[lit-ideas] Re: Crusade

  • From: andy amago <aamago@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>
  • To: lit-ideas@xxxxxxxxxxxxx, lit-ideas@xxxxxxxxxxxxx
  • Date: Fri, 30 Apr 2004 11:22:00 -0400 (GMT-04:00)

Just caught this.  This isn't a war?  Somebody should tell CNN to stop show=
ing all those bombed out buildings and counting dead bodies.  Invading a co=
untry with aircraft and tanks and other paraphernalia that spew violence is=
 the definition of war.  Aggressive acts against sovereign states are well =
precedented, and they're always called war.  BTW, what did you (if you were=
 around back then) call Vietnam?  The nightly news called it a war.  Come t=
o think of it, they say war comes in 20 year cycles, and it's been over 20 =
years since Vietnam.  Gulf I (Gulf War I)was a piker.  Maybe we were overdu=
e to kick some butt.  Scratched an itch.  Nuff said.

-----Original Message-----
From: Jlsperanza@xxxxxxx
Sent: Apr 30, 2004 10:39 AM
To: lit-ideas@xxxxxxxxxxxxx
Subject: [lit-ideas] Crusade

L. J. Kramer:
"But this "war," which is only a war because we don't have a better
word for what it is..."

L. Simmons:

"How about "crusade"?  That's what you think it is, isn't it?"

M. Geary:=20

"Thank you, Lance."

For what it's worth -- the entry for 'crusade' in the OED. Some interesting=



From the OED


Etymology. =3D mod.F. croisade (=3D OF. croisee), Pr. crozada, Sp. cruzada,=
crociata, med.L. cruciata (cruzata), being in the various langs. the fem. n=
of action formed on pa. pple. of crucire, crociare, cruzar, croiser to CROS=
lit. a being crossed, a crossing or marking with the cross, a taking the=20
cross: cf. the early F. croisement. The earliest and only ME. equivalents w=
CROISERIE (13th-15th c.), and CROISEE (15-17th c.), from the corresponding =
words. In 16th c. French, crois=C3=A9e was displaced by croisade, with the =
new ending=20
-ade, adapted from the -ADA of Proven=C3=A7al and Spanish. This croisade ap=
in Eng. c.1575, and continued to be the leading form till c.1760 (see Johns=
Dict.). About 1600, the Sp. cruzada made its appearance under the forms=20
crusada and crusado (see -ADO); a blending of this with croisade produced t=
hybrid forms, viz. croisado (-ada), with French stem and Spanish ending, fr=
from c. 1611 to 1725, and crusade, with Spanish stem and French ending,=20
mentioned by Johnson, 1755, only as a by-form of croisade, but used by Gold=
smith and=20
Gibbon, and now universal. From 15th to 17th c. occasional attempts to adop=
the med.L. and other Romanic forms, as cruciat, -ada, -ade, cruceat, were m=
see CRUCIADE.] =20


1. Hist. A military expedition undertaken by the Christians of Europe in th=
11th, 12th, and 13th centuries to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims.=


1577 HARRISON England III. iv. (1878) II. 29 At such time as Baldwine=20
archbishop of Canturburie preached the Croisad there. 1616 JAS. I. Remonstr=
. Right of=20
Kings Wks. 445 All such..as undertooke the Croisade became the Pope's meere=
vassals. 1753 CHESTERFIELD Lett. (1774) IV. 6 His history of the Croisades.=
1769 BLACKSTONE Comm. IV. 416 The knight errantry of a croisade against the=


1611 SPEED Hist. Gt. Brit. IX. xx. (1632) 965 A Croisado against the Turkes=
c1645 HOWELL Lett. IV. xix. (1892) 592 A Croisada to the Holy Land. 1758=20
CHESTERFIELD Lett. cxxxi, This gave rise to the Croisadoes, and carried suc=
h swarms=20
of people from Europe to the..Holy Land.

1631 WEEVER Anc. Fun. Mon. 793 To preach the Crusado. a1678 MARVELL Poems,=
Britannia & Raleigh, Her true Crusada shall at last pull down The Turkish=
crescent and the Persian sun. 1765 H. WALPOLE Otranto v. (1834) 249 Until h=
is return=20
from the crusado.
1706 PHILLIPS, Croisado or Crusade. c1750 SHENSTONE Ruined Abbey 118 Here t=
cowl'd zealots..Urg'd the crusade. 1755-73 JOHNSON, Crusade, Crusado: see=
Croisade. 1781 GIBBON Decl. & F. III. lxi. 546 The principle of the crusade=
s was=20
a savage fanaticism. 1841 W. SPALDING Italy & It. Isl. II. 318 A single=20
campaign of the first crusade, that of 1099. 1856 EMERSON Eng. Traits, Reli=
g. Wks.=20
(Bohn) II. 96 The power of the religious sentiment..inspired the crusades.
B. transf. Any war instigated and blessed by the Church for alleged religio=
ends, a =E2=80=98holy war=E2=80=99; applied esp. to expeditions undertaken =
under papal=20
sanction against infidels or heretics.=20
1603 FLORIO Montaigne II. xxvii. (1632) 393 George Sechell..who under the=
title of a Croysada, wrought so many mischiefes. 1624 BP. R. MONTAGU Gagg 9=
Urban the eight, that now Popeth it, may proclaime a Croisado if hee will. =
BURNET Hist. Ref. II. 122 Afterwards croisades came in use; against such pr=
as were deposed by popes. 1875 STUBBS Const. Hist. III. xviii. 106 Commande=
of a crusade against the Hussites.
2. fig. An aggressive movement or enterprise against some public evil, or=
some institution or class of persons considered as evil.=20
1786 T. JEFFERSON Writ. (1859) II. 8 Preach, my dear Sir, a crusade against=
ignorance. 1839 DE QUINCEY Recoll. Lakes Wks. 1862 II. 184 This new crusade=
against the evils of the world. 1855 MILMAN Lat. Chr. (1864) IV. VII. i. 25=
Dunstan's life was a crusade..against the married clergy. Mod. The Temperan=
3. A papal bull or commission authorizing a crusade, or expedition against=
infidels or heretics.=20
1588 (title), The Holy Bull and Crusado of Rome, first published by the Hol=
Father, Gregory the XIII. 1643 PRYNNE Sov. Power Parl. App 64 They conclude=
to crave ayd from all Christian Princes, and a Crossado from the Pope again=
the Moores. a1677 BARROW Popes Suprem. Wks. 1859 VIII. 50 To summon or=20
commissionate soldiers by croisade, &c. to fight against infidels. 1724 T. =
Hist. R. Geneal. Spain 247 The Pope, willing to help the King to sustain th=
War, sent him the Croisade, by which Means he raised 300,000 Ducats. 1771 G=
Hist. Eng. I. 317 The pope published a crusade against the deposed monarch.
4. Span. Hist. A levy of money, or a sum raised by the sale of indulgences,=
under a document called Bula de la cruzada, originally for aggression or=20
defence against the Moors, but afterwards diverted to other purposes. Obs.
  The sale of the indulgences granted under the Bula became a permanent=20
source of revenue, held by the kings of Spain in consideration of expenses =
by them as champions of Catholicism and in the conversion of the American=
Indians. A board for the collection and administration of these revenues wa=
created in the 16th c. called Consejo de la Cruzada, the court or tribunal =
of the=20
1579 FENTON Guicciard. I. (1599) 30 The moneys gathered in Spaine..vnder=20
colour of the Croysade. Ibid. XII. 566 The Pope had transferred to the king=
Aragon for two yeares the moneys and collections called the Croissards of t=
realme of Spaine. 1630 R. Johnson's Kingd. & Commw. 531 His Subsidies which=
levieth extraordinarily (of late times for the most part turned into ordina=
as his Croisados). 1655 DIGGES Compl. Ambass. 288 To suffer a levy of money=
be made within his Dominions, termed by the name Crusado, for the maintenan=
of the Turkish Wars. 1716 in Lond. Gaz. No. 5480/3 The President of the=20
Cruzada is ordered to draw up a perfect Account of the intire Produce of th=
Cruzada, as well in Spain as in the Indies. 1760-72 tr. Juan & Ulloa's Voy.=
 (ed. 3)=20
II. VII. xii. 132 Here [Peru] is also a court of inquisition, and of the=20
5. A marking with the cross; the symbol of the cross, the badge borne by=20
  1613 ZOUCH Dove 43 Like the rich Croisade on th' Imperiall Ball. 1641=20
PRYNNE Antip. 299 He tooke up the Crossado and went..with King Richard..to =
warres in the holy Land. 1700 TYRRELL Hist. Eng. II. 772 He took upon him t=
Crusado, i.e. Vowed an Expedition to the Holy-Land.
b. fig. (with allusion to =E2=80=98cross=E2=80=99 in the sense of trial or =
affliction). Obs.=20
1654 WHITLOCK Zootomia 531 The Noble Order of the Cruysado Heaven bestoweth=
not on Milk-sops. Ibid. 533 The Cruysado, or Crosse of Christ, above all Or=
taken up by the Potentates of the World.
6. attrib.=20
1750 CARTE Hist. Eng. II. 706 The crusado troops of Cardinal Beaufort. 1764=
HARMER Observ. XVIII. i. 43 The Croisade army arrived there in the end of M=


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