http://dailynews.yahoo.com/fc/world/United_Nations/ European Union to Apologize For Slavery And Colonialism Sep 7 2:04 PM EDT (Associated Press) (We are feelin and thinkin in 'many' parallel timescales and levels. I think it's not wrong. ) Finally, at Durban conference, EU decisively chose to speak of 'apology'. This should make us busy, cause there is one thing, CR or PS has been rather neglecting of recognition. Why Europeans/West now feel sorry for their prejudice and ranking mentality? This topic would be relatively hard to tackle down while we are in Bradford. (So I will expand my survey for this, naturally) Cuz, in Britain or England, or in Bradford, it seems lecturers really don't care about what other Europeans are thinking. There is no focus on this kind of issue even when it seems so relevant to subjects we are studying. I would question why, but what I know is lecturers wouldn't answer explicitly, answers by themselves, with their own decision and incentives or motives. Britain has been 'accused' of being passive and reluctant about applying 'apology' into the resolution at Durban (see Guardian site), actually, Tony Blair himself has been very positive about UK's commitment to African Continent (it's been on his election agenda, and he's been committing to African Union project, which in this August there were few world conferences.) So why UK's been hesitating? - answer wouldn't be that clear and would be ready, but one thing I can do is to look inside of other European states willingly supporting the resolution, for example Belgium - and if one thinks of the context of situations in South Africa, Sierra Leone, and Congo - it really makes one wonder - why? now? (Belgium's interest still looks much vested in conflict...I admit my knowledge on this country is really scant yet.) But there is one trend in European history, once they make this kind of 'ethical' or 'normative' progress, it would be surely registered and recognised as 'the step forward, (western) humnanity made' - as often Oliver talked about the progress of international law system and gradual progression, arise of international ethics. It would be roughly at the scale of 50 years to 100 years thing, - In a way, it can be thought in this way, societies were devastated after the second WW, and after that there were certain moral concerns, ethical reflections about humanity - but at the turn of this century, we got no 'big event' to think about - to reflect about ourselves - so may some European conscience - decided to apply this rather sudden and drastic step - otherwise societies would become more loose and rough in affluence and in struggles within widening disparity. To understand or set perspectives for this EU resolution, dept would need cooperation between Oliver and a person like David Francis, - how it's 'hollow' compared to the actual day to day timescale of situations in Sierra Leone, or South Africa - or in many European societies and US - or how it's 'substantial gain' for the history of humanity, at its very macro scale. Unless this resolution turn out to be something flawed - sweet talk or beautiful document with the 'instant' or quick aim for political bargainning, the dept will need to consider about what happened in Durban, as the whole dept. We got ments/faces, if they start to cooperate within themselves we students would get more neat pictures and understandings of many different levels of this event, political or ethical, mere 'an event' or 'a progress' of human history. But if not, as I've been feared of - the dept will start to internally deplete - the issues we are studying and dealing requires perspectives about specialisation and cooperation - even more apparently for 'professionals'. If they do start to work on this, it would be okay. [Or may will soon find more 'other agendas' - there is a bit of smell may the dept go for this direction, then walls and discommunications between 'sects' of the dept will increase.] There are changes going in outside - so one needs internal changes for adoptation, but I don't think I can think of anyone in lecturers thinking and seeing things in this way. For how UK has been in Durban see http://www.guardian.co.uk/unracism/ esp articles at 7th Sept. ------------------------------------------------------------------- P.S. (taken from survey note I made for Durban) ...At the start of the liberation in North America, those Afro-Americans thought of going back to their homeland. 'Because there won't be a hope that we can gain equal status with whites, no matter how long we and our children going to stay and live within this country, with white people.' So they thought they cannot stay there (even it was already after generations since their ancestors took away from Africa) - they thought they should go back and that's the only hopeful way. Still it was soon to be noticed that they really cannot go back and stay there too. And we came to have much population of this planet became 'exile' in various ways. Some are happy, some aren't. Now exiles are not only Afro-Americans, decents of generations of enslaved Africans - still these exiles don't know about and don't think about how those Afro-Americans thought about their way when they were started to be released. And we can see how things are in US now and how it could be. Many ways to think about these issues - still I feel humans are only rolling - we are still not much in control of how we live; how we start our lives and how we spend it and how we end it. Then, may someday people, or those many exiles come to think like this, 'where is my home' - and ' still, my home is not recognisable anymore, it's changed and I'm also changed.' - if exiles are relatively happy and satisfied in this way, may things continue to roll on. Still, if exiles come to feel this is unhappy, and this is so hard to carry on, they really come to question, why they cannot return to their home, and who or what kind of ideas have been ruinning their home, - and even themselves. Still, 'Home', 'Land', 'Identity', - these things would start to vapour if one really try to check those issues. And usually we only can find ourselves included, placed in much more large stories and currents. Still there always be a question about what we should retrieve, and what we should control, and what we should leave uncontrolled. A.