## [lit-ideas] Re: Can a person 'imagine' "2 + 2 = 4" (or "5")?

• From: Jlsperanza@xxxxxxx
• To: lit-ideas@xxxxxxxxxxxxx
• Date: Sat, 18 Dec 2004 08:16:11 EST

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Just to correct typo in title. Sorry.

In a message dated 12/18/2004 8:15:27 A.M. Eastern Standard Time,  Jlsperanza
writes:

In a message dated 12/17/2004 4:03:05 P.M. Eastern Standard Time,
donalmcevoyuk@xxxxxxxxxxx writes:

Two  questions:-
1. Can a person imagine '2+2=4'?
2. Can a person imagine  '2+2=5'?

----

I imagine it depends on the use of 'imagine'. It's a Latin word, but  somehow
imported into England via the Normans. Don't expect a monosemous path  all
along. Most likely, in English it is _misused_ (by Roman standards).

As I perceive it, 'imagine' is a parenthetical verb. This class of verbs  was
first identified by J. O. Urmson, of Corpus Christi, Oxford. Things  like,

She will, I guess,  succeed.

Note that, sadly, Urmson's analysis applies only to the _first-person_  use
of the respective verbs, yielding:

2+2 =, I imagine, 4.

In America, due to what Horn calls 'neg-raising' (or negative
transportation), a funny phenomenon took place, with the _negation_ of a
parenthetical.
Logically, what is negated is what Grice calls the radical.  E.g. "2 = 2 = 4".
But, in America, instead of imagining that it is not the  case that "2 + 2 =
4",
the colloquial idiom is to say that you _don't  imagine_ that it is, yielding.

2+2 =, I don't imagine, 5.

Etcetera. Fascinating question.

Cheers,

JL

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