLeay < v1.26")
                        if $Net::SSLeay::VERSION < 1.26;
                $ctx_object->{session_cache} = 
IO::Socket::SSL::Session_Cache->new( $size );

        return bless $ctx_object, $class;

sub session_cache {
        my $ctx = shift;
        my $cache = $ctx->{'session_cache'} || return;
        my ($addr,$port,$session) = @_;
        $port ||= $addr =~s{:(\w+)$}{} && $1; # host:port
        my $key = "$addr:$port";
        return defined($session)
                ? $cache->add_session($key, $session)
                : $cache->get_session($key);

sub has_session_cache {
        return defined shift->{session_cache};

        my $self = shift;
        if ( my $ctx = $self->{context} ) {
                DEBUG( 3,"free ctx $ctx open=".join( " ",keys 
                if ( %CTX_CREATED_IN_THIS_THREAD and
                        delete $CTX_CREATED_IN_THIS_THREAD{$ctx} ) {
                        # remove any verify callback for this context
                        if ( $self->{has_verifycb}) {
                                DEBUG( 3,"free ctx $ctx callback" );
                                Net::SSLeay::CTX_set_verify($ctx, 0,undef);
                        DEBUG( 3,"OK free ctx $ctx" );

package IO::Socket::SSL::Session_Cache;
use strict;

sub new {
        my ($class, $size) = @_;
        $size>0 or return;
        return bless { _maxsize => $size }, $class;

sub get_session {
        my ($self, $key) = @_;
        my $session = $self->{$key} || return;
        return $session->{session} if ($self->{'_head'} eq $session);
        $session->{prev}->{next} = $session->{next};
        $session->{next}->{prev} = $session->{prev};
        $session->{next} = $self->{'_head'};
        $session->{prev} = $self->{'_head'}->{prev};
        $self->{'_head'}->{prev} = $self->{'_head'}->{prev}->{next} = $session;
        $self->{'_head'} = $session;
        return $session->{session};

sub add_session {
        my ($self, $key, $val) = @_;
        return if ($key eq '_maxsize' or $key eq '_head');

        if ((keys %$self) > $self->{'_maxsize'} + 1) {
                my $last = $self->{'_head'}->{prev};
                $self->{'_head'}->{prev} = $self->{'_head'}->{prev}->{prev};
                delete($self->{'_head'}) if ($self->{'_maxsize'} == 1);

        my $session = $self->{$key} = { session => $val, key => $key };

        if ($self->{'_head'}) {
                $session->{next} = $self->{'_head'};
                $session->{prev} = $self->{'_head'}->{prev};
                $self->{'_head'}->{prev}->{next} = $session;
                $self->{'_head'}->{prev} = $session;
        } else {
                $session->{next} = $session->{prev} = $session;
        $self->{'_head'} = $session;
        return $session;

        my $self = shift;
        foreach my $key (keys %$self) {


=head1 NAME

IO::Socket::SSL -- Nearly transparent SSL encapsulation for IO::Socket::INET.


        use strict;
        use IO::Socket::SSL;

        my $client = IO::Socket::SSL->new("www.example.com:https")
                || warn "I encountered a problem: ".IO::Socket::SSL::errstr();
        $client->verify_hostname( 'www.example.com','http' )
                || die "hostname verification failed";

        print $client "GET / HTTP/1.0\r\n\r\n";
        print <$client>;


This module is a true drop-in replacement for IO::Socket::INET that uses
SSL to encrypt data before it is transferred to a remote server or
client.  IO::Socket::SSL supports all the extra features that one needs
to write a full-featured SSL client or server application: multiple SSL 
cipher selection, certificate verification, and SSL version selection.  As an
extra bonus, it works perfectly with mod_perl.

If you have never used SSL before, you should read the appendix labelled 'Using 
before attempting to use this module.

If you have used this module before, read on, as versions 0.93 and above
have several changes from the previous IO::Socket::SSL versions (especially
see the note about return values).

If you are using non-blocking sockets read on, as version 0.98 added better
support for non-blocking.

If you are trying to use it with threads see the BUGS section.

=head1 METHODS

IO::Socket::SSL inherits its methods from IO::Socket::INET, overriding them
as necessary.  If there is an SSL error, the method or operation will return an
empty list (false in all contexts).      The methods that have changed from the
perspective of the user are re-documented here:

=over 4

=item B<new(...)>

Creates a new IO::Socket::SSL object.  You may use all the friendly options
that came bundled with IO::Socket::INET, plus (optionally) the ones that follow:

=over 2

=item SSL_version

Sets the version of the SSL protocol used to transmit data.      The default is 
which auto-negotiates between SSLv2 and SSLv3.  You may specify 'SSLv2', 
'SSLv3', or
'TLSv1' (case-insensitive) if you do not want this behavior.

=item SSL_cipher_list

If this option is set the cipher list for the connection will be set to the
given value, e.g. something like 'ALL:!LOW:!EXP:!ADH'. Look into the OpenSSL
documentation (L<http://www.openssl.org/docs/apps/ciphers.html#CIPHER_STRINGS>)
for more details.
If this option is not used the openssl builtin default is used which is suitable
for most cases.

=item SSL_use_cert

If this is set, it forces IO::Socket::SSL to use a certificate and key, even if
you are setting up an SSL client.  If this is set to 0 (the default), then you 
only need a certificate and key if you are setting up a server.

SSL_use_cert will implicitly be set if SSL_server is set.
For convinience it is also set if it was not given but a cert was given for use
(SSL_cert_file or similar).

=item SSL_server

Use this, if the socket should be used as a server.
If this is not explicitly set it is assumed, if Listen with given when creating
the socket.

=item SSL_key_file

If your RSA private key is not in default place (F<certs/server-key.pem> for 
F<certs/client-key.pem> for clients), then this is the option that you would 
use to
specify a different location.  Keys should be PEM formatted, and if they are
encrypted, you will be prompted to enter a password before the socket is formed
(unless you specified the SSL_passwd_cb option).

=item SSL_key

This is an EVP_PKEY* and can be used instead of SSL_key_file.
Useful if you don't have your key in a file but create it dynamically or get it 
a string (see openssl PEM_read_bio_PrivateKey etc for getting a EVP_PKEY* from
a string).

=item SSL_cert_file

If your SSL certificate is not in the default place (F<certs/server-cert.pem> 
for servers,
F<certs/client-cert.pem> for clients), then you should use this option to 
specify the
location of your certificate.  Note that a key and certificate are only 
required for an
SSL server, so you do not need to bother with these trifling options should you 
setting up an unauthenticated client.

=item SSL_cert

This is an X509* or an array of X509*.
The first X509* is the internal representation of the certificate while the 
ones are extra certificates. Useful if you create your certificate dynamically 
in a SSL intercepting proxy) or get it from a string (see openssl 
PEM_read_bio_X509 etc
for getting a X509* from a string).

=item SSL_dh_file

If you want Diffie-Hellman key exchange you need to supply a suitable file here
or use the SSL_dh parameter. See dhparam command in openssl for more 

=item SSL_dh

Like SSL_dh_file, but instead of giving a file you use a preloaded or generated 

=item SSL_passwd_cb

If your private key is encrypted, you might not want the default password 
prompt from
Net::SSLeay.  This option takes a reference to a subroutine that should return 
password required to decrypt your private key.

=item SSL_ca_file

If you want to verify that the peer certificate has been signed by a reputable
certificate authority, then you should use this option to locate the file
containing the certificateZ<>(s) of the reputable certificate authorities if it 
not already in the file F<certs/my-ca.pem>.
If you definitly want no SSL_ca_file used you should set it to undef.

=item SSL_ca_path

If you are unusually friendly with the OpenSSL documentation, you might have set
yourself up a directory containing several trusted certificates as separate 
as well as an index of the certificates.  If you want to use that directory for
validation purposes, and that directory is not F<ca/>, then use this option to
point IO::Socket::SSL to the right place to look.
If you definitly want no SSL_ca_path used you should set it to undef.

=item SSL_verify_mode

This option sets the verification mode for the peer certificate.  The default
(0x00) does no authentication.  You may combine 0x01 (verify peer), 0x02 (fail
verification if no peer certificate exists; ignored for clients), and 0x04
(verify client once) to change the default.

See OpenSSL man page for SSL_CTX_set_verify for more information.

=item SSL_verify_callback

If you want to verify certificates yourself, you can pass a sub reference along
with this parameter to do so.  When the callback is called, it will be passed:

=over 4

=item 1.
a true/false value that indicates what OpenSSL thinks of the certificate,

=item 2.
a C-style memory address of the certificate store,

=item 3.
a string containing the certificate's issuer attributes and owner attributes, 

=item 4.
a string containing any errors encountered (0 if no errors).

=item 5.
a C-style memory address of the peer's own certificate (convertible to
PEM form with Net::SSLeay::PEM_get_string_X509()).


The function should return 1 or 0, depending on whether it thinks the 
is valid or invalid.  The default is to let OpenSSL do all of the busy work.

The callback will be called for each element in the certificate chain.

See the OpenSSL documentation for SSL_CTX_set_verify for more information.

=item SSL_verifycn_scheme

Set the scheme used to automatically verify the hostname of the peer.
See the information about the verification schemes in B<verify_hostname>.
The default is undef, e.g. to not automatically verify the hostname.

=item SSL_verifycn_name

Set the name which is used in verification of hostname. If SSL_verifycn_scheme
is set and no SSL_verifycn_name is given it will try to use the PeerHost and
PeerAddr settings and fail if no name caan be determined.

Using PeerHost or PeerAddr works only if you create the connection directly
with C<< IO::Socket::SSL->new >>, if an IO::Socket::INET object is upgraded
with B<start_SSL> the name has to be given in B<SSL_verifycn_name>.

=item SSL_check_crl

If you want to verify that the peer certificate has not been revoked
by the signing authority, set this value to true. OpenSSL will search
for the CRL in your SSL_ca_path, or use the file specified by
SSL_crl_file.  See the Net::SSLeay documentation for more details.
Note that this functionality appears to be broken with OpenSSL <
v0.9.7b, so its use with lower versions will result in an error.

=item SSL_crl_file

If you want to specify the CRL file to be used, set this value to the
pathname to be used.  This must be used in addition to setting

=item SSL_reuse_ctx

If you have already set the above options (SSL_version through SSL_check_crl;
this does not include SSL_cipher_list yet) for a previous instance of
IO::Socket::SSL, then you can reuse the SSL context of that instance by passing
it as the value for the SSL_reuse_ctx parameter.  You may also create a
new instance of the IO::Socket::SSL::SSL_Context class, using any context 
that you desire without specifying connection options, and pass that here 

If you use this option, all other context-related options that you pass
in the same call to new() will be ignored unless the context supplied was 
Note that, contrary to versions of IO::Socket::SSL below v0.90, a global SSL 
will not be implicitly used unless you use the set_default_context() function.

=item SSL_create_ctx_callback

With this callback you can make individual settings to the context after it
got created and the default setup was done.
The callback will be called with the CTX object from Net::SSLeay as the single

Example for limiting the server session cache size:

  SSL_create_ctx_callback => sub { 
      my $ctx = shift;

=item SSL_session_cache_size

If you make repeated connections to the same host/port and the SSL 
renegotiation time
is an issue, you can turn on client-side session caching with this option by 
specifying a
positive cache size.  For successive connections, pass the SSL_reuse_ctx option 
the new() calls (or use set_default_context()) to make use of the cached 
The session cache size refers to the number of unique host/port pairs that can 
stored at one time; the oldest sessions in the cache will be removed if new 
ones are

=item SSL_session_cache

Specifies session cache object which should be used instead of creating a new.
Overrules SSL_session_cache_size.
This option is useful if you want to reuse the cache, but not the rest of
the context.

A session cache object can be created using
C<< IO::Socket::SSL::Session_Cache->new( cachesize ) >>.

Use set_default_session_cache() to set a global cache object.

=item SSL_error_trap

When using the accept() or connect() methods, it may be the case that the
actual socket connection works but the SSL negotiation fails, as in the case of
an HTTP client connecting to an HTTPS server.  Passing a subroutine ref attached
to this parameter allows you to gain control of the orphaned socket instead of 
having it
be closed forcibly.      The subroutine, if called, will be passed two 
a reference to the socket on which the SSL negotiation failed and and the full
text of the error message.


=item B<close(...)>

There are a number of nasty traps that lie in wait if you are not careful about 
close().  The first of these will bite you if you have been using shutdown() on 
sockets.  Since the SSL protocol mandates that a SSL "close notify" message be
sent before the socket is closed, a shutdown() that closes the socket's write 
will cause the close() call to hang.  For a similar reason, if you try to close 
copy of a socket (as in a forking server) you will affect the original socket 
as well.
To get around these problems, call close with an object-oriented syntax
(e.g. $socket->close(SSL_no_shutdown => 1))
and one or more of the following parameters:

=over 2

=item SSL_no_shutdown

If set to a true value, this option will make close() not use the 
SSL_shutdown() call
on the socket in question so that the close operation can complete without 
if you have used shutdown() or are working on a copy of a socket.

=item SSL_fast_shutdown

If set to true only a unidirectional shutdown will be done, e.g. only the
close_notify (see SSL_shutdown(3)) will be called. Otherwise a bidrectional
shutdown will be done. If used within close() it defaults to true, if used
within stop_SSL() it defaults to false.

=item SSL_ctx_free

If you want to make sure that the SSL context of the socket is destroyed when
you close it, set this option to a true value.


=item B<peek(...)>

This function has exactly the same syntax as sysread(), and performs nearly the 
task (reading data from the socket) but will not advance the read position so
that successive calls to peek() with the same arguments will return the same 
This function requires OpenSSL 0.9.6a or later to work.

=item B<pending()>

This function will let you know how many bytes of data are immediately ready 
for reading
from the socket.  This is especially handy if you are doing reads on a blocking 
or just want to know if new data has been sent over the socket.

=item B<get_cipher()>

Returns the string form of the cipher that the IO::Socket::SSL object is using.

=item B<dump_peer_certificate()>

Returns a parsable string with select fields from the peer SSL certificate.     
method directly returns the result of the dump_peer_certificate() method of 

=item B<peer_certificate($field)>

If a peer certificate exists, this function can retrieve values from it.
If no field is given the internal representation of certificate from 
Net::SSLeay is
The following fields can be queried:

=over 8

=item authority (alias issuer)

The certificate authority which signed the certificate.

=item owner (alias subject)

The owner of the certificate.

=item commonName (alias cn) - only for Net::SSLeay version >=1.30

The common name, usually the server name for SSL certificates.

=item subjectAltNames - only for Net::SSLeay version >=1.33

Alternative names for the subject, usually different names for the same
server, like example.org, example.com, *.example.com.

It returns a list of (typ,value) with typ GEN_DNS, GEN_IPADD etc (these
constants are exported from IO::Socket::SSL).
See Net::SSLeay::X509_get_subjectAltNames.


=item B<verify_hostname($hostname,$scheme)>

This verifies the given hostname against the peer certificate using the
given scheme. Hostname is usually what you specify within the PeerAddr.

Verification of hostname against a certificate is different between various
applications and RFCs. Some scheme allow wildcards for hostnames, some only
in subjectAltNames, and even their different wildcard schemes are possible.

To ease the verification the following schemes are predefined:

=over 8

=item ldap (rfc4513), pop3,imap,acap (rfc2995), nntp (rfc4642)

Simple wildcards in subjectAltNames are possible, e.g. *.example.org matches
www.example.org but not lala.www.example.org. If nothing from subjectAltNames
match it checks against the common name, but there are no wildcards allowed.

=item http (rfc2818), alias is www

Extended wildcards in subjectAltNames and common name are possible, e.g. 
*.example.org or even www*.example.org. The common
name will be only checked if no names are given in subjectAltNames.

=item smtp (rfc3207)

This RFC doesn't say much useful about the verification so it just assumes
that subjectAltNames are possible, but no wildcards are possible anywhere.


The scheme can be given either by specifying the name for one of the above 
schemes, by using a callback (see below) or by using a hash which can have the
following keys and values:

=over 8

=item check_cn:  0|'always'|'when_only'

Determines if the common name gets checked. If 'always' it will always be 
(like in ldap), if 'when_only' it will only be checked if no names are given in
subjectAltNames (like in http), for any other values the common name will not 
be checked.

=item wildcards_in_alt: 0|'leftmost'|'anywhere'

Determines if and where wildcards in subjectAltNames are possible. If 'leftmost'
only cases like *.example.org will be possible (like in ldap), for 'anywhere'
www*.example.org is possible too (like http), dangerous things like but 
or even '*' will not be allowed.

=item wildcards_in_cn: 0|'leftmost'|'anywhere'

Similar to wildcards_in_alt, but checks the common name. There is no predefined
scheme which allows wildcards in common names.


If you give a subroutine for verification it will be called with the arguments
($hostname,$commonName,@subjectAltNames), where hostname is the name given for
verification, commonName is the result from peer_certificate('cn') and
subjectAltNames is the result from peer_certificate('subjectAltNames').

=item B<errstr()>

Returns the last error (in string form) that occurred.  If you do not have a 
object to perform this method on, call IO::Socket::SSL::errstr() instead.

For read and write errors on non-blocking sockets, this method may include the 
C<SSL wants a read first!> or C<SSL wants a write first!> meaning that the 
other side
is expecting to read from or write to the socket and wants to be satisfied 
before you
get to do anything. But with version 0.98 you are better comparing the global 
variable $SSL_ERROR against the exported symbols SSL_WANT_READ and 

=item B<opened()>

This returns false if the socket could not be opened, 1 if the socket could be 
and the SSL handshake was successful done and -1 if the underlying IO::Handle 
is open,
but the SSL handshake failed.

=item B<< IO::Socket::SSL->start_SSL($socket, ... ) >>

This will convert a glob reference or a socket that you provide to an 
object.  You may also pass parameters to specify context or connection options 
as with
a call to new().  If you are using this function on an accept()ed socket, you 
set the parameter "SSL_server" to 1, i.e. IO::Socket::SSL->start_SSL($socket, 
SSL_server => 1).
If you have a class that inherits from IO::Socket::SSL and you want the $socket 
to be blessed
into your own class instead, use MyClass->start_SSL($socket) to achieve the 
desired effect.

Note that if start_SSL() fails in SSL negotiation, $socket will remain blessed 
in its
original class.  For non-blocking sockets you better just upgrade the socket to
IO::Socket::SSL and call accept_SSL or connect_SSL and the upgraded object. To
just upgrade the socket set B<SSL_startHandshake> explicitly to 0. If you call 
w/o this parameter it will revert to blocking behavior for accept_SSL and 

If given the parameter "Timeout" it will stop if after the timeout no SSL 
was established. This parameter is only used for blocking sockets, if it is not 
given the
default Timeout from the underlying IO::Socket will be used.

=item B<stop_SSL(...)>

This is the opposite of start_SSL(), e.g. it will shutdown the SSL connection
and return to the class before start_SSL(). It gets the same arguments as 
in fact close() calls stop_SSL() (but without downgrading the class).

Will return true if it suceeded and undef if failed. This might be the case for
non-blocking sockets. In this case $! is set to EAGAIN and the ssl error to
SSL_WANT_READ or SSL_WANT_WRITE. In this case the call should be retried again 
the same arguments once the socket is ready is until it succeeds.

=item B<< IO::Socket::SSL->new_from_fd($fd, ...) >>

This will convert a socket identified via a file descriptor into an SSL socket.
Note that the argument list does not include a "MODE" argument; if you supply 
it will be thoughtfully ignored (for compatibility with IO::Socket::INET).      
a mode of '+<' is assumed, and the file descriptor passed must be able to 
handle such
I/O because the initial SSL handshake requires bidirectional communication.

=item B<IO::Socket::SSL::set_default_context(...)>

You may use this to make IO::Socket::SSL automatically re-use a given context 
specifically overridden in a call to new()).  It accepts one argument, which 
be either an IO::Socket::SSL object or an IO::Socket::SSL::SSL_Context object.  
the SSL_reuse_ctx option of new() for more details.      Note that this sets 
the default
context globally, so use with caution (esp. in mod_perl scripts).

=item B<IO::Socket::SSL::set_default_session_cache(...)>

You may use this to make IO::Socket::SSL automatically re-use a given session 
(unless specifically overridden in a call to new()).  It accepts one argument, 
which should
be an IO::Socket::SSL::Session_Cache object or similar (e.g something which 
get_session and add_session like IO::Socket::SSL::Session_Cache does).
See the SSL_session_cache option of new() for more details.      Note that this 
sets the default
cache globally, so use with caution.

=item B<IO::Socket::SSL::set_ctx_defaults(%args)>

With this function one can set defaults for all SSL_* parameter used for 
creation of
the context, like the SSL_verify* parameter.

=over 8

=item mode - set default SSL_verify_mode

=item callback - set default SSL_verify_callback

=item scheme - set default SSL_verifycn_scheme

=item name - set default SSL_verifycn_name

If not given and scheme is hash reference with key callback it will be set to 



The following methods are unsupported (not to mention futile!) and 
will emit a large CROAK() if you are silly enough to use them:

=over 4

=item truncate

=item stat

=item ungetc

=item setbuf

=item setvbuf

=item fdopen

=item send/recv

Note that send() and recv() cannot be reliably trapped by a tied filehandle 
(such as
that used by IO::Socket::SSL) and so may send unencrypted data over the socket. 
calls to these functions will fail, telling you to use the print/printf/syswrite
and read/sysread families instead.


=head1 IPv6

Support for IPv6 with IO::Socket::SSL is expected to work and basic testing is 
If IO::Socket::INET6 is available it will automatically use it instead of

Please be aware of the associated problems: If you give a name as a host and the
host resolves to both IPv6 and IPv4 it will try IPv6 first and if there is no 
connectivity it will fail.

To avoid these problems you can either force IPv4 by specifying and AF_INET as 
Domain (this is per socket) or load IO::Socket::SSL with the option 'inet4'
(This is a global setting, e.g. affects all IO::Socket::SSL objects in the 


A few changes have gone into IO::Socket::SSL v0.93 and later with respect to
return values.  The behavior on success remains unchanged, but for I<all> 
the return value on error is now an empty list.  Therefore, the return value 
will be
false in all contexts, but those who have been using the return values as 
to subroutines (like C<mysub(IO::Socket::SSL(...)->new, ...)>) may run into 
The moral of the story: I<always> check the return values of these functions 
using them in any way that you consider meaningful.


If you are having problems using IO::Socket::SSL despite the fact that can 
recite backwards
the section of this documentation labelled 'Using SSL', you should try enabling 
debugging.      To
specify the debug level, pass 'debug#' (where # is a number from 0 to 3) to 
when calling it.
The debug level will also be propagated to Net::SSLeay::trace, see also 

=over 4

=item use IO::Socket::SSL qw(debug0);

No debugging (default).

=item use IO::Socket::SSL qw(debug1);

Print out errors from IO::Socket::SSL and ciphers from Net::SSLeay.

=item use IO::Socket::SSL qw(debug2);

Print also information about call flow from IO::Socket::SSL and progress
information from Net::SSLeay.

=item use IO::Socket::SSL qw(debug3);

Print also some data dumps from IO::Socket::SSL and from Net::SSLeay.



See the 'example' directory.

=head1 BUGS

IO::Socket::SSL is not threadsafe.
This is because IO::Socket::SSL is based on Net::SSLeay which
uses a global object to access some of the API of openssl
and is therefore not threadsafe.
It might probably work if you don't use SSL_verify_callback and

IO::Socket::SSL does not work together with Storable::fd_retrieve/fd_store.
See BUGS file for more information and how to work around the problem.

Non-blocking and timeouts (which are based on non-blocking) are not
supported on Win32, because the underlying IO::Socket::INET does not support
non-blocking on this platform.

If you have a server and it looks like you have a memory leak you might 
check the size of your session cache. Default for Net::SSLeay seems to be 
20480, see the example for SSL_create_ctx_callback for how to limit it.


IO::Socket::SSL uses Net::SSLeay as the shiny interface to OpenSSL, which is
the shiny interface to the ugliness of SSL.      As a result, you will need 
both Net::SSLeay
and OpenSSL on your computer before using this module.

If you have Scalar::Util (standard with Perl 5.8.0 and above) or WeakRef, 
sockets will auto-close when they go out of scope, just like IO::Socket::INET 
sockets.  If
you do not have one of these modules, then IO::Socket::SSL sockets will stay 
open until the
program ends or you explicitly close them.      This is due to the fact that a 
circular reference
is required to make IO::Socket::SSL sockets act simultaneously like objects and 
glob references.


The following functions are deprecated and are only retained for compatibility:

=over 2

=item context_init()

use the SSL_reuse_ctx option if you want to re-use a context

=item socketToSSL() and socket_to_SSL()

use IO::Socket::SSL->start_SSL() instead

=item kill_socket()

use close() instead

=item get_peer_certificate()

use the peer_certificate() function instead.
Used to return X509_Certificate with methods subject_name and issuer_name.
Now simply returns $self which has these methods (although depreceated).

=item issuer_name()

use peer_certificate( 'issuer' ) instead

=item subject_name()

use peer_certificate( 'subject' ) instead


The following classes have been removed:

=over 2

=item SSL_SSL

(not that you should have been directly accessing this anyway):

=item X509_Certificate

(but get_peer_certificate() will still Do The Right Thing)


=head1 SEE ALSO

IO::Socket::INET, IO::Socket::INET6, Net::SSLeay.

=head1 AUTHORS

Steffen Ullrich, <steffen at genua.de> is the current maintainer.

Peter Behroozi, <behrooz at fas.harvard.edu> (Note the lack of an "i" at the 
end of "behrooz")

Marko Asplund, <marko.asplund at kronodoc.fi>, was the original author of 

Patches incorporated from various people, see file Changes.


Working support for non-blocking was added by Steffen Ullrich.

The rewrite of this module is Copyright (C) 2002-2005 Peter Behroozi.

The original versions of this module are Copyright (C) 1999-2002 Marko Asplund.

This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

=head1 Appendix: Using SSL

If you are unfamiliar with the way OpenSSL works, good references may be found 
both the book "Network Security with OpenSSL" (Oreilly & Assoc.) and the web 
L<http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/SSL-Certificates-HOWTO/>.  Read on for a quick 

=head2 The Long of It (Detail)

The usual reason for using SSL is to keep your data safe.  This means that not 
do you have to encrypt the data while it is being transported over a network, 
you also have to make sure that the right person gets the data.  To accomplish 
with SSL, you have to use certificates.  A certificate closely resembles a
Government-issued ID (at least in places where you can trust them).      The ID 
contains some sort of
identifying information such as a name and address, and is usually stamped with 
a seal
of Government Approval.  Theoretically, this means that you may trust the 
information on
the card and do business with the owner of the card.  The same ideas apply to 
SSL certificates,
which have some identifying information and are "stamped" [most people refer to 
this as
I<signing> instead] by someone (a Certificate Authority) who you trust will 
verify the identifying information.      In this case, because of some clever 
number theory,
it is extremely difficult to falsify the stamping process.      Another useful 
of number theory is that the certificate is linked to the encryption process, 
so you may
encrypt data (using information on the certificate) that only the certificate 
owner can

What does this mean for you?  It means that at least one person in the party 
has to
have an ID to get drinks :-).  Seriously, it means that one of the people 
has to have a certificate to ensure that your data is safe.      For 
interactions, the server must B<always> have a certificate.      If the server 
wants to
verify that the client is safe, then the client must also have a personal 
To verify that a certificate is safe, one compares the stamped "seal" [commonly 
an I<encrypted digest/hash/signature>] on the certificate with the official 
"seal" of
the Certificate Authority to make sure that they are the same.  To do this, you 
need the [unfortunately named] certificate of the Certificate Authority.  With 
all these
in hand, you can set up a SSL connection and be reasonably confident that 
no-one is
reading your data.

=head2 The Short of It (Summary)

For servers, you will need to generate a cryptographic private key and a 
request.  You will need to send the certificate request to a Certificate 
Authority to
get a real certificate back, after which you can start serving people.  For 
you will not need anything unless the server wants validation, in which case 
you will
also need a private key and a real certificate.  For more information about how 
get these, see L<http://www.modssl.org/docs/2.8/ssl_faq.html#ToC24>.


Other related posts: