[geocentrism] Overview Barbour & Bertotti

  • From: "philip madsen" <pma15027@xxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
  • To: <geocentrism@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>
  • Date: Sun, 25 Feb 2007 07:55:05 +1000

I have the B&B paper in adobe file (1mb) which I can send to those wanting it.. 
 a bit too hard for meee..  lots of squigly maths stuff..  Philip. 

Gravity and Inertia in a Machian Framework

by J. B. Barbour and B. Bertotti

[Il Nuovo Cimento, 32B(1):1-27, 11 March 1977]

Preliminary overview of this paper by John K. Domen

This paper is an initial and still incomplete, fundamental and quantitative 
exposition of the physics proposed by Ernst Mach (~1883) that the influence of 
the entire material universe must be considered when treating the motions of 
systems we know, like the planetary system.  Current physics in general, and 
relativity in particular, neglect the influence of the universe on local 
phenomena.  The laws of motion of local systems, is termed LOCAL PHYSICS, 
whereas the more embracive laws which affect the universe, is termed PROTO 
PHYSICS.  Local physics becomes a subset of proto physics.  The paper starts 
with a dual approach: 1) time is not a real dimensional parameter, but is 
merely a measure of the succession of events - the universe passing through a 
sequence of relative configurations of many particles; 2) Physics deals with 
the relations between things, and a specific geometry does not dictate a basis 
for physics. 

In LOCAL physics, the location, r, of a "particle" in Newtonian physics is 
found from velocity (v), time (t) and perhaps a constant (a):  r ~ r+vt+a; and 
time (t) increases by a constant: t~t+c.  In PROTO physics, the authors also 
start with bodies (not necessarily point like), but the laws of mechanics and 
electromagnetism that describe their motion should only contain the relative 
distances between these bodies.  Location, r, of a body is described as: r ~ 
A(T) *r + g(T), where T ~ f(T).  T is an arbitrary increasing parameter (not 
time t), A is a matrix allowing an arrangement of T, and g and f are some 
expressions (functions) of T.  

First a general equation (the Lagrangian) describing the motion of particles is 
written.  Then an energy equation (the Hamiltonian) for various energies 
[kinetic, potential, rotational] is written which depends only on position and 
momentum, and not velocity explicitly, as velocity expressly involves time.    

Some of the results of their calculations that have emerged from this proto 
physics approach are:

  1.. For a stationary hollow material shell, the same Newtonian gravitation 
type force is calculated outside and on the shell, and zero inside the shell.
  2.. If just two bodies are considered, a slow motion approximation of the 
proto physics formulas yields Kepler's equations for planetary motion along 
with the terms for the advance of the perihelion and slow variation of the 
planetary period. 
  3.. A generalized velocity for the universe is calculated that is close to 
the experimental observed speed of light.  The inference is that the universe 
dictates the properties of light.  Velocity of light in local physics is not an 
intrinsic feature of relativistic "space-time," but is rather a reflection in 
local physics of the averaged motion of the Universe at large.  Also the 
gravitational constant is of protophysical origin, and the calculation of the 
nominal density and radius of the universe is in general agreement with 
commonly accepted values.  
  4.. Overall motion of the universe is imprinted on local physics through an 
unusual time-dependent gravitational constant: G = 4*R*(DR**2)/M where R is the 
universe radius, DR is its velocity, and M is its mass.  
  5.. If the universe is considered as a rotating "hollow" sphere (or disc, or 
ring), the resulting forces generated by this sphere on a test body near the 
center of the sphere are real 1) Coriolis and 2) centrifugal forces.  These 
"frame dragging" forces can move an undriven Foucault pendulum, stabilize 
geosynchronous satellites, etc. These forces are not fictitious, but real, and 
would be generated by a rotating universe.  Thirring-Lense around 1917 solved 
formulas from general relativity for a rotating spherical shell and obtained 
similar expressions for centrifugal and Coriolis forces.  But the relativistic 
formulas gave wrong coefficients and produced a spurious axial force.
  6.. The same rotating hollow sphere is again considered, but with a test 
particle at a great distance from the sphere.  The gravitational attraction by 
the sphere is not the same as if the mass of the sphere were concentrated at 
its center.  An increase and orientation dependence of the gravitational 
constant is predicted, such that gravity force could be caused by internal 
motion itself of the sphere material.  Gravity and inertia (matter) are related 
as magnetism and electricity.  And since material is made of charged particles 
(which are not points, but extended), gravity arises from the distribution of 
the electric and magnetic fields generated by the atomic particles, which are 
not points, but are moving and extended.  Nearby matter increases the inertia 
of a body.  
  7.. The calculations imply that each material object has a mass distribution 
that is not the same in all directions (is anisotropic).  A further item from 
Mach's principle is that the mass of a body is determined by the total 
distribution of matter in the universe.   This should also be true if the body 
is a lithium nucleus.  To test whether astronomical matter is uniformly 
distributed, the Hughes(-Drever) experiment (1957) assumed the opposite, and 
that if a lithium nucleus is accelerated in different directions in regard to 
astronomical matter, the mass of the lithium nucleus should change.  A lithium 
salt-water solution was surrounded by a fixed magnet, and driven by microwaves. 
 If there is more mass in the universe in one direction than another, then as 
the orientation of the earth to the universe varies over 12 hours, there should 
be a change in the lithium nuclear mass by Mach's principle; and this should 
exhibit itself in a shift of the nuclear resonant frequencies emitted over this 
12-hour period.  No frequency shift was observed to a high precision, 
indicating astronomical mass is uniformly distributed.  The Hughes calculations 
were based primarily on our galaxy, rather than the universe.  Whether this 
experiment is detrimental to one conclusion in Barbour's paper [that the mass 
distribution in a body is not uniform] may be questionable, on the basis of 
whether the experiment was extensive enough, and on assertions that 
astronomical matter is not uniformly distributed.
 A curious result is that the bulk of the matter in the universe may be 
receding or approaching us with a velocity about half the speed of light.  

  8..  Relativistic theories calculate planetary motion with accuracy, but the 
theories use "constants" c (speed of light) and G (gravity constant), 
introduced as absolutes, whereas they should be derived from PROTO physics, as 
this paper shows.
Final comments

Other developments besides this paper have given a replacement for relativity, 
without the need for any mysterious concepts contrary to reason or common 
sense.  The mathematical constructs and derived concepts of "curved space," 
placing time and location on the same level, Minkowski space, contraction in 
direction of motion, light speed independent of the motion of the observer, 
etc. are not necessary.  Attaching importance to a coordinate system 
("inertial" frame moving at a constant velocity) and a misconception with 
Maxwell's electrodynamics helped turn physics on a side path.

These concepts were initially promoted as an alternate explanation to the 
Michelson-Morley experiment of 1887, and similar ones.  A new basis is that a 
material object (basically electrons, protons, elementary particles, etc.) are 
not point objects, but distributed, rotating rings of electric charge that 
produce electric and magnetic energy (fields), which interact with all other 
fields, generated by all other "particles." The already established laws of 
electrodynamics and physics are applied.  Feedback on the charge itself 
produces a field that opposes the charge's motion.  It is this electrical 
nature of a charge which reacts against itself (making the particle 
anisotropic) and which must also include the fields from all other charges in 
the universe.  

The logical conclusion is that inertia is of electrical origin.  Space, or the 
"aether", has electrical-magnetic properties and energy, exhibited by its 
impedance.  Material bodies also have characteristic impedance.   A more 
fundamental approach shows a body's inertia arises from its gravitational 
interaction with the entire universe, not just our galaxy.  Calculations are 
done with relative positions, relative velocities, and relative accelerations 
between bodies, not with absolute "inertial" frame locations.

The equations that treat this fundamental physics approach calculate the 
observed increase in mass (inertia) when an object is accelerated toward the 
speed of light, the radius (size) of a particle becoming smaller when acquiring 
higher velocity, and further observables.  Relativity becomes irrelevant.



If any of my comments on this paper are found to be misleading, I am open to 

For further discussion, contact me at . . .

John  K  Domen

95  Toby  Drive

Succasunna  NJ  07876

For scientific models of the geocentric cosmological system of the universe, 
consult chapters 27 and 29 [Geocentricity,1] for a brief qualitative summary of 
several models.

Periodically, articles in The Biblical Astronomer2 expand on these models.


1 Geocentricity.  Gerardus D. Bouw, Ph.D. 1992. Available from Brian V. Lamb, 
Quarryside, Castletown, Caithness, Scotland  KW14 8SS.  

2  The Biblical Astronomer, a quarterly journal, 4527 Wetzel Avenue, Cleveland 
OH 44109-5347, USA.

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