[gha] TR: contribution philosophique !

  • From: "Guy Crequie" <guy.crequie@xxxxxxxxxx>
  • To: <peace-from-harmony@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>, <PeaceForum@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>, <gha@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>, <ghausa@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>, <decade@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>, <wwpoenglish@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>
  • Date: Sun, 1 Feb 2015 15:07:54 +0100





De : Guy Crequie [mailto:guy.crequie@xxxxxxxxx] 
Envoyé : dimanche 1 février 2015 14:58

Objet : TR: contribution philosophique !
Importance : Haute








Vous trouverez la contribution relative à « enjeux philosophiques et le XXI
e siècle « que j’ai adressé pour le congrès CIUPHI III (congrès des auteurs
et artistes de langue castillane ) lequel s’est tenu du 7 au 12 juillet 2014
dans la ville hollywoodienne de Los Angeles Los Angeles.


Compte tenu de sa longueur, afin d ’éviter trop de contre sens de
traduction, je l’ai pré traduite uniquement en langue anglaise. Cependant si
intéressés, je peux vous adresser une version pré  traduite en langue

Dépositaire du Copyright, SVP, si vous désirez publier cette contribution
sur votre blog, un ouvrage collectif d’auteurs ou votre revue = SVP, m’en
aviser obligatoirement.



Bonne lecture.













You will find the contribution relative to “philosophical challenges and the
XXI E century “which I addressed for the congress CIUPHI III (congress of
the authors and artists of language Castilian) which was held from July 7th
to July 12th, 2014 in the Hollywood city of Los Angeles Los Angeles.


Taking into account his length, in order to avoid too much of against
direction of translation, I pre translated it only into English language.
However if interested, I can address to you a pre version translated into
language Castilian.

Agent of Copyright, PLEASE, if you wish to publish this contribution on your
blog, a collective work authors or your review = PLEASE, me to warn about it



Good reading.













“Philosophy today it philosophy tomorrow = with the service of the people,
appropriable by them? ”



LOS ANGELES - on July 12th, 2014



This day, it was asked to me to speak to you about philosophy, but I specify
continuation which I want to avoid a misunderstanding. There is not a side,
a masterly smoothie, a teacher who theorizes certainly starting from an
adapted philosophical language, which has its rules.

However, like indicated it DIDEROT: “hasten we to make philosophy popular”.
Everyone can intervene on the human problems on condition that respecting a
deontology of principles of it and to speak philosophy, it is also to live
like philosopher, it is a practice like pointed out it GRAMSCI.

A philosopher is not necessarily that which writes a work, creates a system.
SOCRATE is according to HEGEL: a true philosopher precisely: because he
lived his doctrines instead of writing it. The philosopher ALAIN and his
chronicles concerned the same approach. 

To Be philosophical said SOCRATE does not consist in knowing much of things
but with being temperate person.

It is only by deviation, and since, that philosophy became a trade, a form
of teaching remunerated that the concept of philosopher lost his
significance originating in exemplary type of satisfied researcher,
supported by its only vocation. Since Then, there are no more philosophers
notices HEGEL but philosophies, systems of thought.


A Long Time, the philosophers recapitulated the knowledge of their time.
Much was at the same time: scientists, herbalists, poets of the
philosophers… At Present with the extraordinary development of sciences and
technology, the other autonomous disciplines do not need will have of the
philosopher for their work. On the other hand, for the popularization of
their discoveries and its relationships to the conscience, ethics, morals,
philosophy if it is not a science as such = thus intervenes on the knowledge
established apart from it; it has a critical function and of comparison
which is essential, it is made to function.

The ambiguity of the ancient concept SOPHIA (Research of wisdom) which
evokes at the same time a knowledge of the truth and a practice of morals,
caused two interpretations of philosophy:

it first which goes back to the Ionian physicists (Life century before J.C)
develops at HEGEL and in Anglo-Saxon positivism, and primarily conceives
philosophy like a rational knowledge, a search for intelligibility.


it second which recommends SOCRATE, of KANT, modern existentialism, regards
philosophy as a moral research, that of our destinations true and like a
training of the virtue.


However, if it is true that there can be philosophers who did not write
philosophy like SOCRATE or your modest servant, the concept of philosopher
does not imply of it less the development of a rational knowledge, of a
system of thought.

I spoke about the philosopher ALAIN, it is a philosopher because it was an
essay writer; the philosophy of ALAIN corresponds to the whole of his ideas
put in system.

One speaks contrary to philosophy about KANT, HEGEL, SARTRE, HEIDDEGER.

Philosophy is thus by vocation an attempt at coherent explanation of


I know that the main part of the present here are not specialists in
philosophy; this is why, I try not to use a too complicated language.

Today, for example with globalization of the exchanges, the images, of the
signs, or all goes quickly, too sometimes all is dense, to control its
discipline while having the fast ability of an autonomy of thought becomes
necessary and from this point of view I admire for example our friend
Ernesto KAHAN, which, in my opinion, precedes in this 21st century what will
have to be at the 22nd century, a complete intellectual of our time at the
same time: scientist, poet and philosopher.

To the rhythm of our current contingencies, one can put the question: that
to make in the world or what to make in this world: challenge?

The importance is the lived dimension of philosophy what returns us to the
debates between SARTRE and MERLEAU-PONTY.

Indeed, nourished concepts without that not presenting any incidence on our
lives seems to reduce philosophy to a pure speculative play, with the simple
expression of a virtuosity.


As SENEQUE indicated it: “see whether it is in the philosophical science or
in practice even of the life that you progressed”.

If philosophy described but does not prescribe anything, it is a concern!
Philosophy is an attitude in the world, not an abstention.

The base of the philosophical life constitutes also this search for a
transformation of oneself, capable to grow us while enabling us to forge
this existence conscious of itself, as coherent as possible, aiming at the
independent and creative control in the ways which it forges, of adventurers
of the concept, intensely presents to itself and the others.


It remains certainly attentive and works about it on the study
thousand-year-old of the philosophical classes but connected on the social
practices of the knowledge and to the report of our thought and our shares
to the facts, people and the things.

If my expression is difficult for you, it is it for me also, philosophical
popularization remains nowadays and alas, a complicated exercise this,
whereas one day, in another century, comes the moment when there will not
require more for philosopher of trade, this if philosophy is regarded as a
discipline of moral training, including as of the school system and this for
all the disciplines including scientists.

Then, with what is philosophy used for the XXI è century? Its
interpellations, challenges, challenges to be solved?


Is the philosophical study with the present stage of globalization still a
help to decipher the present and to better consider the future?

Is it reserved for the elites in the philosophical pulpits or can it
enlightened the consciences citizens?


Our post-modern world became complex, subtle and opaque.     Our world in
spite of the media short cuts, the political short phrases generally in the
short run, resists our analyses and requires a new theoretical attitude more
patient less filled up certainty. Time increasingly faster became a decisive
challenge in our advanced companies and developing with a frantic rate.

The challenge which the company with the theorists poses is more to seek in
its virtuality, its forms of exclusion, its risks, its opportunities, its
dissimulations, in its presentation of itself in short in its metaphysics.
The company is invisible not with the direction where it disappears under
our eyes or which it became virtual but rather because a variation remains
between what is and what one sees. Instead of being simple and direct, the
causes of the phenomena appear in their dissimulation this is why they
oblige us with prudence, patience and a new opening.


With the Middle Ages, at the time of the thought scholastic, the peasant had
the horizon of the castle of his lord who required of him but protected it;
today with a button supported on the TV or a click on a social network, one
can be transported at the end of the world, to discover or read there,
images and some remarks which widen at the same time and disconcert our

Spaces far from being separate and Nets seem to be touched, interpenetrate
and merge with the infinite horizon.

If the territories of formerly intermingle today, that exceeds the framework
of the market of the exchanges but our spirits are disturbed; this because
mobility and speed scramble the borders and that the concept of limit tends
to be lost in projected or dispersed realities. One wonders at present about
the local, regional territory…. But also on other subjects: to prolong the
life, to rejuvenate, change its physique; science knows considerable

When one thinks of the disappearance of the borders, with the creation of
union or zones of country or regions, one thinks of the loss of landmarks
traditional, one notes of this fact the end of the traditional policy
accomplished within the framework of an immutable modern state which
operated starting from dialectical metaphysics defined by classified
oppositions: friend - enemy; inside-outside; private-public ......

The current world is the business of cultures; some speak even about
subcultures living in obliged interactions, undergone and of new forms of
living together appear.

It the time ago of the cultural minorities identified, classified, gathered
often alas not to say parked, regarded more as one embarrassment than like a

Nowadays, the multitude of mixings leads many our contemporaries to think
that not recognized invisible networks because as such revolve in our
present and our representation of the social one.

In this world delimited by our jurisdiction, the State, space becomes
however obscure and failing to clearly identify the causes which is often
abstractions it is the fact of the purse, of the credit rating agencies,
globalization, OPEC, the dollar ..... the fear settles and the other, the
foreigner, becomes a danger.

However, whereas globalization would require hospitality, the fears cause
difficulties of the food together!

To Accept the surprise, to say yes to what changes such unceasingly are the
challenges of our increasingly liberal and fluid companies.

Of this, it affects there the political life, on the relation between
science and philosophy. It becomes increasingly difficult for our
governments to have a vision with a future, to anticipate.   


                                                                  We should
reinvent our reality as much as the language and the practice of the power.
This One must have less propensity for control, and accept that the power is
distributed differently.

After the First World War, Europe lost its row of first planetary
civilization and its political primacy tracked by the surge of cultures
concerned only to spare a territory, philosophy forgot its vocation of it to
conquer the universality of rational on the ways of the critical thought.

The philosophy of the XXI è century does not have it to recall that since
ISAIE, the spirit is called the intelligence. That of conquests of the
intelligence and it only as PLATON indicated it.

The passage of the electric current from 110 to 220 volts the shortly after
the Release has upsets the automation of the domestic equipment but did not
change the nature of electricity. The belief according to which the
qualitative one is born from quantitative requires a psychological
reflection of a new type; this because the murder multiplied per a hundred
and thousand in the gas chambers and well more still that it would be it by
the nuclear armament of planet if it changes the consequences them of
number, does not change.


more the nature of the animality not more than one million volts does not
change the nature of the current of 110 volts.

If science progresses to step of giant, and of which the use in the
direction of human progress or its opposite depend on our relation and
design with the petrol of our humanity.

If any science is guided by the logic which precedes it and the celandine
what makes say that the assumption precedes the experiment. It is thus
necessary to think, work out, reflect, conceptualize, be the adventurers of
the concept.

The biogenetic one showed that the chromosomal capital of the man is that of
the chimpanzee in proportion to 98%. The range copernician of this discovery
to the infinite consequences was by no means perceived by the world elites
of knowledge.

Do the possession of the language of the men, their capacity to be
conceived, create exempt them need for a philosophy of the existence?

The presupposed religious one according to which the man would be a trans
being - zoological in his petrol, and would trail only some unfortunate
after-effects of its animal origins under the reason which its wings of
angel took recently the name of ideals; and that the myth of the redemption
was skilfully related to the baptismal font of the democracy and a theology
of the human rights is an out-of-date assumption. As well as that of the
intelligent stars in Timée of PLATO or of the piloting of the Trojan War by
the gods in HOMERE or of the dove, which according to KANT, if there were
not the vacuum would fly much better.


Science progresses to great steps. The search for planets apart from the
solar system continues: example, 400 planets were discovered in 2010. The
concept of life cosmic develops since bacteria were found with 41 kms in
stratosphere having comets for supposed origin.

The human genome can be sequence. He was completely deciphered so that we
are now know our molecular identity in detail. More half of our DNA is made
viral sequences and these bits of DNA inform of the possible hazards of
disease and could make it possible to detect a future trend.

Certain researchers estimate that with a good hygiene of life and a
judicious consumption of vitamin C, that our psychobiological constitution
and physics would enable us to live up to 120 years.


Some manage to elude the reality of death, or to be afraid of it. However,
MONTAIGNE said it: “to philosophize is to learn how to die”. GOETHE wrote
for its part: “those which do not have the hope of another life already died
in this one”.

Thus, to look at death opposite and to accept it like integral part of this
life, it is to widen this life.

The world has need for reflection philosophical including at the university,
in the scientific sectors this, because in his writings “Direction and
Origin” of the history the philosopher Karl JASPERS had already noted 4
moments when the human being knew deep transformations of its lifestyles and

turning it of the Neolithic Era,

it constitution of the great ancient empires (first millenium of our era,
large currents of wisdom)

it current period; that of post modernity which focusses on the

To Nourish the planet, increasingly more, under sanitary arrangements
respecting the populations is a challenge, this whereas so many business
défraient the chronicle of it!


The researcher P. RABHI with his concept of agro-ecology put forward that
our industrial modes of production in agriculture with the chemical
fertilizers, the nitrates, fungicides and pesticides, exaggerated
deforestation… short all this exhausts the grounds, reduced the environment,
disturbs our harmonious relationship to nature, destroyed the insects, birds
etc… useful for the reproduction of nature.

Then from Ci, beyond, from the innovations are born in India, in Brazil, in
Chile, in Egypt…. In Fact concepts include strictly biological practices and
concepts authorizing the use with minima of certain chemical products
considered little or not harmful it human being and nature. An agriculture
based on a comprehensive approach which protects the environment but rests
on the recognition of the traditional know-how of the promotion of human
which works the ground.


The improvement of the means of subsistence of the smallholders and the
safeguarding of the ecosystems slow down the tendency to urbanisation,
contribute to rural development and leave with the following generation the
means of meeting its own needs.

The drama of our time like wrote the philosopher Jacques Ellul is that we
align ourselves on technologies which we create.

We have the obsession of the change at all costs, always more quickly, and
further. We will run after progress. We are dominated by our creations: like
the market or the purse.


We are not any more as wrote it KANT “the legislators of our own life”. In
connection with the purse and technology, certain researchers speak even
about determinism.

Edgar Morin, philosophical, sociologist expressed some pages of great range
during an interview of David SOLON for TERRAECO. “We are in one time when
the chronology was essential. In old times, you gave each other appointment
when the sun was with the zenith. In Brazil, in cities like Belem, still
today, one finds oneself “after the rain”. In these diagrams, the relations
are established according to a rhythm stressed by the sun. But the wrist
watch, for example, made that an abstract time replaced natural time. And
the system of competition and competition, that of our commercial and
capitalist economy, makes that for competition, the best performance is that
which allows the greatest speed. The competition was thus transformed into
competitiveness, which is a perversion of competition.

… We are prisoners of the ideas of profitability, productivity and
competitiveness, concepts exacerbated by globalized competition, in the
companies, then widespread elsewhere. Idem in the school and university
world! The relation between the Master and the pupil requires a report much
more personal than the only concepts of output and results. Moreover,
calculation accelerates all that. We live a time when it is privileged for
all. As well for all to know as for all to control. The surveys which
anticipate one year the elections take part of the same phenomenon. One is
able from there to confuse them with the announcement of the result. One
thus tries to remove the effect of surprised always possible.


We entered a deep crisis without knowing what goes in leaving there. Forces
of resistance appear. The social economy and interdependent is one. If one
observes a push towards the organic farming with the small ones and
medium-sized holdings and a return to farm agriculture, it is because most
of the opinion starts to understand that the chickens and of the
industrialized pigs are adulterated and denature the grounds and the water
table. A search towards the artisanal products, Amaps (Associations for the
maintenance of a country agriculture) indicates that we wish to escape large
surfaces which, themselves, put pressure of the minimum price on the
producer and try to reflect a maximum price on the consumer. The equitable
trade also tries to short-circuit the predatory intermediaries. Admittedly,
capitalism triumphs in certain parts of the world, but another fringe sees
being born from the reactions which do not come only from the new forms of
productions, but from the union conscious of the consumers. This unemployed
force weak because of being dispersed. If this force becomes aware of the
products of quality and the harmful products, surface, an incredible
compressive force will be set up and will make it possible to influence the


If we do not obtain a solid philosophy of the existence: we are threatened
by two forms of cruelty: that founded on the human contempt which comes from
the bottom from the history and the second, cold, frozen, based on
calculation and the profit. These two cruelties are combined and we have to
fight them on these two faces.

Then if the catastrophe appears probable it is the improbable one that the
hope and the transformations emerge. Many scientists, prophets,
philosophers, politicians who emerged in the history to one moment given
were improbable, of Buddha with Jesus, Mahomet; of DESCARTES with GALILEO,
Marx with De Gaulle, Churchill etc….

Philosophy can be this rebirth to live together this formula of the “good
food”, “WELL VIVIR” of the president of Ecuador Rafael Correa then recovery
by the Bolivian president E. MORALS. It means a human blooming not only
within the company but also of nature.

But for that, it is necessary to suppress the things like the international
speculation, exaggerated nationalism and religious fanaticism, the warlike
will, the power whose nuclear power is the symbol.


This whereas we are confronted with the ideological bludgeoning of the
ideologies of legitimation on all the TV, radios, newspapers, everyone
speaks the same language that of the arrogant way of thinking Western which
estimates the indisputable reference of the world and this, in the name of
the democracy, which is generally formal and has nothing any more to see
with the Athenian democracy. I take the example of the situation in Ukraine.
Admittedly far from me the idea to glorify Russian president Wladimir PUTIN
which has expeditious authoritative decisions and which has the nostalgia of
large Russia tsarist, which attacks individual freedoms and collective in

However, all the Western mediums and the Western diplomacy broke out against
PUTIN which however has historical links with the Ukraine and ensured him of
financial aids.


A dialog closes but complete could have integrated the decisive role that
Russia can hold in the Syrian conflict with the massacres which continue, to
request it and recognize its contribution and to seek a solution balanced
just and human in Ukraine by the dialog.

However, the regular arrival and increasingly more djihadists in Syria
coming including Western countries will make weigh on these countries at the
time of the return of the survivors of Syria, the risks of terrorist attacks
and thus of danger against the democracy.

However the short-term carried it with stinks of cold war on both sides,
with European side the priority concern to rejoin the Ukraine to the U.E and
the Western camp in NATO.


Do I come to the role and the challenges from philosophy to the XXI è


Previously, some precise details: as the neurobiologist Herve CHNEIWEISS in
N° 2565 of the weekly magazine Nouvel Observateur expressed it in January
2014: extracts:

“..... But what intelligence? It is not a question of making more quickly or
in a more massive way, but of developing a certain creativity, of adapting
to an environment whose rules change. The prophets of the singularity regard
our brain as a hard drive. But it is not parce one can manufacture a hard
super-disc that it will understand the bonds with others, the love affairs,
family… the technological performance will never replace what makes
direction for the man.

..... Our elites are formed with the economy, the administration, finance.
They do not know large-thing with the scientific questions, even less with
biology. The stem cells, the DNA… all that is a little apart from their
field of conscience. For them, that does not exist or worse, that appears
dangerous to them.


..... However, never let us forget that our body is not a mechanical
assembly. One moment ago when you change the parts in vain, as for a car,
the carcass makes its time. The biological time limitation was selected by
the evolution. Our death is programmed, and one is very far from deciphering
the complex biological mechanisms which order this “active death” and
further still knowing the costs or the side-effects (sensitivity to the
suffering, new diseases…) who would be induced while trying to block them. ”

The man is changing at a speed which does not have anything any more to see
with the Darwinian evolution.

The setting in philosophical prospect for our relation to the facts of the
human life in its evolution from the point of view of the psychological,
social and cultural consequences cannot elude certain reports.

The human current ones - on average and in a way fulgurating at the level of
biological times - became larger and more obese; they live much older; the
age of puberty drops, especially for the girls, whereas everywhere the sperm
of the boys contains almost twice less spermatozoïdes that forty years ago;
these same boys know a reduction in…. Their ano-genital distance, that which
separates the anus from the posterior base of the purses and constitutes an
index of feminization - just like the concomitant fall of the testosterone
rate, that attest of many studies; through living inside and of to
contemplate that close screens as remote horizons, the proportion of
short-sighted explodes. Our intestinal flora changes with the liking of new
food returning to us inapt to digest the old ones - while multiplying the
allergies. These upheavals occur at a frightening speed. Even if we “evolved
little” it becomes impossible to support that the “modern” man did not
change since the Neolithic era.


However the natural selection completely did not disappear and not made
resistance little. One sees it with certain diseases, of which the paludism,
which kills out of the million children before the age of the reproduction -
and prevents them from perpetuating their possible factors of vulnerability
with respect to the parasite. And the fact of eating foods increasingly
softer, chopped in advance, reduced the role of the masticatory apparatus,
which is reduced - and posed problem with the wisdom teeth become useless.
But one has to admit that we are less and less “children of Darwin” and that
other factors of change are with work - by manners, medicine, the food and
especially…. Purchasing power: the man is henceforth under the influence of
things which rise from him. They are factors which, for several, are
potentially reversible: thus, the lengthening of the life expectancy,
crossed with the economic crisis, he is likely not to last - and, while
waiting to concretize itself by a “profit” in years… of disease. Certain
statistics of the INSERM already note, for France, that “the life expectancy
without chronic disease” is in reduction.


I know that on your continent are what is called the cultural minorities:
Indians, autochtones, indo-American… and these names often have a pejorative
connotation, this, whereas these autochtones is in the history, those which
contributed to work the civilization. Thus, Claude LEVI-STRAUSS showed that
the mental processes implied in mythology, the ritual ones and the religious
symbolism of the most various people of planet do not differ of anything of
those turn with fact remarkable and suitable for the imagination and the
science which intervene in the construction for example of contemporary

It is true that our scientific knowledge is based on the analysis and the
experimentation systematic but basically the implied creative thought is
similar to that which is with work in the myths and the ideas of the
simplest people.

Then, in this world of the immediacy of the media images and comments
shortened to influence the public opinions, is philosophy broken down or has
it reaches its plenitude since the medium of the XX è century or has it
still to say to us?

Admittedly, If the existence is closely related on the time which passes and
the history (what tell us for example: SARTRE, JASPERS, BLOCH) i.e. a
certain continuity of the human companies. 


Thus SARTRE indicated that the existence is a company.

However, happiness lies at the same time in a certain independence with
regard to the time which passes. Jean-Jacques Rousseau knows the highest
pleasure, when motionless in a boat on the Lake Bienne, it perceives only
the pure one realised and is understood independent of all the movements of
time: it tests like a kind of timelessness, of eternity….

This company which supports richest, which knows many corruptions, of lies
of State, of diversions of money and abuse of power, is eternal?

Philosophers like PLATO, SPINOZA, JASPERS, RICOEUR, propose to us the
conversion of the spirit like precondition to any search of happiness,
freedom and human emancipation.

The memory of the times spent, considered better, does not constitute the
regret of a loss, it constitutes a task. It is an anticipation which is
caught for a memory.

The time of the achievement is the present itself.



According To SCHOPENHAUER, only the present exists and what for SARTRE
characterizes the conscience, it is the presence with oneself which is also
the presence in the world and the present itself.

The present is the conscience of the power to exist.

The whole is to define the way which carries out towards the progress and
the respect of the dignity of the life, of any human life but also: animal,
vegetable, mineral….

Philosophy can it add its contribution so that the moment is creator like
explained it the scientist Gaston Bachelard in his book “the intuition of
the present”.

But waiting of a better world, to become the moment even of the history like
mentioned it Ernst Bloch in “the principle hope” is based on the research of
plenitude and the harmony, as well as of progress of the culture, that this
progress and of the institutional revolutions, the messianisms and the
millenarianism, was only the first still mythological formulation of this
spirit of the Utopia and this existential and political waiting.


But so that waiting can be happy, fertilizes, glorifiante, it is necessary
that it is at one time or with another, filled by the existence of the lived
experiment and philosophy must work to clarify the consciences.

Without this achievement, waiting becomes mystification which causes
violence, discouragement or which causes despotisms.

From this point of view, in Europe, many disabused people, discouraged by
the policy forget the past and can rely on the ideologies reactionaries.

Waiting must be preceded by a preparatory work of the consciences. It is
what recognize of the political thinkers of freedom like: MACHIAVEL,
SAINT-JUST, MARX, JAURES and of the philosophers of the action like Ernst
Bloch or Jean Paul SARTRE.

Waiting can be passive, resigned or canted; it must be the result of a
dynamic and constructive process.

The challenge of philosophy to the XXI è century is not any more to pay
attention to the only doctrines, but with the experiments which found them
then validate them.


The philosopher must clarify the existence like says it JASPERS and not to
replace it by claim or sufficiency.

The praxis remains the authority of the relation between thought and to

They are the people who make the History but enlightened by a conscience
guided by contemporary humanism.

Let Us Take concrete files to reflect and apprehend a vision of the future
human the, carrying ones direction for lived of the future generations:
this, because philosophy it is the implementation of the criterion of the
significant experiment criticized by the thought and validated by the


It arrives to us coming from academics Anglo-Saxon what is called the theory
of the kind: Thus, according to this one, it would be necessary to
differentiate the biological sex and the sexual identity, and especially: to
abolish all the othernesses related to the kind. However, this variously
appreciated theory does not have any scientific and academic validity. On
the other hand, with presumedly natural female marked like nature lower than
that male by certain currents of thought, such determinisms alas result from
social constructions, of representations incorporated by individuals in
stereotypes as of childhood!


However, inequalities: immutable, are thus not founded by principle, nor
natural by different psychobiological constitution between the women and the


Then, in connection with other sociétaux debates: Procreation medically
assisted, Gestation for others, marriage for all, euthanasia, etc Their
partisans = have arguments to hear, but often: it is the idea of human
progress which is developed!


However, which there is the curious one, even of abnormal and even of
irrational, in the use of this idea of progress, it is that the term
“progress” is never defined. 


It is accommodated like a kind of “dogma”, which however supposes the tacit
acceptance of a quite precise equivalence: that between progression of the
humanity and extension of “freedoms” of the individual, designed like able
and autonomous without collective social rules. In this “implicit”
definition of progress, no other criterion seems to be taken into account;
except: the possibility for an individual of doing what he wants of what
“belongs to him”, including its life. Within this framework, it becomes
comprehensible then that the liberalization of the abortion, the marriage
for “all”, procreation medically assisted, gestation for others, the
euthanasia, and all the other possibilities increasing the alleged freedom
of the individuals, are identified with “progress” and thus with a good. And
that the speech that is opposed to it is associated with an evil to avoid.


And Yet, it would be necessary to wonder whether it is good to think that
the freedom of self-determination of an individual represents a good to be
continued at all costs, and if it is right to identify that with the true
progress towards which the company should move.


Moreover, there would be a contradiction between fields: or the person would
decide only and freely, and others, where the collective constraints, the
imposed social norms withdraw all to him to be able: Thus which power have
an individual to refuse the tax pressure which is imposed to him, to station
on a site prohibited without risk of penalty, which individual power for
example in Europe a citizen does it does lay out to refuse an European
directive imposed in a State?….


Indeed, as it is true that “all that shines, is not but”, in the case which
occupies us here, the association of progress and freedom of
self-determination is also likely to shine without being worth the gold
which she promises. The weak point of this position lies - me seem-T-it - in
contradictions which it raises when it is confronted, for example, with the
most vulnerable lives.


In Sad Tropics: Claude LEVI STRAUSS, pointed out that the evolution of the
company leaves the principle of prohibition of incest, that to leave its
social group is the condition of a perpetuation of humanity. Then, as
regards passionate debates relating to: the marriage for all, gestation for
others, procreation medically assisted = I move the problems, by not
pronouncing me against a priori, by design of principle ideological, but
seriously defined and framed that-Ci-here must-being. Social life: only that
of a juxtaposition of personal decisions, but of common principles is not
that = reference mark admitted for all and all.


That one understands me well: There is my share no load for example against
the reality of homosexual couples. This situation is not a tare, nor a
choice, but a report of their emotional psychobiological reality. Human
Beings, they have the same requirements rights and duties.

I would have preferred, that the constitution of homosexual couples is done
like union with certainly, and logically same civic rights, social and
administrative. Union: this, to characterize a difference not of
inferiority, but in degree with the heterosexual couples made up of the 2
components of the humanity of sex: female and male. Which: naturally and
directly can generate a descent.


Not, my fear is that within 30.50 years, more or less, is that which the
idea of marriage becomes a commitment with a so free significance, if broad,
that it loses any significance of a certain solemnity and behavior between

Thus, other requests can emerge, of which one does not imagine the
possibility: as 30 more years ago, one would never have imagined possible a
marriage between people of the same sex. Moreover, this marriage concretizes
the realism and lived shared of common life of the same people sex before
this legalization of the marriage in France and in other countries.


This marriage: do not pose a priori an ethical objection for human conduits,
and the rules of family life. 

Precision: in the Fifties, then child in my town of birth, I knew a family
of 2 sisters and a brother who lived together because they liked, and
already, they evoked the idea of the future of a matrimonial situation
allowing of the social rights, civic and tax regularizing their situation,
from where what follows.



Thus, for example, later on in this logic without taboo, nor established
collective social norms: in a few decades: one will see appearing requests
for union between brothers and sisters, and even, at the time of the death
of the one of the 2 parents in situations of extreme love subsidiary = the
union of a father with his daughter, or of the son with his mother .....
Admittedly, which I say is at present whimsical, can appear eccentric and
irrational; however, which would have envisaged, is there still 30 years
behind the union between people of the same sex?


The euthanasia: seem to me to be one of the problems on the question of the
direction which returns us to this concept of progress.

Initially, it seems to me that generalization of the palliative care and
within this framework that of the accompaniment at the end of the lifetime
would make it possible to the patient to lay out interlocutors to dialog and
entrust of another nature that the family and the medical community.


Then, the medical scientific discipline represented by the medical team must
answer relevant interpellations:

- Such or is such disease really incurable?

- Does one really Have the means of stopping the suffering?

- If the patient is in vegetative state, this one can it even last thus of
the months of the years?

it patient is it in sufficient situation of conscience and reflection to
emit an alternative to its situation?

- How the test of the family is apprehended from the point of view of the
concept of progress?


After the answers given to these questionings, then, the patient poses the
duty to us to hear his choice if it is decided to leave its life on this
ground Ci and this, in relation lucid and discussed with the members of the
medical team which looks after it, the psychologists of the hospital who
followed it, and his family.


Is individual freedom without rules substituent with that of intelligence of
the individual and collective need = this founded, in the long run, or only
considered of vote-catching measurements like escape ahead? Once again, I do
not slice the subject, but poses interpellations!


A national Advisory committee of ethics should exist not only with the
national scale, but also within UNESCO and of WHO.


Let us not forget the reality of the Oedipus complex = (Theorized by Sigmund
Freud in his first topics, it is defined like the unconscious desire to
maintain a sexual intercourse with the relative the opposite sex (incest)
and that to eliminate the rival relative from the same sex (parricidal).
Thus, the fact that a boy falls in love with his mother and wishes to kill
his/her father answers the requirement of the Oedipus complex.)


Then, in this millenium, would this report of the sexual desire between
relative and child, brother and sister, be validated socially by the
universal legislation? We forgot, this Kantian principle according to which
an action is moral as from the moment when it can undergo the test of
universalization successfully


By caricaturing to the extreme these behaviors: it is the existence even of
humanity, her bases, the harmonious reproduction of the mankind which are


An ethical reflection on these delicate files is essential: this, not only
on the continental national scale or, but on a universal scale within WHO
and of UNESCO, with certainly of the universally adaptable recommendations,
but imposing itself in all the States.



While looking at his lives, one realizes whereas what is called… “progress”,
by identifying it only with one project of self-determination of the
individual, is also what can lead to “invisibility” and other than the most
vulnerable lives! It is there, which the most obvious contradiction of the
position resides which identifies progress and exclusive project of
individual freedom of the person.

This contribution does not have as a subject to give a history on the
history of philosophy. They would be too tiresome, and each one, each one
can get the writings of its choice: this day, I limit myself to the
contemporary period. During the last decade the scattering of the
philosophical postulates continued what alas always more moves away the
citizens and the citizens from a discipline increasingly more abstract and
elitist and which appears inaudible with their waitings and concerns.


When I went to Japan in January 2009, at the time of a debate within the
University of Hosei in Tokyo, I had been interested in what was presented
like the 3rd philosophical way = that of the school of Kyoto inspired by the
philosophers Kitaro NISHIDA and Tetsuro WATSUJI, which, insist on the being
in the place, this, whereas BERGSON and HEIDDEGER insist on the being in
time. According To these philosophers, the awakening with oneself begins
where the self-awareness reaches its limits. One thinks of oneself from the
others, of the interrelationship and not from oneself. This philosophical
school estimates that the Western thought has a propensity to divide, to
classify, to separate, which perhaps plain.

A contrario, there exists the current one called “analytical Philosophy”
resulting from logical and philosophical work from Bertrand Russell and
Ludwig Wittgenstein. Why analytical philosophy? By distrust towards the
great words and the large ones.


entities where do not resound according to these authors without reasoning:
that empty ideas.

With is the traditional question of the petrol = what it? Who is a
metaphysical question, the linguistic turning substitutes the question of
the statement: how that is said it which is a logical question. Thus, syntax
called often grammar by the analytical philosophers replaces it metaphysics.

With the American philosopher Patricia CHURCHLANG, neuro-philosophy is a
philosophy of the spirit which takes support on the discoveries of the

Phenomenism: is a point of view according to which knowledge or the thought
is not relating to the things themselves, but with the way in which they
appear to us.

Unlike the idealism, the phenomenism inevitably does not deny the existence
within the world, only, it affirms that it is like such inaccessible.

At Present the ultra position human one appears: i.e. a going beyond
Teilhard of CHARDIN which integrates the theory of the evolution of DARWIN
in his thought.

The philosophical theory of the human post is based on the biological going
beyond. According To this position, the knowledge of the cerebral and
biological mechanisms makes it possible to consider a direct action on vital
and cerebral functions.

This table, I can add the policy of the recognition of Canadian Charles
TAYLOR, who is in the middle of the design of the communitarianism.

According to this theory, the cultural differences represent an essential
expression of human dignity. The recognition of the cultural differences is
with the eyes of this approach as important as the equality of the economic
rights and social.

Then: it is the theories of supervening of Richard DWORKIN and functionalism
of Hilary PUTMAN and Jerry A. FODOR. The first quoted considers the spirit
as what emerges starting from the brain without merging with him. For the
seconds who challenge dualism and the monism, there exists an occasional
identity between the mental states and the physical statuses.


Based on the well-known distinction in data processing between the Hardware
(the material) and the Software (software) this design poses that the
psychology of a system does not depend on the matter which constitutes it,
but on the way in which it is assembled.


    However, all this is very elitist, far away from the knowledge of the
not specialized people and especially: do not contribute to support the
appropriation by more a large number of one philosophical approach useful
for the mankind and connected on the social practices confronted with the
challenges of our time.


I give up one moment the philosophical analysis, and come a few moments to
your continent: Even if my historical circumstances did not enable me to
learn the usual language from your beautiful language Castilian, I like to
sing it!

Your language is resulting from popular Latin spoken around the Cantabric
area north of the Iberian peninsula and was diffused while following the
extension of the Kingdom of castille, then was carried out in Africa, in the
Caribbean and in peaceful Asia with the extension of the Spanish empire
between 15th and the XIX century.

Today, approximately 410 million people has the Castilian like mother
tongue, approximately 480 million if the secondary practitioners are
counted, more than 500 million with the practitioners like foreign language.
This, hoists it with the second world rank in terms of speakers behind
Chinese Mandarin.


Your beautiful language is the second spoken here in the United States.

I would not like to finish my intervention without paying homage to thinkers
of your South American continent. I have a principle by respect for the
culture of the country of origin: I always careful, am measured, when I
speak authors and artists about other continents. This, for fear of
deteriorating or to be unaware of important aspects of their lived or their
work. Despite Everything: the mixing of the origins which characterizes many
your countries, makes me think of the contribution of the French philosopher
Jacques Derrida.

Then, that he is often spoken about the cultural minorities, autochtones,
and sometimes in a more pejorative way of the Indians, DERRIDA, always tried
déconstruire the dualities, and the oppositions or spirit of sufficiency
while thinking of the wealth of the multiplicity. It is the non-existent
characteristic of this multiplicity by powers which is non-existent in this
world. The non-existent one, under these conditions, does not have an
ontological characterization, but only one given existential

The contribution of DERRIDA, is a vibrating call falling under the
orientations of UNESCO to register the non-existent one beyond the
discursive impositions, i.e. beyond the categories of the dominant thought.


Then: to speak about your authors: I cannot prevent myself from quoting
Octavio Paz, one of the large poets of the XX E century! Fascistic anti
Combatant, the creator of a personal and original cosmogony. Always advances
some on the change, its space poetry and its visual expressions enchant us
and it accepted the Nobel Prize of literature in 1990, and that Alexis de
Tocqueville by French President François Mitterrand in 1989.

I read Jose Emilio PACHECO who received the prize CERVANTES, and which one
of the many film enthusiasts was formed at the French Institute from Latin
America in Mexico City.

Of course: how not to quote this Argentinian genius Jorge Luis Borges whose
French letters in the Fifties paid homage to this single talent. Although
almost blind man during one long period, his conference with the College of
France on January 12th, 1983, a few years before its disappearance remains
one unforgettable moment in the history of worthy Institution.


How to be unaware of the history of the tango sung by Carlos GARDEL, itself
son of immigrant Toulouse. This tango: that Enrique DISCEPOLO defines as a
sad thought which is danced. The tango, illustrates well the wealth of the
contributions constitutive of your culture; dependant on the immigration in
particular of the period (1860-80), it is the heritage of the diversity of
the interbreeding: obsessing complaints of Flamenco, rhythms of candomblé
(danced by the black slaves), Habanero of cuban origin, and Locks languorous
of Milonga (come from the Argentinian pampa).


Initially interpreted by the flute, the violin, the guitar… it was it then
by the piano and the bandonion.

This year, has just disappeared Gabriel Garcia Marquez, affectionately
called GABO in all the Latin America, Nobel Prize of literature in 1982, one
of the XX century old great writers, whose work translated with the world
plan was translated besides 50 million specimens. Its work: ” 100 years of
loneliness” is a planetary success which was published by a French editor”
the Editions of the Threshold “It is at the same time a family epopee, a
political novel, and a fabulous account. According To different Pablo NERUDA
genius of the literature, it was the largest novel written in language
Castilian since Don Quichotte of CERVANTES.

All America recognized itself in this saga of heroic family BUENDIA and
baroque. Gabriel GARCIA-MARQUEZ: it is a work without one second of
stagnation, without a distraction, a powerful, at the same time exuberant
language and perfectly controlled.

In connection with Pablo NERUDA: Chilean thinker, modern poet, writer
politician, Nobel Prize of literature in 1971, award-winning of
international prizes of the peace whose circumstances of its death at the
time of the dictatorship of the General PINOCHET (suspecté to have made it
poisoned) remain a subject of doubt and the legal file are not closed. At
The Time of its death the emotion was immense all over the world.


However, I could quote many people present at this congress to give an
account of the extraordinary poetic vitality of your continent from which
some honour me with their friendship. As this contribution is centered on
philosophy, I cannot prevent myself from quoting Francisco GARCIA -
CALDERON, which, at the time of the world congress of philosophy in 1908,
adapted the European philosophers: the imported scholastic, ideas of freedom
and social contract, the positive age of Auguste COUNT and SPENCER,
determined by the values of science.


Then, there is this search for identification of philosophy in relation to
the roots, the national compost. As Follows: work of Jose INGENIEROS
concerning the relation between philosophy and nationality and its design of
philosophy like a promise. Then, the searchs for Léopold ZEA, Ortega There
GRASSET, Andrea BELO, which will study the dramas of Europe in its drifts of
racism, Fascism, and its forms of totalitarianism.

Then, there is contemporary research aiming at making philosophy with its
place of production the Latin America a complex play of identification, with
people, a language, with national and regional destinies.

The philosopher of Venezuela Briceno GUERRERO was interested in the French
philosopher Michel Foucault, and his critic of the powers. He determined
philosophy like ENERGEIA:Western way to make philosophy, like DYNAMIS,
natural provision data in Cosmonie, like ERGON, reduced to the fruit of its
own production.



The philosopher Angel CAPELLETTI, at the time of the international congress
of philosophy in 1977 in Caracas, was interested in intuitive comprehension
of the source of presupposed, and in the esthetics of the existence.
According To Him: the idea of morals obeying a code of rules is
disappearing. Alive philosophy, it would be by the awakening of its
responsibility with regard to the human condition and by the action shared
for a really communicating philosophical community. It would be a really
current task for philosophy at the 3rd committed millenium.

Europe and France, compared to philosophy, still have an approach
ethnocentrist being interested especially in the European thinkers. However,
how not to be interested in the Colombian philosopher Guillermo HOYOS
VASQUEZ, and in his research on phenomenology and ontology.



I can still quote and I inevitably forget talented researchers the
Argentinian philosopher Mario BUNGE, who analyzes with his scientific
approach the separate parts as well as the taking into account of the whole
in his globality.


I continue my conversation with you on the ton of the confidence and of the
interrogations and suggestions, I am like you, I have only my spirit and my

In our company, it is this report of the separation increasingly more real
between one and all. The ecological concern with the pollution felt in the
great urban areas, noted climate warming, makes more sensitive to alarms on
the progressive disappearance of the ice-barrier, the deforestation of
Amazonia, the marine pollution, the disappearance of animal species and
vegetable, this, even if it remains well to make.

In the same way, on a close scale, he is noticed in a more human way: the
concern of the partially-sighted persons, the levelling respect with regard
to the homosexual ones, the respect of diversity in spite of its dramas
still of Ci from there. However, on a collective scale, there is this
paradox. In same time, the strictly social injustices in term of incomes, of
statute, medical care, literally regressed since 2 decades and that in a
nearly general indifference.


In Europe, as in North America, the report is alarming: what is it according
to you in other areas of the world, to start in your continent?

Poverty is regarded as an infringement of the human rights according to
UNESCO; however, in spite of the pathetic laments it does not move at the
point to react with respect to the governments and of the International

Out, including among the economists of the IMF, of OECD, or others, or of
experts like American Andrew BERG and Paul Krugman, the same diagnosis is

The worsened inequalities penalize the growth. The redistributive policies
would not be a social gift, but a proof of intelligence economic.

The reasoning of yesterday which claimed that equity had a cost became
absurd. On the contrary, which has a cost in term of dynamics social and
economic, it is: budgetary austerity, sacrifices imposed on the popular
classes, the middle class more and more everywhere. If one wants to start
again the harmony on planet, the inequalities should be reduced. To give
again opportunities with all and all and to respect the 2 components of
humanity which are of sex and female, and male.



Then certainly: the social networks are an incredible means of speed and of
contact of mass, simply, on the qualitative level of the consciences,
without education with social philosophy, one can: as that was the case for
the Arab revolutions, to mobilize themselves per ten thousands at the time
of demonstrations, and however to vote “Brothers Moslem and Ennhada during
the elections. Then, to be with a power which does not correspond to the
social mobilization and which requires new mobilizations. It was thus in
Egypt and Tunisia with the political evolutions which one knows since.

In a context very other, Venezuela lived these last months of the difficult
situations and violences on behalf of a government however presented like
that representing the popular aspirations.

To act of this beginning of millenium passes by networks of inter relation
but having a broad autonomy of knowledge and judgment, and then, which said
the large Indian poet Rabindranath TAGORE, which I quote in honor of Mr Arun
GANDHI, will take all its direction and its range: He declared: ” The man
passes beside itself when it is insulated, it finds in oneself largest and
most authentic in a large range of human reports. ”


Then, for that, with other disciplines, philosophy has future if it becomes
an element of the knowledge to the service of the people.

Thus, history with the current one: which are the means of hoping but with

The past century will have tended to forget this lesson: a thought exists
really only if it is understood. Stripped gradually by the science of the
sectors of the knowledge which par excellence became acquainted with it
since the Greeks, philosophy often had as a reaction to take refuge in
darkness of its abstractions. It cultivated with a very particular care the
mania of the negative one; the impossible one in all its forms (the
incomprehensible one, the incommunicable one, the untranslatable one .....)
became its key word, the fine bottom of its thought.


As indicated it the French philosopher Christian GODIN: “the universe of the
philosophy, whose big-bang took place almost at the same time in Greece,
India and China, twenty-five centuries ago, is far from constituting a
homogeneous unit. If it shares with the physical universe this
characteristic to be expanding, it disperses quickly in places which
practically do not have contacts of exchange between them. The men, the
doctrines make well more than to differ: they are contradicted. Who will
never tell the truth on art, the feeling, the government of the men or the
religious belief? Questions which the man cannot prevent himself from posing
while being in the incapacity to solve them in a final way - here is space
symbolic system in which deploys the world of philosophy”.

The diversity of philosophy is not without making think of the world of

Philosophy bursts in a multiplicity of schools and of various currents, even
contradictory. Each philosophy is a point of view. Whereas a statue has only
one mass, there are thousand manners of looking at it: while science
measurement, philosophy looks at it. Measurement depends on the instrument,
the glance depends on the point of view.


Christian GODIN, in his work “philosophy for worthless” the Editions First,
Paris 2007 proposes this precise summary table and the following remarks:


Seen outside, philosophy seems a species of unified world. And the
philosophers themselves hawk readily this legend when they feel in danger:
nothing of such as a threat, real or supposed, to tighten the rows.
Actually, philosophy is dispersed in five principal places which spared few
passages the ones with the others:

them classes the final ones of high school: for the vast majority of people,
it is the only occasion of contact with philosophy.

- The university: philosophy is transmitted to it in isolation and hermetic,
most professors are still caught for the large priests of a worship which
joins together of less the faithful ones.

them media: they are attended by those which the general public calls
“philosophers”, because for them, philosophy is initially incarnated by
these public figures.


- The public space of the coffees philosophy and the conference rooms:
philosophy is practiced there in a free and somewhat wild way.

it office of a few tens of philosophers:  those carry on a research activity
and of writing and, in the best of the cases, manage to publish works which
will be read only by a few hundreds of readers. ”

However requirements are born in our world, message at the same time
confused but carrying future.

Globalization is not only one business of banker. It would not have all the
same to be forgotten that it started with philosophy, a long time ago, in
old Greece. What is new today, it is geographical and cultural dispersion
philosophers: just as an athlete of Philippines or Zimbabwe can today gain a
gold medal with a test of the Olympic Games (still at one time dominated by
a small handle of country), philosophers work currently a little everywhere
in the world. They yet are not known because, generally, they are not always
translated, but is it that they exist.


Internet, at the same time vector and sign of a globalization which does
nothing but be born, give to philosophy a public existence which it had
never had before. Anonymous thousands of bloggers launch ideas in this ocean
of signs, meet in newsgroups, exchange their arguments. Never in all the
last history one will have as many philosophers as today.

If the history of the discipline teaches us something, it is that this
practice which one calls philosophy since Pythagore was exerted in a so
various way, known contradictory (one can make philosophy as a prophet, a
scientist, a poet, a writer, a professor, an amateur, a dreamer, as an
agitator, in policy…) that no method can be issued impossible a priori. It
is probably in that philosophy is different clearly from sciences and


The progressive deterioration of the statute of official philosopher will be
done, this, in the condition of complying with the epistemological rules and
the demanding rigor of the philosophical discipline and its statements
criticized by the thought and validated by the social practices thus

To facilitate this evolution, the progressive teaching of philosophy in the
school system as of the class of 6th, and for all the disciplines at the
time of the statute of student would contribute to this evolution sociétale.
This One depends on the will of the people and the lucid intervention of the
governments for the community property of humanity and this, before the
egoistic official interests and the personal ambitions.



It during and indeed I hear the objection well: let us not think, only what
I recommend will be carried out without difficulties or conditions and even
less quickly. The principal ambitions for philosophy described by Emmanuel
KANT, remain of a deep topicality: ” That can we know? What do we have to
make? What we-be-it allowed to hope? All questions which will lead it to
wonder about that fundamental: “What the man” and who remains to be deepened


However, as the French philosopher Lucien SAP indicates it, in a work to
appear” to think in September 2014 with MARX today” “Between DESCARTES,
HOBBES, SPINOZA, LEIBNIZ, the common demonstration is obvious (addition of
Guy CREQUIE: it was a philosophical development in spiral). But, between
NIETZSCHE, BERGSON, WITTENGENSTEIN, LUKAS, it become untraceable, where did
it is still philosophy? (Mention of Guy CREQUIE: it is an addition of
directions which disperses in many directions and of fields of investigation
which overflow the epistemological ontology and requirements.

Lucien SAP continues: ” the new one: it is not the depth of divisions, It is
that beyond divisions dispersion regulates. One has difficulty in discussing
when one does not get along even more on the matter of the litigations. ”


However, if philosophy is everywhere in the coffees philosophy, in the high
schools, on Internet at home, etc… it is not because one thinks of
philosophizing, that one is truly philosophical. Still is necessary it for
that to constitute an innovative work. This, implies to invent concepts
likely to give a new direction to the things.

It is thus, which one a little quickly calls “philosophical” very
popularized through the media essay writers certainly often, prolix, but
which make often only transmit to their sauce of the ideas previously put
forward before them, or apart from them.

Then, for the ordinary citizens, philosophy becomes only one collection of
expressions without depth, of works of individualities benefitting from
media din, but not being able to mask that it could not make “nap any more”.


Sometimes philosophy, and either philosophy, tend to replace the failing
religion laïquement. Lucien SAP, in the work quoted to appear: “recalls that
transcendental is a category expressly to create by KA NT, to say what
returns on the subject a priori.

But this work of philosophical criticism, requires a rigorous category
culture and the qualitative distinction between scientific concept and
philosophical category”.

Philosophical work thus consists in of the same movement criticizing all
reality and deteriorating all the categories of them.


Previously, I spoke that the challenge and the formation of a true capacity
criticize at the future citizen by the progressive teaching of philosophy as
of the class of 6th. However, the paramount question is not the age but the
direction of what is taught.

There is no more current dominating for the philosophy which does not have
to be locked up any more in such or such “isthmus”. Philosophy is also free
to be able again to be astonished by reality, without having to fall under
answers already found to the service of a true intellectual ambition.


However, it remains with philosophy, of the rules to be respected, the
requirements to be respected, the requirements to be respected.

Lucien SAP, the philosophical large last of the philosophical materialism
expresses it in his book to be appeared with the autumn 2014 “To Think with
MARX today” - volume 3 - philosophy pages of conclusion of the work,
editions the Argument, Paris. “If philosophy as imaginary knowledge of the
world - transcientific is null and void, philosophical work as rigorous
elucidation of the direction of any knowledge is of permanent need.
Philosophy was a common continuous battlefield of capital progress of the
philosophical thought: the Cartesian cogito, or it I transcendental Kantian
via the human understanding, then with the Hegelian idea of the critical
conscience and before, ethics spinozienne and the Kantian duty.

In the Sixties, the philosophical work which emerged was then in France that
of outstanding individualities: LEVINAS, RICOEUR, ALTHUSSER, DELEUZE,


In his conclusion, Lucien SEVE fixes the philosophical ambition of his work
by specifying, while being pressed on MARX, that to seek to give off the
petrol of what is, it is not to register it in the timelessness of the idea,
but to detect his producing lawsuit, therefore also his historical
relativity. He recalls the critical petrol since KANT, who should be updated
the conditions of possibility of the true knowledge, and to act it well.

If philosophy, like imaginary knowledge of the world, transcientific is null
and void, philosophical work as rigorous elucidation of the direction of any
knowledge is of permanent need.

The presentation of the philosophical approach is that of conceiving of
continuous connection with teaching of each matter, and making the pupils
attentive and think of the categories of thought which it mobilizes.
Examples: mediation of the signs in the language, intuition and deduction in
mathematics, causality and finality in the life sciences, the ground,
temporal logic in history… 

It is in short effective setting-up philosophy, like dimension of any
culture, condition of all of knowing, companion of very practical.

Let us not forget, from quantitative does not emerge fatally the qualitative
useful one for the advanced conscience of the people.

From this point of view, the building site remains intact, and to date, it
is not ensured to be suitable bénéfiquement by the people. The risk of loss
of the epistemological direction and the rigor of the philosophical approach
is real: such an amount of its dispersion in a multiplicity of glances by a
too surface popularization, deteriorates the major research of the
requirement of it.


Then, from this point of view, of university work of researchers making
state of new concepts irrigating the humanistic thought and the movement of
knowledge, can be used as accelerator with the popular function of
philosophy as DIDEROT wished it, GRAMSCI.

I think, for example: with work of the going beyond by the creativity of
professor GALTUNG, with the ABC approach introduced by the sociologist and
philosopher Léo SEMASHKO with his pleiad of researchers, with the proposals
for the peace worked out since more than 30 years per Mr Daisaku IKEDA, with
work of the last large philosophical Marxist Lucien SAP… All initiatives
which are based on the universal thought known thinkers, and who amplify the
way of knowledge, by the operational startup of reflected concepts,
innovating, likely to offer prospects for peaceful transformation of the
hearts and bodies like possible future of the new generations.

The result of the European election on May 25th, 2014 showed once again,
that when the people do not lay out of a sufficiently anchored philosophical
design a direction of the existence, they can give echo the xenophobe
theories and to anti-semites when their social conditions of existence are
distressing and when the incapacity of the political elected officials to
offer a prospect is obvious.


To conclude my intervention: of this philosophical expansion supported by
education, practices educated, and developed by the pangs of the
globalization (of which the rise of sciences and technology) can emerge, as
Christian GODIN in the work quoted indicates it previously: “that of which
we do not lay out any more since death of MARX, I want to speak about a
theory of the justice which is really universal, a theory of the respect of
the complementarity of the sexes, a theory of realities of the exploitation
of beings by other beings…. In Short, we miss it, at present, a theory of
the suspicion in our world, and this is why it is not so well our current
world. ”

Our world makes the good share with the communication of the ideologies of
legitimation, it should ensure the transmission of a revitalized and lit

To Leave our obvious worlds, to arrive at the divided world, here one of the
requirements of our time for a planet of peace and harmony with a vision
anticipatrice of the evolution of the world.

Example: if Africa is regarded as the cradle of humanity, at horizon 2100,
with 4 billion 200 million inhabitants against 800 million in 2000 (either 5
times more and accounting for 1/3 of planet of the sphere) it will exceed
the weight  demographic of China, of Americas and it holds many mineral
wealths, hydraulic, considerable forests….


New international reports will be to consider, and then, one will need a
solid philosophical conscience to make changes not fears or tares, but of
the inevitable and fertile wealths.

Lastly, as we are in America, the philosophical thought cannot be unaware of
work of John Rawls (and his theory of justice) or those of Michael Walzer
(spheres of justice), and of good of others: of Richard Rorty with Robert
WOZICK, Daniel Dennett with Thomas KUHN and I quoted Patricia CHURCHLAND

Thank You for your patience and your attention to have listened to my
contribution which was also difficult for me to reflect and to write.

Homage to Mr Arun GANDHI.



Live Congress CUPHI III. Thank You with its organizers.

Live the South American continent, its poets, artists, thinkers, and its

Live the friendship and solidarity between the people.

The future, our future, does not depend on the only good will of the
governments, but of you: who be the wealth of this world, in this world, for
a future of peace and harmony.


Copyright Guy CREQUIE






Attachment: CONGRES CUPHI III fini mais pas relu par GC.doc
Description: MS-Word document

Other related posts:

  • » [gha] TR: contribution philosophique ! - Guy Crequie