Mike, I'm sorry, then I missed your point regarding ATSC and VBR. VBR of a single stream is useful on a storage medium because the total capacity of the storage medium is fixed, and VBR can be used to maximize the program length held within that fixed capacity. VBR on a single transmission stream, where the limiting factor is the transmission rate, would only result in increased null packets to stuff the transport stream. Therefore it would be pointless to apply VBR to a single ATSC program. However, VBR does exist in multiplexed ATSC streams, as we both apparently agree. John ----- Original Message ----- From: Mike Tsinberg Sure. The end result of four multiplexed VBR streams into one creates one CBR stream. Yes that is one case of VBR for broadcasting. What I meant is transmission of a single HDTV stream that occupies complete channel for maximum picture quality.