[geocentrism] Re: Water structure

  • From: allendaves@xxxxxxxxxxxxxx
  • To: geocentrism@xxxxxxxxxxxxx
  • Date: Fri, 21 Sep 2007 14:35:31 -0700 (PDT)


where did you get this?

----- Original Message ----
From: philip madsen <pma15027@xxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
To: geocentrism list <geocentrism@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Sent: Thursday, September 20, 2007 1:16:28 AM
Subject: [geocentrism] Water structure

any truth in this?/  Phil
Water, its Structure and its Isotopologues.
WATER (H2O) is the third most common molecule in the Universe (after H2 and 
CO), the most abundant substance on earth and the only naturally occurring 
inorganic liquid, a billion cubic kilometers of which reside in our oceans and 
50 tons of which pass through our bodies in our lifetimes. It has been very 
well studied with a number of model structures having been proposed and 
refined. Notwithstanding this, extensively hydrogen-bonded liquid water is 
unique with a number of anomalous properties. It has commonly been stated that 
no single model is able to explain all of its properties. 
And we all thought water was the simplest of all things. Evidently not. Let's 
have a closer look at it. 
The first complication with water is that there are three different forms of 
hydrogen that we know of, each capable of combining with oxygen to produce a 
clear odourless liquid that on first inspection looks and feels like water. 
The first, protium (H), is the one we commonly associate with hydrogen. It has 
at its core only one proton. 
The second, deuterium (D), has one proton and one neutron at its core. In 
combination with oxygen it becomes D2H, which is known as heavy water. 
Deuterium occurs in water at about 0.015%. 
The third, tritium (T), has one proton and two neutrons at its core. It is 
radioactive and has a half life of 12.32 years. It combines with oxygen to form 
tritiated water T2O. The low-energy beta radiation from tritium cannot 
penetrate human skin, so tritium is only dangerous if inhaled or ingested. 
The three forms of hydrogen combine with water to form what we know as water 
and five isotopologues. (The isotopologue of a chemical species has at least 
one atom with a different number of neutrons.) This gives as the only possible 
combinations , all of which occur in what we call water:

H-O-H , D-O-H , T-O-H , D-O-D , T-O-D , T-O-T 
This is not where the complexity stops. 
The following are a few selected facts from available literature: 
The water molecule may vibrate in a number of ways. In the gas state, the 
vibrations involve combinations of symmetric stretch (v1), asymmetric stretch 
(v3) and bending (v2) of the covalent bonds.
Main vibrations of water isotopologues</> Gasv1, cm-1v2, cm-1v3, cm-1

The main stretching band in liquid water is shifted to a lower frequency (v3, 
3490 cm-1 and v1, 3280 cm-1)
and the bending frequency increased (v2, 1644 cm-1) by hydrogen bonding.

Main vibrations of liquid ordinary and heavy water</> Vibration liquid H2O 
(25°C) liquid D2O (25°C) 
v, cm-1E0 , M-1 cm-1v, cm-1E0 , M-1 cm-1
v2+ libration2127.53.501555.01.91
v1+v3+v2 (overtone) 3404.099.92504.071.5

This is what the vibratory movement looks like. 

It is clear that life on Earth depends on the unusual structure and anomalous 
nature of liquid water. Organisms consist mostly of liquid water. This water 
performs many functions and it can never be considered simply as an inert 
diluent; it transports, lubricates, reacts, stabilizes, signals, structures and 
partitions. The living world should be thought of as an equal partnership 
between the biological molecules and water. In spite of much work, many of the 
properties of water are puzzling. Enlightenment comes from an understanding 
that water molecules form an infinite hydrogen-bonded network with localized 
and structured clustering. The middling strength of the connecting hydrogen 
bonds seems ideally suited to life processes, being easily formed but not too 
difficult to break. An important concept, often overlooked, is that liquid 
water is not homogeneous at the nanoscopic level. 
There is obviously much more to it, but this is what it boils down to. 
Water is not H-O-H, this is only a way of talking. True, for most purposes the 
formula holds, but it is only true for the average body of water over a longish 
period of time.

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