[freedict] Fwd: a Tibetan verb dictionary I have written

  • From: Nathan Hill <nh36@xxxxxxxxxx>
  • To: freedict@xxxxxxxxxxxxx
  • Date: Thu, 13 Feb 2020 23:59:52 +0000

Dear Colleagues,

I have just signed up to this list and don't really know what I am doing.
Anyhow, I am a technically inept person with a keen interest in
lexicography. I have myself compiled a Tibetan verb dictionary that I would
like to donate to you.

https://github.com/tibetan-nlp/lexicon-of-tibetan-verb-stems

It is already available in xml, but not in TEI. I attach it to this
message. I also have a digitized version of Sarat Chandra Das'
Tibetan-English dictionary, which is in the public domain.

best,
Nathan


--
Dr Nathan W. Hill
Reader in Tibetan and Historical Linguistics
Research Coordinator, East Asian Languages and Cultures
UK Director, London Confucius Institute
SOAS, University of London
Thornhaugh Street, Russell Square, London WC1H 0XG, UK
Tel: +44 (0)20 7898 4512
Room 456
--
Profile -- http://www.soas.ac.uk/staff/staff46254.php
Tibetan Studies at SOAS -- http://www.soas.ac.uk/cia/tibetanstudies/
--
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-16"?>
<!-- This Document is created with the Clark System! http://www.bultreebank.org ;
-->
<!DOCTYPE dictionary SYSTEM "NHVerbDict.dtd">

<dictionary><div><head><orth>ka</orth></head>


<entry><headword><orth>kum</orth></headword>
<wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>kum</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrI>
<wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>kum</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrII>
<wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>kum</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrIII>
<transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity>
<trans><label>Meaning:</label> (archaic) To die <ref>DS.</ref></trans>
<note><label>Note:</label> Compare <orth>'gum</orth>.</note>
</entry>

<entry><headword><orth>ker</orth></headword>
<wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>ker</orth><ref>CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref>
</wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>kerd</orth><ref>DK,  
.</ref><orth>ker</orth><ref>[DS], TC.</ref></wrII>
<wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>ker</orth><ref>DK, TC, 
[DS].</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>kerd</orth><ref>DK.</ref>
 <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary:</label><ref>TC.</ref><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>(Hoshi
 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To erect, to 
point a finger toward the sky <ref>DK.</ref>  To raise, lift up <ref>CD.</ref>  
To raise up (e.g. a finger) <ref>DS.</ref> To arise, get up 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry>

<entry><headword><orth>krang</orth></headword><auxillary><label>Auxiliary: 
</label><orth>krang</orth><ref>(Gyurme 1992: 150-152), (&#7748;ag dba&#7749; 
tshul khrims 1997).</ref></auxillary><function><label>Function:</label>  
(archaic, main verb un-negated) Signifies the successful execution of an action 
<ref>(Gyurme 1992: 150-152).</ref>(archaic) A question word similar to 
<orth>gam</orth>, <orth>ngam</orth>, &amp;c.<ref> (&#7748;ag dba&#7749; tshul 
khrims 1997).</ref></function><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>grang</orth><sub>2</sub>.</note></entry>
<entry><headword><orth>klan</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>klan</orth><ref>[CD],
 DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>klan</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>klan</orth><ref>[CD],
 [DS].</ref></wrIII><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, (Skorupski 
2001).</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label>  1. To wreak revenge 
for. [2. To mend, to patch] <ref>CD.</ref> 1. To avenge, to take revenge. 2. To 
answer, counter <ref>DS.</ref> (archaic) To answer, counter 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry>
<entry><headword><orth>klas</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>klas</orth><ref>(Li
 &amp; Coblin 1987), [TC], (&#7748;ag dba&#7749; tshul khrims 
1997).</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be beyond, further than 
<ref>(Li &amp; Coblin 1987).</ref> 1. To forget. 2. To arrive at the depths, 
meet the limit. 3. To understand <ref>(&#7748;ag dba&#7749; tshul khrims 
1997).</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label><ref>CD, DS, TC</ref> prefer to 
see this as an 
adjective.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>klub</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>klub</orth><ref>CD,
 DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>klubs</orth><ref>CD, 
DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>klub</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>klubs</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><causation><label>Causative
 of:</label><orth>lhub pa</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: 
iv.13).</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To cover the body with 
ornaments (J&auml;), to put on luxuriously (Cs), to set up a tent 
<ref>CD.</ref>  To put on; to wear 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Root given as klub &lt; 
*s-'-lhub, *b-lhub? <ref>(Chang 1971: 
iv.12).</ref></note></entry><entry><headword><orth>klub</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>klubs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>klub</orth><ref>DK,
 DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>blubs</orth><ref>(see 
note).</ref><orth>bklubs</orth><ref>LZ, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>klubs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref> 
<orth>bklub</orth><ref>DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label>*<orth>lhubs</orth><ref>(see 
note).</ref><orth>klubs</orth><ref>LZ, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>lhub pa</orth><ref>[Chang 1971: 
iv.13].</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>na bza' 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To adorn, put 
on another person; to make someone put on <ref>DK.</ref> To ornament, put on 
clothes <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To wear.  2. To adorn, decorate 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Root given as g + lhub 
<ref>(Hahn 1999).</ref></note><note><label>Note:</label> For the form 
<orth>blubs</orth> (a. 1680) see <ref>(Eimer 1987), (Hahn 1999).</ref>  
suggests the inflection <orth>klub</orth>, <orth>blubs</orth>, 
*<orth>klub</orth>, *<orth>lhubs</orth>; for the imperative he compares 
<orth>lhab lhub</orth> 'excessively 
bedecked'.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>klog</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>klog</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>blags</orth><ref>(see 
note).</ref><orth>bklags</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, 
ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>klags</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bklag</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 KY<sub>N</sub>, TD,<footnote> TD has <orth>bkrag bya</orth> as the future, but 
this is obviously a mistake. </footnote> LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>klag</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>klogs</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>lhogs</orth><ref>(KY<sub>N</sub>), 
(ND).</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, 
KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, CD, ND, DS, TC, (Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 117), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 117), (Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>mdo 
snga sogs</orth><ref>TD.</ref><orth>bka' bstan dang yi ge 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref> <orth>yi 
ge</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To read 
<ref>CD, DK.</ref> To read aloud <ref>DS, TC 
.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Root given as klag &lt; *s-'-lhag 
<ref>(Chang 1971: iv.12)</ref>, *g + lhag <ref>(Hahn 1999).</ref> The form 
<orth>blags</orth> was first noted by <ref>(Nobel 1955)</ref>, it is discussed 
in <ref>(de Jong 1974) </ref> who finds the forms <orth>p+lags</orth>, 
<orth>ph+lags</orth>, and <orth>p+lhags</orth> as well. Further examples are 
collected by <ref>(Stein 1983: 161-162)</ref>. <ref>(Hahn 1999)</ref> suggests 
the inflection <orth>klog</orth>, <orth>blags</orth>, <orth>klag</orth>, 
<orth>lhogs</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>dkag</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>dkag</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>dkag</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dkag</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrIII><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 (of a melted liquid) To solidify in the process of cooling 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>dka'</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>dka'</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>dka'</orth><ref>[ND].</ref></wrII><syntax><label>Syntax:</label>
 [Abs. Obl.] <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
To be difficult <ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>dku</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>dku</orth><ref>DS,
 TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>dku</orth><ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dku</orth><ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label>To drip, come 
down, fall <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To brew, exude. 2. To fall. 3. (archaic) To 
remain, be left behind 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>dkond</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>dkond</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>dkond</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dkon</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>dkond</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></wrIV><example><label>Characteristic
 Example:</label><orth>'jig rten sogs 
su</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To appear 
<ref>(&#7748;ag dba&#7749; tshul khrimss 
1997).</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>dkyu</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>dkyu</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD (archaic), DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>'khyus</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>dkyus</orth><ref>LZ,
 ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dkyu</orth><ref>LZ, ND, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>dkyus</orth><ref>LZ, 
ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative of: 
</label><orth>'khyus</orth>.</causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>rta sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>bros 
pa'i</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To run a 
race 2. To wring out; to filter (Sch.) 3. To caper about (J&auml;) 
<ref>CD.</ref>  To race, to run away <ref>DK.</ref>To race (a horse, mule, 
&amp;c.) <ref>DS.</ref> To control, ride a horse 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> See note at 
<orth>'khyus</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>dkyud</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>dkyud</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 To forget 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>dkri</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>dkri</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>bkri</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>dkris</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dkri</orth><ref>LZ, ND, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>dkris</orth><ref>LZ, 
ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref> <dash> <ref>ND.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>ND.</ref><label>Voluntary:</label> <ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'khri</orth><ref>[CD] (Chang 1971: 
v.6).</ref><orth>'khril</orth><ref> (Chang 1971: 
v.6).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>dar 
sogs kyis</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>dar 
sogs</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. (archaic) 
To conduct one's pupil from one stage of learning to another stage. 2. To wind; 
to wrap around. 3. To ensnare <ref>CD.</ref>  To wind, to wrap up; to roll 
up<ref> DK.</ref> To bind something with string or rope <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To 
bind, to tie. 2. To cover, impose, accuse, deprecate 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>dkrig</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>dkrig</orth><ref>LZ,
 DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>dkrigs</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dkrig</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>khrigs</orth><ref>LS.</ref><orth>dkrigs</orth>.<ref>DK,
 DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.]
 <ref>(Hackett
 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative of:</label> 
<orth>'khrig</orth>.</causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>du sprin 
sogs</orth>.<ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To make 
overcast; to gather clouds [sic], to pile up <ref>DK.</ref>To fill up (with 
clouds, smoke &amp;c.) <ref>DS.</ref>To obscure 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>dkrug</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>dkrug</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>dkrugs</orth><ref> 
LZ, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dkrug</orth><ref> LZ, DK, 
DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>dkrugs</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref> DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'khrug</orth><ref>[CD] (Chang 1971: v.6), (Gyurme 1992: 
258).</ref><label>Cognate with:</label><orth>sprug</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: 
v.6).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>zho 
dang thugs sogs</orth>.<ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
To disturb, put in motion; to turn, turn on a lathe <ref>CD.</ref>To stir up; 
to disturb; to agitate; to disunite; to create differences by instigation 
<ref>DK.</ref>1. To stir, churn (a kind of liquid with a stick). 2. To be 
unharmonious, disagreeable. 3. To finish, conclude <ref>DS.</ref>  1. To 
disturb, stir, churn. 2. To agitate, disrupt. 3. To carve by turning on a lathe 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Root given as dkrug &lt; 
*b-krug <ref>(Chang 1971: v.6).</ref></note><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>dkrog</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>dkrum</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>dkrum</orth><ref>LZ,
 DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>dkrums</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dkrum</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>dkrums</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.]<ref> 
(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>cong zhi sogs</orth>.<ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To break; to crack <ref> 
DK.</ref>To break into bits <ref>DS.</ref> To break (fragile objects) 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>dkrog</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>dkrog</orth><ref>
 LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>dkrogs</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>dkrogs</orth><ref>LZ,
 ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dkrog</orth><ref>LZ, ND, DK, 
DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>dkrogs</orth><ref>LZ, 
ND, DK, DS, TC.  - ND.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>ND, 
DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref><label>Involuntary:</label><ref>ND.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS,
 TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Active 
of:</label><orth>skrog</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: v.6).</ref><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'khrog</orth><ref> (Gyurme 1992: 
258).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>zho 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>sto dang bya 
sogs</orth><ref>(<orth>dkrogs</orth>) ND<sub>B</sub>.</ref><orth>zho dang bya 
sogs</orth><ref>(<orth>dkrogs</orth>) 
ND<sub>A</sub>.</ref><orth>zho</orth><ref>  (-) 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To churn; to agitate, 
mingle, trouble. 2. To rouse; scare up; to wag, e.g. the tail (J&auml;) 
<ref>CD.</ref> To stir up; to churn; to give a feeling of surprise to; to 
disturb; to open. <ref>DK.</ref>1. To stir, churn. 2. To startle, surprise 
<ref>DS.</ref> 1. To churn, agitate, stir. 2. To disturb 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Root given as dkrog &lt; 
b-krog <ref>(Chang 1971: v.6).</ref></note><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>dkrug</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>bkan</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bkan</orth><ref>LZ,
 ND, CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkand</orth><ref>LZ, 
ND.</ref><orth>bkan</orth><ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bkan</orth><ref>LZ, ND. 
[DS]. 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>bkand</orth><ref>LZ, 
ND.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>ND.</ref><orth>bkan</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>
 ND, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref><label>Involuntary:</label><ref>ND.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS,
 TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>lus dang thal mo sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>lag par 
sogs</orth><ref>(<orth>bkand</orth>) ND<sub>B</sub>.</ref><orth>lag pa 
sogs</orth><ref>(<orth>bkand</orth>) ND<sub>A</sub>.</ref><orth>lag 
pas</orth><ref>(-) ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To 
up-root, turn up anything by applying a stick at its foot or root.  2. To bend. 
3. To put; to press; to apply (J&auml;). 4. To hold fast; to extend (Cs).  
<ref>CD.</ref>1. To raise up. 2. To firmly press <ref>DS.</ref>  1. To turn 
face upwards. 2. To hold firmly, to press down. 3. To neglect <ref>TC 
.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>bku</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bku</orth><ref>
 LZ, CD, DS, TC.</ref><orth>kud</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkus</orth><ref>LZ, CD, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bku</orth><ref>LZ, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>kus</orth><ref>LZ, 
ND.</ref><orth>bkus</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>LZ, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>skud</orth>.</causation><denominative><label>Denominative of: 
</label><orth>khu ba</orth> 
'juice'.</denominative><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>sman gyi khu ba sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>sman dang 
snum sogs</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To make 
extract of a drug by drawing out the juice <ref>CD.</ref>To extract juice by 
boiling <ref>DS.</ref>To extract a medicinal infusion 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>bkur</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bkur</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DS, TC.</ref><orth>'khur</orth><ref>ND, 
DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkurd</orth><ref>LZ, ND, 
DK.</ref><orth>bkur</orth><ref> [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bkur</orth><ref>LZ, ND, DK, 
[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>bkur</orth><ref>LZ, 
TC.</ref><orth>khurd</orth><ref> ND, 
DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>mchog dang gong du</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>gtsug 
tu</orth><ref> ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> I. To pay 
homage or reverence; to esteem. 2. To slander, to blaspheme <ref>CD.</ref> To 
respect, venerate <ref>DK.</ref>To respect <ref>DS.</ref>To make offering, 
serve, respect 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>bkong</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bkong</orth><ref>LZ,
 DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>kong</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkongs</orth><ref>LZ,
 DK.</ref><orth>bkong</orth><ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bkong</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>bkong</orth><ref>LZ, 
TC.</ref><orth>kongs</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>
 TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>sba 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To break the 
pride of somebody; to cause to become a coward <ref>DK.</ref> To discourage, 
intimidate, humble <ref>DS.</ref> To frighten, intimidate, discourage 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare <orth>'khong</orth> 
and 
<orth>'gong</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>bkong</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bkong</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkong</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bkong</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrIII><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref>DS
 .</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be wrinkled 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>bkyon</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bkyon</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkyond</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref><orth>bkyon</orth><ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bkyon</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>bkyon</orth><ref>LZ, 
TC.</ref><orth>bkyond</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>
 TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>tshig gam 
bkas</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To beat, to 
chastise <ref>CD.</ref>To scold; to admonish <ref>DK.</ref>(honorific) To speak 
roughly to someone <ref>DS.</ref> (honorific) To scold, reprimand 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>bkra</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bkra</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkra</orth><ref>[ND].</ref></wrII><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 To be beautiful, clear, multicolored <ref>(CD, TC list as an 
adjective).</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>bkrags</orth></headword><wrII><label>Past
 (?):</label><orth>bkrags</orth><ref>(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 
228).</ref></wrII><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>(Tournadre &amp; 
Dorje 2003: 228).</ref></volition><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Erg. 
Abs.]<ref> (Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 
228).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To roast, grill 
<ref>(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 228).</ref></trans><note><label>Note: 
</label><ref>(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 228) .</ref>imply a connection to 
<orth>sreg</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>bkrab</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>krabs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>bkrab</orth><ref>CD,
 DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkrabs</orth><ref>LZ.CD, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bkrab</orth><ref>LZ.DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>krobs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>bkrabs</orth><ref>DS.</ref><orth>bkrobs</orth><ref>
 TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>'khor dang grogs 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To choose or 
select from among many<ref> CD.</ref>(archaic) To select from among many 
<ref>DS.</ref> To choose, select 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>bkral</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bkral</orth><ref>CD,
 TC.</ref><orth>'grel</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkral</orth><ref>TC.</ref><orth>bkrald</orth><ref>
 DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bkral</orth><ref>DK, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>bkrol</orth><ref>TC.</ref><orth>'greld</orth><ref>
 
DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><denominative><label>Denominative
 of: </label><orth>khral</orth> 
'tax'.</denominative><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To appoint <ref>CD.</ref> 
To share tax payment <ref>DK.</ref> To impose (a tax) 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>bkres</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bkres</orth><ref>CD
 (archaic), DK, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkres</orth><ref>DK, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bkres</orth><ref>DK, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>bkres</orth><ref>DK.</ref>
 <dash> <ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary:</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:
 </label>[Abs. Obl.] <ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><denominative><label>Denominative 
of:</label><orth>bkres</orth> 
'hunger'.</denominative><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be hungry <ref>CD, 
TC.</ref>To feel hungry<ref> 
DK.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>bkros</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bkros</orth><ref>CD,
 
DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkros</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bkros</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>bkros</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 To choose; to select. <ref>CD, 
DK.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rkam</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>brkam</orth><ref>LZ,
 [CD], TC.</ref><orth>rkom</orth><ref>ND.</ref><orth>rkam</orth><ref>[CD 
(archaic)], DK, 
DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>brkam</orth><ref>LZ, TC.</ref> 
<orth>brkams</orth><ref>ND, DK, 
DS.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>brkam</orth><ref>LZ, ND, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>brkam</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref><orth>rkams</orth><ref> DK.</ref><orth>rkoms</orth><ref> ND, DS.</ref> 
<dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>ND, 
DS.</ref><label>Involuntary:</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref>DS,
 TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>zas nor sogs la</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'dod 
la</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label>To desire, long 
for (as a child for sweets) <ref>DS.</ref> To be attached to, to yearn 
for<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rku</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>rku</orth><ref>TD,
 LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>brkus</orth><ref>TD, LZ, CD, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>brku</orth><ref>TD, 
LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>rkus</orth><ref>TD, LZ, 
CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>TD, CD, 
ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><denominative><label>Denominative 
of:</label><orth>rkun 
ma</orth>'thief'.</denominative><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>gzhan gyi nor sogs</orth><ref>TD.</ref><orth>gzhan nor 
sogs</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>rkun ma</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To steal; to rob. 
<ref>CD.</ref>To steal; to take away unlawfully<ref> DK.</ref>To steal, to take 
by sleight the property of another which has not been given or paid for<ref> 
TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rko</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>rko</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>rkod</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>brkos</orth><ref>
 KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>brko</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 TD, LZ, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>rkos</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, 
CD, ND, DK, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><denominative><label>Denominative of: 
</label><orth>rka</orth> 'furrow' <ref>(Beyer 1992: 112 
n.11).</ref></denominative><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>khron pa sogs</orth><ref>TD.</ref><orth>sa dang dpar 
sogs</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>sa drang spar sogs</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To dig, dig out; to hoe. 
2. To engrave; turn up; till <ref>CD.</ref>To inscribe; to dig; to engrave; to 
print<ref> DK.</ref>To dig (a hole in the ground &amp;c.) <ref>DS .</ref>1. To 
dig, excavate. 2. To carve out letters and designs (in stone, wood &amp;c.) 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rkon</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>rkon</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>brkond</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>brkon</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>rkond</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><denominative><label>Denominative
 of:</label><orth>rkon</orth> 'a net, 
trap'.</denominative><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To trap or catch in a trap. 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> From colloquial data 
<ref>(Chang 1971: vii.16)</ref> hypothesizes a verb *bskon 'to cause to get 
caught, hung up i.e. to hang on a peg' as the causative of *khon or *'khon 'to 
get caught, hung up'. Perhaps <ref>DK .</ref>confirms her 
hypothesis.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>rkyal</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>rkyal</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>brkyal</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>rkyal</orth><ref>DS,
 TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>rkyal</orth><ref>LZ, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>rkyold</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>rkyol</orth><ref>
 DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>LZ, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>chu 
bo</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To swim, to 
amuse oneself by swimming (J&auml;) <ref>CD.</ref>To swim<ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rkyong</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>rkyong</orth><ref>TD,
 LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>brkyangs</orth><ref>TD, LZ, CD, 
ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>brkyang</orth><ref>TD, LZ, 
CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>rkyongs</orth><ref>TD, 
LZ, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>TD, ND, 
DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><denominative><label>Denominative of: 
</label><orth>rkang</orth> 'foot' <ref>(Beyer 1992: 84 n. 
15).</ref></denominative><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>yan lag sogs</orth><ref>TD.</ref><orth>zhabs 
sogs</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>yan lag</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To stretch, extend, stretch 
forth (one's hands to a person), put out (the tongue); spread; distend (the 
wings, a curtain) <ref>CD.</ref> To stretch out one's arms; to extend 
<ref>DK.</ref> To extend, stretch (the feet, hands &amp;c.) <ref>DS.</ref> To 
stretch, spread out, extend <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> 
Related to 
<orth>rgyong</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>lkugs</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>lkug</orth><ref>
 DK.</ref><orth>lkugs</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>lkugs</orth><ref>DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>lkug</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref><orth>lkugs</orth><ref>[DS]. 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>lkugs</orth><ref>DK.</ref>
 <dash> <ref> TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary:</label><ref>TC, 
(Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><denominative><label>Denominative 
of:</label><orth>lkug</orth> 'dumb, 
mute'.</denominative><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To become foolish; to 
become dumb <ref>DK.</ref>To become unable to speak clearly <ref>DS.</ref>To be 
dumb, to be unable to talk, to loose one's voice 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skad</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skad</orth><ref>CD,
 
DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>skad</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>skad</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrIII><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><denominative><label>Denominative
 of: </label><orth>skad</orth> 'language, 
speech'.</denominative><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To say, tell, relate 
<ref>CD.</ref> The written equivalent of <orth>zhes</orth> and <orth>zer</orth> 
which mark the end of quoted speech 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skam</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skam</orth><ref>DK,
 (Gyurme 1992: 258), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskams</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>skam</orth><ref>(Hoshi
 
2003).</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskam</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skams</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary:</label><ref>(Hoshi
 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref>(Gyurme 
1992: 249).</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To make thirsty 
<ref>DK.</ref> To dry up, dry out <ref>(Gyurme 1992: 249), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>skem</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>skar</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skar</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskar</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skor</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>CD.</ref></volition><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 To hang up; to weigh. 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skug</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skug</orth><ref>DS,
 TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskugs</orth><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskug</orth><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skugs</orth><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> For the 
winner not comply with the game of taking wealth, after a dispute over victory 
and defeat <ref>DS.</ref> To make a bet, to bet, to gambol 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skung</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skung</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskungs</orth><ref>LZ, CD, ND, 
DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskung</orth><ref>LZ, CD, 
ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>bskungs</orth><ref>LZ, 
ND, DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref> ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.]<ref> 
(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>dben pa sogs su</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>sbed 
pa'i</orth><ref> ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To hide in 
the ground, to bury, to inter <ref>CD.</ref>To hide; to keep secret<ref> 
DK.</ref>1. To hide away. 2. To write the symbol 'X' as a substitute for 
following words which are repeated in lines of verse, or other expression<ref> 
DS.</ref>To hide, conceal 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skud</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skud</orth><ref>TD,
 LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>sku</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskus</orth><ref>TD, LZ, CD, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsku</orth><ref>TD, 
LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skus</orth><ref>TD, LZ, 
CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>TD, CD, 
ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>bku</orth>.</causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>snu ma sogs</orth>.<ref>TD, ND.</ref><orth>sman 
sogs</orth><ref> LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To smear, to 
besmear; to daub <ref>CD.</ref>To anoint; to apply oil or ointment<ref> 
DK.</ref>To put (dye, oil &amp;c.) on the surface of something <ref>DS.</ref>  
To apply, put on, cover, smear 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skum</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skum</orth><ref>TD,
 LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskums</orth><ref>TD, LZ, CD, 
ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskum</orth><ref>TD,</ref><footnote>TD
 seems to have <orth>dskum bya</orth> as the future, but <orth>bskum</orth> 
must be meant.</footnote><ref> LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skums</orth><ref>TD, CD, 
ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>skum</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>TD, CD, ND, DS, TC, 
(Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative of: 
</label><orth>'khum</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: v.i), (Gyurme 1992: 258), (Beyer 
1992: 116).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>yan lag sogs</orth><ref>TD, LZ.</ref><orth>rkang lag 
sogs</orth><ref> LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To contract; 
to be drawn up; to be paralyzed <ref>CD.</ref>To withdraw, to draw in; to make 
shorter or smaller; to contract; to conceal<ref> DK.</ref>The opposite of 
produce, extend <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To contract, bend, pull in. 2. To conceal, to 
obfuscate<ref> 
TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skur</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skur</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskurd</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 [CD], ND, DK.</ref><orth>bskur</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskur</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skurd</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 ND, DK.</ref><orth>skur</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, ND, DS, 
TC, (Tournadre &amp;  Dorje 2003), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'khur</orth><ref>(Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>dbang dang 
'gan</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To bestow, 
give, send <ref>CD.</ref>To make someone carry; to send; to cause to venerate 
on, to make someone pay respect<ref> DK.</ref>1. To deliver to the place of 
delivery by entrusting (a thing, letter &amp;c.) with another person, post 
office. 2. For something to be carried (on the water, wind &amp;c.)<ref> 
DS.</ref>1. To send, dispatch. 2. To give, bestow, entrust, assign 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skul</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skul</orth><ref>
 KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskuld</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 TD, LZ, ND, DK.</ref><orth>bskul</orth><ref> CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskul</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skuld</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 TD, LZ, ND, DK.</ref><orth>skul</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref> KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, 
CD, ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs] <ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>chos 
bskul sogs</orth>.<ref>TD .</ref><orth>thug rgyud las sogs la</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref><orth>las la dang dge la</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To excite; to exhort, 
admonish, enjoin <ref>CD.</ref>To induce; exhort, urge; to request to do 
something; to persuade<ref> DK.</ref> To motivate, incite <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To 
induce, compel, persuade. 2. To incite, motivate 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skem</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skem</orth><ref>TD,
 LZ, CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>skems</orth><ref>ND.</ref><orth>skam</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskams</orth><ref>TD,
 LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskam</orth><ref>TD, LZ, CD, 
ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skoms</orth><ref>TD, LZ, 
CD, ND, DS, TC.</ref><orth>skems</orth><ref> DK.</ref><orth>skams</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>TD, CD, ND, DS, TC, 
(Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><denominative><label>Denominative of: 
</label><orth>skem</orth>, <orth>skam</orth> 
'dry'.</denominative><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>chu 
sogs</orth><ref>TD, ND.</ref> <footnote><ref>ND<sub>B</sub></ref> is unclear, 
[]<orth>lu sogs</orth>?</footnote> <orth>gos gsher ba dang me tog 
sogs</orth><ref> LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To make dry, 
to dry up <ref>CD.</ref>To dry<ref> DK.</ref>To make fewer, to dehydrate 
<ref>DS.</ref> . To dry out, to dry<ref> 
TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skem</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skems</orth><ref>ND.</ref><orth>skem</orth><ref>
 DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskams</orth><ref>ND, 
DS.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskam</orth><ref>ND, 
DS.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label> <dash> <ref>ND, 
DS.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary:</label><ref>ND, 
DS.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><denominative><label>Denominative
 of: </label><orth>skem</orth>, <orth>skam</orth> 
'dry'.</denominative><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>kha</orth><ref>ND<sub>A</sub>.</ref>, <orth>kha 
sogs</orth><ref>ND<sub>B</sub>.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
To wilt (of plants), become dry 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sko</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sko</orth><ref>TD,
 LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskos</orth><ref>TD, LZ, CD, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsko</orth><ref>TD, 
LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skos</orth><ref>TD, LZ, 
ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>TD, ND, DS, 
TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>dpon gyog sogs</orth><ref>TD.</ref><orth>las sne 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>rgyal 
sar</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To select; to 
appoint, nominate, commission, charge <ref>CD.</ref> To appoint <ref>DK.</ref>  
For leaders or people to give responsibility to a person for a task 
<ref>DS.</ref> To appoint. 2. To be determined by the power of past deeds 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label><ref>(Uray 1972: 19) 
.</ref>connects this verb with 
<orth>mkhos</orth>/<orth>khos</orth>/<orth>khod</orth> 'institution, 
administration, settlement of the state' along with the verbs, 
<orth>'khod</orth>, and 
<orth>'god</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>skong</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skong</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskangs</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskang</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skongs</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, 
KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, CD, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><denominative><label>Denominative of: 
</label><orth>skang ba</orth> 'satisfaction' <ref>(R&oacute;na-Tas 1985: 
179).</ref></denominative><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>thugs dam sogs</orth><ref>TD.</ref><orth>thugs dam dang 
re ba sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>thugs 
dam</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To fulfill 
<ref>CD.</ref> To complete; to add; to satisfy, fulfill a wish <ref>DK.</ref> 
1. To fulfill. 2. To make up a deficiency; to supplement 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skong</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skong</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskongs</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskong</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skongs</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>TC,
 (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:
 </label>[Erg. Abs.] <ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To summon, convene 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skon</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skon</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskond</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 LZ, ND, DK.</ref><orth>bskon</orth><ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskon</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skond</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 LZ, ND, DK.</ref><orth>skon</orth><ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, CD, ND, 
DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>gon</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: vii.16, see note), (Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref> <orth>gyon</orth> <ref>(Gyurme 1992: 259).</ref> 
<orth>'khon</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: vii.16, see 
note).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>khrab rmog lta bu sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>gos 
sogs</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To dress; to 
clothe another person <ref>CD.</ref> To make someone put on a dress or an 
ornament <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To make someone wear (wools, a hat &amp;c.). 2. To 
cause an action similar to the wearing of hats or clothes (e.g. bridle a horse, 
tie a rope around a calf's neck) <ref>DS.</ref> To dress, put on clothes, to 
cover <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Written Tibetan 
<orth>skon</orth>, <orth>bskon</orth>, <orth>bskon</orth> 'to dress, to clothe 
another person': gon 'to put on (clothes, shoes)' appears to be an example of 
the devoicing caused by s similar to <orth>spub</orth>, <orth>'bub</orth>. Our 
spoken Tibetan
 data,
 however, does
 not confirm this meaning of <orth>skon</orth>, suggesting rather two bases, 
*kon 'to get caught', and *gon 'to get dressed'<ref>(Chang 1971: 
viii.15).</ref></note></entry><entry><headword><orth>skom</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skom</orth><ref>DS,
 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>skom</orth><ref>[DS].</ref><orth>skoms</orth><ref>
 TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>skom</orth><ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><denominative><label>Denominative 
of:</label><orth>skom</orth> 
'dry'.</denominative><trans><label>Meaning:</label> For a desire to drink to 
arise when the liquid of the body is depleted <ref>DS.</ref> To suffer because 
the wetness within the mouth has dried 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare <orth>skam</orth> and 
<orth>skem</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>skor</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skor</orth><ref>TD,
 LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskord</orth><ref>TD, LZ, ND, 
DK.</ref><orth>bskor</orth><ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskor</orth><ref>TD, LZ, CD, 
ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skord</orth><ref>TD, LZ, 
ND, DK.</ref><orth>skor</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>TD, ND, DS, TC, 
(Tournadre &amp;  Dorje 2003), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, TC, 
(Gyurme 1992: 247).</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. 
Abs.] <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'khor</orth><ref>(Gyurme 1992: 259), (Beyer 1992: 
116).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>chos 'khor sogs</orth><ref>TD.</ref><orth>lha khang dang 
rten la</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'khor 
bar</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To fill 
with; to surround, encircle, enclose, besiege; to come again and again; to 
revolve. 2. To traverse, ride round a thing. 3. To circumambulate 
<ref>CD.</ref> To turn round; to turn a wheel; to take a round; to encircle, 
surround <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To make something turn around the circumference of a 
center. 2. To lead, take control. 3. To encircle, surround. 4. To change 
directions, shift allegiances. 5. To trick, mislead <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To turn 
around, rotate. 2. To surround, encircle 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label><ref>(Beyer 1992: 83)</ref> 
suggest that <orth>skyor</orth> is a palatalized version of this verb, however 
<orth>skor</orth> has the root vowel o and <orth>skyor</orth> the root vowel a, 
so his analysis is 
unlikely.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>skor</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skor</orth><ref>DS,
 TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskor</orth><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskor</orth><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>skor</orth><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref><label>Voluntary:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To go, wander, roam, 
loaf <ref>DS.</ref> To wander, to roam, to move about 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> In Situ's great commentary 
only <orth>bskor</orth> and not <orth>skor</orth> is given 
<ref>DS.</ref></note></entry><entry><headword><orth>skol</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skol</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskold</orth><ref>LZ, ND, 
DK.</ref><orth>bskol</orth><ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskol</orth><ref>LZ, CD, ND, 
DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skold</orth><ref>LZ, ND, 
DK.</ref><orth>skol</orth><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref> ND, DS, TC, (Tournadre 
&amp;  Dorje 2003: 306), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Tournadre &amp;  Dorje 2003: 306), (Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'khol</orth><ref>CD, (Chang 1971: v.1), (Gyurme 1992: 259), 
(Beyer 1992: 116).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>za sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>za dang 
chu</orth><ref>ND<sub>B</sub>.</ref><orth>za dang chu 
sogs</orth><ref>ND<sub>A</sub>.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
To boil <ref>CD, DK, 
TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skya</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skyas</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>skya</orth><ref>CD,
 ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskyas</orth><ref>LZ, CD, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskya</orth><ref>LZ, 
CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skyos</orth><ref>ND, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>skyas</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>gzhi dang rus pa sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'pho 
ba'i</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To carry; 
convey to a place (a quantity of stones, wood, water, &amp;c.). 2. To change 
place <ref>CD.</ref> To move one's residence or dwelling; to migrate, transfer 
<ref>DK.</ref> 1. To move, to move from one place to another, to migrate. 2. 
(archaic) To deliver, convey 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skyag</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skyag</orth><ref>CD.</ref><orth>rkyag</orth><ref>(CD).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskyogs</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskyag</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>skyog</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrIV><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
1. To spread, lay out, expand. 2. (in West) To slaughter, murder (J&auml;) 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans><note><label>Note: </label><ref>CD .</ref>suggests 
comparison with 
<orth>'gyag</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>skyad</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skyad</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskyad</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskyad</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skyad</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><syntax><label>Syntax:
 </label>[Erg. Abs.] <ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To kill <ref>DK.</ref> 1. 
To kill. 2. To compete <ref> [Lishi gur 
khang].</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skyi</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skyi</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskyis</orth><ref>LZ, CD, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskyi</orth><ref>LZ, 
CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skyis</orth><ref>LZ, CD, 
ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>CD, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>gzhan las gser dngul sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>nor 
sogs</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To borrow, 
especially money or goods <ref>CD.</ref> To lend; to borrow; to give or take 
something on loan <ref>DK.</ref> To loan, borrow 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Certainly the same verb as 
<orth>skyin</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>skyig</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skyig</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskyigs</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskyig</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skyigs</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 To cause to tie, to fasten 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skyig</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skyig</orth><ref>(J&auml;).</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 To hiccup 
<ref>(J&auml;).</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skyin</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skyin</orth><ref>CD,
 
DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskyin</orth><ref>CD.</ref><orth>bskyind</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskyin</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skyind</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><denominative><label>Denominative
 of:</label><orth>skyin pa</orth> 
'loan'.</denominative><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To borrow <ref>CD.</ref> 
To lend, to borrow <ref>CD.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>skyi</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>skyil</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skyil</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskyild</orth><ref>LZ.
 ND, DK.</ref><orth>bskyil</orth><ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskyil</orth><ref>LZ, CD, 
ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skyild</orth><ref>LZ, 
ND, DK.</ref><orth>skyil</orth><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref> ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'khyil</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: v.3), (Gyurme 1992: 259), 
(Beyer 1992: 116).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>mtsho dang chu sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>chu 
sogs</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To pen up, 
shut up; to dam up a river. 2. (J&auml;) to bend, especially the legs when 
sitting on the ground after the oriental fashion. To bend in another's leg by a 
kick from behind; to bend the bow <ref>CD.</ref> To dam; to store 
<ref>DK.</ref> 1. To dam up, to pen up, contain. 2. To keep 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skyug</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skyug</orth><ref>CD,
 ND, DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>skyugs</orth><ref>CD, ND, 
DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>skyug</orth><ref>ND, 
DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skyugs</orth><ref>ND, 
DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>ND.</ref></volition><denominative><label>Denominative
 of: </label><orth>skyug pa</orth> 'vomit, 
purgative'.</denominative><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>kong 
nad</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To vomit, to 
eject (e.g. blood). 2. To lose color, to stain <ref>CD.</ref> To vomit; to come 
out forcefully 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skyug</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skyug</orth><ref>DK,
 DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskyugs</orth><ref>DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskyug</orth><ref>DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skyugs</orth><ref>DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref><label> 
Intransitive:</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: 
</label>[Erg. Abs.] <ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><denominative><label>Denominative of: </label><orth>skyug 
pa</orth> 'vomit, purgative'.</denominative><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
cause to vomit <ref>DK.</ref> To release the contents of the viscera from the 
mouth <ref>DS.</ref> To vomit, to wretch 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skyung</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skyung</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskyungs</orth><ref>LZ, CD, ND, 
DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskyung</orth><ref>LZ, CD, 
ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skyungs</orth><ref>LZ, 
CD, ND, DK, DS, TC .</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>CD, 
ND, DS, TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>khengs pa sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>nyung 
du</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To diminish, 
reduce. 2. (J&auml;) (In Central Tibet) To leave behind; to lay aside (a task) 
<ref>CD.</ref> To reduce or diminish one's pride or voice; to subdue; to give 
up <ref>DK, DS.</ref> 1. To cast off, leave far behind, to abandon and put 
behind; to give up completely, to discard completely. 2. To lessen (in amount, 
degree), to reduce (in size, extent) 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label>This word is discussed briefly 
in <ref>Emmerick (1978: 
105).</ref></note></entry><entry><headword><orth>skyud</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skyud</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD (archaic), ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskyud</orth><ref>LZ, ND, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskyud</orth><ref>LZ, 
ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skyud</orth><ref>LZ, ND, 
DK, DS.</ref> <dash> <ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>ND, 
DS.</ref><label>Involuntary:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS.</ref><label>Intransitive:</label><ref>
 TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>sems la</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>brjed 
bya</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To forget. 
2. To leave off (J&auml;). 3. To communicate, swallow (Sch.) <ref>CD.</ref> To 
forget; to fail to recall <ref>DK.</ref> (archaic) To forget <ref>DS.</ref> To 
forget 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skyur</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skyur</orth><ref>
 LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskyurd</orth><ref>LZ, ND, 
DK.</ref><orth>bskyur</orth><ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskyur</orth><ref>LZ, CD, 
ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skyurd</orth><ref>LZ, 
ND, DK.</ref><orth>skyur</orth><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'khyur</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: v.4), (Beyer 1992: 
116).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>bya 
ba ngan pa sogs rgyab tu</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>phar 
la</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To throw, to 
cast; to leave off <ref>CD.</ref> To throw or to cast off, to renounce or give 
up <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To throw away, discard (rubbish). 2. To abandon, leave 
behind (homeland, troubles) <ref>DS.</ref> 1. (Mental) To give up on, to 
abandon, to forsake, to go back on something which one has previously adhered 
to, to leave behind something for something else seen as better. 2. (Physical) 
To toss off, away, to cast off something which is now seen as rubbish or as 
useless 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skye</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skye</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>skyes</orth><ref>LZ, CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>skye</orth><ref>LZ, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skye</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>skyes</orth><ref>DK.</ref>
 <dash> <ref>  DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary:</label><ref>DS, TC, (Tournadre 
&amp;  Dorje 2003), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Abs.] <ref>(Tournadre 
&amp;  Dorje 2003).</ref>[Abs. Obl.] <ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>skyed</orth><ref> (Laufer 1915: 
62).</ref></causation><denominative><label>Denominative of:</label><orth>skye 
ba</orth> 'birth', <orth>skye bu</orth> 
'person'.</denominative><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>srid pa sogs 
su</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be born, 
arise <ref>CD.</ref> To be born; to come out newly <ref>DK.</ref> 1. kinds of 
vegetation having first sprouted a shoot, to develop fruit. 2. To issues from 
the mother's womb. 3. To mature, rise up like the sprouting of vegetation. 4. 
To become larger or longer. 5. To arise, occur <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To be born, to 
arise, to grow anew. 2. To grow, increase 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skyeng</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skyeng</orth><ref>CD,
 DK.</ref><orth>skyengs</orth><ref> CD. DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>skyengs</orth><ref>DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>skyeng</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>skyengs</orth><ref>[DS],
 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skyengs</orth><ref>DK.</ref>
 <dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary:</label><ref>TC, 
(Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be ashamed 
<ref>CD.</ref> To be ashamed; to be embarrassed <ref>DK, DS.</ref> To be 
abashed, embarrassed, circumspect (especially regarding speech) 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> I could see here two verbs 
(<orth>skyengs</orth>, <orth>skyengs</orth>, <orth>skyengs</orth>, - ) and 
(<orth>skyeng</orth>, <orth>skyengs</orth>, <orth>skyeng</orth>, 
<orth>skyengs</orth>) the evidence is insufficient to 
decide.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>skyeng</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skyeng</orth><ref>
 
DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskyengs</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskyeng</orth><ref>
 DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skyengs</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To make shameful or to 
cause to be ashamed; to belittle; to bring down 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skyed</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skyed</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskyed</orth><ref>LZ, CD, ND, 
DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskyed</orth><ref>LZ, ND, 
DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skyed</orth><ref>LZ, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>ND, DS, TC, 
(Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>skye</orth><ref>(Laufer 1915: 
62).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>cho 
ga dang bu sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>lha sogs dang 
sems</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To procreate, 
generate, bring forth. give birth to <ref>CD.</ref> To make progress, to 
increase, widen 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skyem</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skyem</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>skyems</orth><ref>[CD].</ref></wrII><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 To be thirsty <ref>CD.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Root given as 
skyem &lt; skyam &lt; skam <ref>(Beyer 1992: 84 n. 
15).</ref></note></entry><entry><headword><orth>skyel</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skyeld</orth><ref>LZ,
 ND.</ref><orth>skyel</orth><ref>CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskyald</orth><ref>LZ, 
ND<sub>B</sub>,</ref>  

<footnote><ref>ND<sub>B</sub></ref> seems to have <orth>bskyamd</orth> which 
must be in fact <orth>bskyald</orth>. ND<sub>A</sub> has 
<orth>bskyal</orth>.</footnote>

<ref>DK.</ref><orth>bskyal</orth><ref>CD, ND<sub>A</sub>, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskyal</orth><ref>LZ, CD, 
ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skyold</orth><ref>LZ, 
ND, DK.</ref><orth>skyol</orth><ref> CD, (DK), DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>LZ, ND, CD, DK, DS, TC, 
(Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>gto mdos sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>gnas 
su</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To carry, to 
take away. 2. To send. 3. To risk, to stake (one's life). 4. To use, to employ 
<ref>CD.</ref> To deliver a person or thing; to see off, to kiss; to lose; to 
vow; to accomplish <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To go from one place to another place 
accompanying another person in order to show love, to protect, or supervise. 2. 
To raise a thing from one place to another place. 3.  To use, employ. 4. To 
finish, perfect <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To escort, to see off. 2. To send, transport, 
deliver, 3. To do, to apply. 4. To pass, spend (of time) 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Root given as 
skyal.</note><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>'khyol</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>skyel</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skyel</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskyel</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskyel</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>skyol</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
conduct, accompany 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skyo</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skyo</orth><ref>DK,
 DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>skyo</orth><ref>DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>skyo</orth><ref>DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skyo</orth><ref>DK.</ref>
 <dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary:</label><ref>TC, 
(Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><denominative><label>Denominative of: 
</label><orth>skyo</orth> 'grief, 
sorrow'.</denominative><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be sad, to be gloomy 
<ref>DK.</ref> 1. To be irritated. 2. To be disaffected <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To be 
sad, to be miserable.  2. To be fed up with, to be weary of, to be disenchanted 
with, to have distaste for 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skyog</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skyog</orth><ref>CD,
 DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskyogs</orth><ref>DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskyog</orth><ref>DK, 
DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skyogs</orth><ref>DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To turn, to 
turn away, aside <ref>CD.</ref> To turn aside, to drive aside <ref>DK.</ref> 1. 
To change direction. 2. To bend, make crooked <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To turn. 2. To 
move over, to give way 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skyong</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skyong</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>skyong</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>skyong</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrIII><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 To go on a long road 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skyong</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skyong</orth><ref>?
 TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskyangs</orth><ref>TD, LZ, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>bskyongs</orth><ref> 
CD.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskyang</orth><ref>TD, LZ, 
CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skyong</orth><ref>(Zeisler
 2004: 349).</ref><orth>skyongs</orth><ref>TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>TD, CD, ND, DS, TC, 
(Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>drin gyis</orth><ref>TD.</ref><orth>brtse ba dang drin 
gyis</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>drin gyis bon</orth> 
<orth>tshes</orth><sub>B</sub> <orth>bstan pa 
sogs</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To guard; to 
keep; to defend; to save; to preserve <ref>CD.</ref> To look after; to nurse, 
cherish; to take care of; to administer <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To look after, 
support, take care of. 2. To supervise, direct, support <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To 
sustain, take care of, tend, look after. 2. To protect, guard. 3. To manage, 
do, hold, control, carry out 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skyod</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skyod</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskyod</orth><ref>LZ, CD, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskyod</orth><ref>LZ, 
CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skyod</orth><ref> LZ, 
DK, DS.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>ND, 
DS.</ref><label>Involuntary:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref> CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>gnas sogs dang rlung 
gis</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To move; to 
go, pass on <ref>CD.</ref>  To move <ref>DK.</ref> To move, agitate 
<ref>DS.</ref> To move, stir, agitate 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skyod</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skyod</orth><ref>CD,
 ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskyod</orth><ref>CD, ND, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskyod</orth><ref>CD, 
ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skyod</orth><ref> ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>ND, DS, TC, 
(Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref> 
CD.</ref><label> Intransitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>gom pa'i zhabs 
kyis</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> (In West) 
(Respectful) To go, to walk <ref>CD.</ref> To cause to go or proceed 
<ref>DK.</ref> To go <ref>DS.</ref>  To go 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skyon</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skyon</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>skyond</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>skyon</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skyond</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 To make defective; to become defective 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skyon</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skyond</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>skyon</orth><ref>
 CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskyon</orth><ref>LZ, CD, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>bskyond</orth><ref> ND, 
DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskyon</orth><ref>LZ, ND, 
DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skyond</orth><ref>LZ,
 ND, DK.</ref><orth>skyon</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>ND, DS, TC, (Tournadre 
&amp;  Dorje 2003: 166), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 166), (Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>zhon</orth><ref>(Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>rta 
dang gsal shing sogs la</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>rta 
la</orth><ref>ND<sub>B</sub>.</ref><orth>rta la 
sogs</orth><ref>ND<sub>A</sub>.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
To put astride upon a thing <ref>CD.</ref> To put on a horse <ref>DK.</ref> 1. 
To have mount, place astride. 2. To place on top of. 3. To make (someone) wear, 
to dress (someone) <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To place someone on a horse, to put 
astride. 2. To place above, place upon. 3. (honorific) Equivalent of the 
auxiliary verb 
<orth>rgyag</orth><ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>gyon</orth>, 
<orth>gon</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>skyon</orth><sub>3</sub></headword><auxillary><label>Auxillary:</label><orth>skyon</orth><ref>(Tournadre
 &amp; Dorje 2003: 176).</ref></auxillary><function><label>Function:</label> 
Suffixed to nouns in order to create verbs, very common in the colloquial. In 
this respect it is the honorific corresponding to <orth>rgyag</orth>. 
(Honorific) Equivalent to <orth>rgyag 
pa</orth><ref>TC.</ref></function></entry><entry><headword><orth>skyob</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skyob</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>skyabs</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>skyab</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skyobs</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref> KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, 
LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Abl.] <ref>(Hahn 
1994: 108).</ref> [Erg. Abs.] <ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>khyab</orth><ref>[Coblin 
1986].</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>nye pa sogs</orth><ref>TD.</ref><orth>'jigs pa dnag sdug 
sngal sogs las</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'jigs pa 
la</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To protect; to 
defend, preserve, save <ref>CD.</ref> To protect, give shelter; to defend, to 
rescue <ref>DK.</ref> To help, save from danger <ref>DS.</ref> To protect 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Related to the noun 
<orth>skyob</orth> 'protection, refuge'. <ref>(Beyer 1992: 84 n. 15)</ref> 
suggests that this verb is a palatalized version of <orth>gab</orth> 'cover, 
protect' though he does not account for the voicing 
difference.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>skyom</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skyom</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskyams</orth><ref>LZ, ND, DK, 
TC.</ref><orth>bskyoms</orth><ref> CD, 
DS.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskyam</orth><ref>LZ, ND, 
DK, TC.</ref><orth>bskyom</orth><ref> CD, 
DS.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skyoms</orth><ref>LZ, 
CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref> CD, 
ND, DS, TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'khyom</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: v .4), (Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>mtso sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>snod 
sogs</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> (Rare in 
colloquial) 1. To pour; to pour out, agitate, stir up. 2. (Lex) To give 
<ref>CD.</ref> To swish, to stir a liquid; to cause turbulence <ref>DK.</ref> 
To stir, agitate (a liquid) <ref>DS.</ref> To stir, shake 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skyor</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skyor</orth><ref>[LZ],
 CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskyar</orth><ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>bskyard</orth><ref>ND, 
DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskyar</orth><ref>[LZ], CD, 
ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skyord</orth><ref>[LZ], 
ND, DK.</ref><orth>skyor</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>slar yang</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>yang 
yang</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To repeat, 
recite by heart <ref>CD.</ref> To repeat; to do, make something again; to 
reproduce, imitate; to recite <ref>DK.</ref>  To read aloud, repeat 
<ref>DS.</ref> To repeat, to do over again 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label><ref>LZ</ref> lists a verb 
(<orth>skyor</orth>, <orth>bskyord</orth>, <orth>bskyar</orth>, 
<orth>skyord</orth>) which is a conflation of this verb and the following.<ref> 
(Beyer 1992: 83)</ref> suggest that <orth>skyor</orth> is a palatalized version 
of <orth>skor</orth>, however <orth>skor</orth> has the root vowel o and 
<orth>skyor</orth> the root vowel a, so his analysis is 
unlikely.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>skyor</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skyor</orth><ref>[LZ],
 DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskyord</orth><ref>[LZ], 
DK.</ref><orth>bskyor</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskyor</orth><ref>DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skyord</orth><ref>[LZ], 
DK.</ref><orth>skyor</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>[LZ], DK, DS, TC, 
(Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To hold up, 
to prop, to paste <ref>CD.</ref> To support upright; to support from all sides 
so as to stand; to help, to support <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To prevent a person or 
thing from falling down. 2. To help, do, protect <ref>DS.</ref> To support, 
prop up, brace 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skrag</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skrag</orth><ref>CD,
 DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>skrags</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>skrag</orth><ref>[DS],
 TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>skrag</orth><ref>DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skrags</orth><ref>DK.</ref>
 <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary:</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref>DS,
 TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> (nearly 
always combined with <orth>'jigs pa</orth>) To be terrified, frightened, afraid 
of something <ref>CD.</ref> To be frightened, to be terrified <ref>DK.</ref> To 
become afraid <ref>DS.</ref> To be afraid 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Cognate with adjective 
<orth>skrag</orth> 
'scary'.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>skrang</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skrang</orth><ref>CD,
 DK, (DS), 
TC.</ref><orth>skrangs</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>skrangs</orth><ref>CD,
 DK, [DS], TC.</ref><orth>skrang</orth><ref> 
[(DS)].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>skrang</orth><ref>DK, 
[(DS)], TC.</ref><orth>skrangs</orth><ref> 
[DS].</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skrangs</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary:</label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS.</ref><label>Intransitive:</label><ref>
 TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To swell 
<ref>CD.</ref> To swell, be swollen <ref>DK.</ref> For the flesh to swell up 
due to injury to the body or illness <ref>DS.</ref> To swell up 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skrab</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skrab</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskrabs</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskrab</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skrabs</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref></wrIV><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] <ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'khrab</orth>.</causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>bro dang rkang stabs 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To beat the 
ground with one's feet; to stamp, tread; to dance <ref>CD.</ref> To cause to 
dance; to cause to select <ref>DK.</ref> (archaic) To dance 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry>

<entry><headword><orth>skri</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skri</orth><ref>CD
 (archaic), ND, TC.
 
(archaic).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskris</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskri</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skris</orth><ref>ND.</ref><orth>skri</orth><ref>
 [TC] 
.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>ND.</ref></volition><example><label>Characteristic
 
Example:</label><orth>khag</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 To conduct, to send (Cs.) <ref>CD.</ref> To give, send 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skru</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skru</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD (archaic), DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskrus</orth><ref>LZ, CD, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref><orth>skrus</orth><ref> (see 
note).</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskru</orth><ref>LZ, CD, 
DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skrus</orth><ref> LZ, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>LZ, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>shing gi yal ga dang gzhan la thabs 
kyis</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To wait 
(Sch.); to cut <ref>CD.</ref> To beg for food, to make a hole by digging or 
cutting; to hollow out <ref>DK.</ref> To cut; to deceive <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To 
beg. 2. (archaic) To deceive. 3. To cut into pieces 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skrud</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skrud</orth><ref>CD
 (archaic).</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To make another run away 
by 
devices<ref>CD.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skrun</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skrun</orth><ref>TD,
 LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskrund</orth><ref>TD, LZ, ND, 
DK.</ref><orth>bskrun</orth><ref> CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskrun</orth><ref>TD, LZ, 
CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skrund</orth><ref> 
TD,</ref><footnote>TD appears to list <orth>skund</orth> as the imperative, a 
mistake for <orth>skrund</orth>.</footnote> <ref>LZ, ND, 
DK.</ref><orth>skrun</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref> TD, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>mnyu gu sog</orth> [sic]<ref>TD.</ref><orth>mnyu gu 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>dge rtsa bsyed 
pa</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To produce 
<ref>CD.</ref> To establish, to build; to make <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To print a 
book. 2. To make, produce <ref>DS.</ref> To make, construct, build, invent, 
produce 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skres</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skres</orth><ref>(Gyurme
 1992: 258).</ref><orth>sres</orth><ref>(Gyurme 1992: 
258).</ref></wrI><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'dres</orth><ref>(Gyurme 1992: 
258).</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To mix <ref>(Gyurme 1992: 
258).</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare   
<orth>sre</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>skrog</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skrog</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>dkrog</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskrogs</orth><ref>LZ,
 DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>skrogs</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskrog</orth><ref>LZ,
 DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>skrog</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skrogs</orth><ref>LZ,
 ND, DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>ND, DS, TC, 
(Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative of: 
</label>*[']-khrog-[s]<ref>(Chang 1971: 
v.6).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>zho 
dang Da ma ru sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>Dar ma ru 
sogs</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To beat (the 
drum); to churn; to stir (with a rod) <ref>CD.</ref> Another way to write 
<orth>dkrog</orth><ref>DS.</ref> 1. To churn, stir. 2. To beat a drum 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skrog</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skrog</orth><ref>(Chang
 1971: iv.10).</ref></wrI><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'drog</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: 
iv.10).</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To rouse, to scare up 
<ref>(Chang 1971: iv.10).</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Root given as 
s-k-rog &lt; s-'-rog &lt; s-rog ? <ref>(Chang 1971: 
iv.10).</ref></note></entry><entry><headword><orth>skrod</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skrod</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskrad</orth><ref>LZ, ND, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskrad</orth><ref>LZ, 
ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skrod</orth><ref>LZ, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>gte'u dang bgegs sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>phyir 
la</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To expel, drive 
out, eject <ref>CD, DK.</ref> To drive away from a previous location 
<ref>DS.</ref> To expel, banish, drive out 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>skrob</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skrob</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskrabs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskrab</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skrobs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></wrIV><example><label>Characteristic
 Example:</label><orth>ti ku sogs 
kyis</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example></entry><entry><headword><orth>skrol</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>skrol</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskrold</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskrol</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>skrold</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><denominative><label>Denominative
 of:</label><orth>rol</orth> 'music' 
(?).</denominative><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To cause to make sound; to 
cause to stir up 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>bskal</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bskal</orth><ref>DS,
 TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bskal</orth><ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bskal</orth><ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary:</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref>DS,
 TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be cut off 
by a long distance or period of time <ref>DS.</ref> To be separated, cut off 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Undoubtedly a generalization 
of the past of 
<orth>skeld</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword>*<orth>bskon</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 *<orth>bskon</orth> <ref>(Chang 1971: 
vii.16).</ref></wrI><causation><label>Causative of:</label>*<orth>khon</orth> 
or *<orth>'khon</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: 
vii.16).</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To get caught, hung up 
(on a peg) <ref>(Chang 1971: vii.16).</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> 
Hypothesized by Chang on colloquial data, see 
<orth>rkon</orth>.</note></entry></div><div><head><orth>kha</orth></head><entry><headword><orth>khug</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>khug</orth><ref>CD,
 DS, TC.</ref><orth>'khugs</orth> <ref>DK, 
(TC).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>khug</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>khugs</orth><ref>DS,
 TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khug</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref><orth>khug</orth><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>khugs</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary 
</label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'gugs</orth><ref>(Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To find, get, earn, draw 
<ref>CD.</ref>To calm down; to bend down; to fall asleep; to valued; to be 
worth<ref> DK.</ref>To be the price of (something)<ref> DS.</ref> 1. To turn 
into, to change, to become. 2. To get, to make, to find 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>khegs</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>khegs</orth><ref>CD.
 DS.</ref><orth>kheg</orth><ref>
 TC.</ref><orth>'khegs</orth><ref> (Beyer 1992: 
113).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>khegs</orth> <ref>[DS], TC, 
(Beyer 1992: 
113).</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>khegs</orth><ref>[DS].</ref><orth>kheg</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label>
 <dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref><label> Intransitive 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative of: 
</label><orth>'gog</orth><ref>(Beyer 1992: 
113).</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To obstruct, to close 
<ref>CD.</ref> For something to be unable to move because something else is 
stuffed inside (a pipe, hole &amp;c.) <ref>DS.</ref> To be obstructed, to stop, 
to come to halt 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>kheng</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'kheng</orth><ref>CD.</ref><orth>kheng</orth><ref>DK.
 TC.</ref><orth>khengs</orth><ref> 
DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>khengs</orth> <ref>CD, DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref><orth>khangs</orth><ref>(Tournadre &amp;  Dorje 
2003).</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>khengs</orth><ref>DK, 
TC.</ref><orth>khengs</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khengs</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Tournadre 
&amp;  Dorje 2003), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>'geng</orth><ref>(Beyer 1992: 
113).</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be replete, to be full 
<ref>CD.</ref> To be full <ref>DK.</ref> To fill up the inside <ref>DS.</ref> 
To be full <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label><ref>(Tournadre 
&amp;  Dorje 2003)</ref> suggest that <orth>khangs</orth> is a literary variant 
of <orth>khengs</orth>. Compare also <orth>skong</orth>, <orth>gang</orth>, and 
<orth>sgang</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>khen</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>khen</orth><ref>CD.
 DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>khen</orth><ref> 
[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>khen</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrIII><transitivity><label>Intransitive:
 </label><ref>DS, (Skorupski 
2001).</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To lean, to repose 
on. (erroneously for <orth>bkhan pa</orth> [sic]) (Sch.) <ref>CD.</ref> To 
rest, rely on in order not to collapse <ref>DS.</ref> (dialect) To lean, to 
rest against 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>khebs</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khebs</orth><ref>CD,
 DK.</ref><orth>khebs</orth><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>kheb</orth><ref>CD, 
DK.</ref><orth>khebs</orth><ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'kheb</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>khebs</orth><ref>[DS],
 TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khebs</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref><label> Intransitive:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>'gebs</orth><ref>(Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To cover; to spread over 
<ref>CD.</ref> To cover up; to spread over <ref>DK.</ref> To be able to cover, 
be able to arrange <ref>DS.</ref> To be covered 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>kher</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>kher</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>kher</orth>
 
<ref>[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>kher</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrIII><transitivity><label>Intransitive:
 </label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To make 
vertical, to extend 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label><ref>DS</ref> reports this as 
similar in meaning to <orth>ker</orth> to which it is likely a mere 
orthographic variant of, reflecting an aspirate 
pronunciation.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>khog</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>khog</orth><ref>(Gyurme
 1992: 259).</ref></wrI><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>'gog</orth><ref>(Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be taken out 
<ref>(Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>khom</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>khom</orth><ref>CD,
 DS, TC.</ref><orth>khom</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>khom</orth><ref>DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khom</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref><orth>khom</orth><ref>[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khoms</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. to have 
leisure, time to do a thing. 2. to be enabled to do a thing by the absence of 
external impediments (Schtr.) <ref>CD.</ref> To have time; to be free; to be 
free from the worldly activities <ref>DK.</ref> To not have leisure, time 
<ref>DS.</ref> To have time for something 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>khyag</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>khyag</orth><ref>CD,
 DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>khyags</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref><orth>khyag</orth><ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>khyag</orth><ref>DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khyags</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>khyag</orth><ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. 
Abs.] <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
undertake, to be surety for [sic] <ref>CD.</ref> To float on water; to become 
mentally unsettled or unsteady <ref>DK.</ref> To endure hardship, to be able to 
hold up <ref>DS.</ref> To endure, to be able to lift or hold up something 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>khyab</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>khyab</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>khyab</orth><ref>LZ, DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>khyab</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khyab</orth><ref>LZ, DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>skyob</orth><ref>[Coblin 
1986].</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>gtam tsegs dang yul la</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To fill, penetrate, embrace; 
estimate, comprise <ref>CD.</ref> To cover up, to spread over <ref>DK.</ref> To 
spread, cover <ref>DS.</ref> To cover, to pervade, to include, to spread 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>khyog</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>khyog</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>khyog</orth><ref>
 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>khyog</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary:</label><ref> TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be 
sustainable, to be borne, to be bearable<ref> 
TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>'khyog</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>khrul</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>khrul</orth><ref>CD,
 
DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>khrul</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>khrul</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrIII><transitivity><label>Intransitive:
 </label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To let 
fall; to drop (several things at intervals) <ref>CD.</ref> To fall, drop 
individually 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>khrems</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>khrems</orth><ref>CD,
 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>khrems</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>khrems</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label> <dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To water 
gardens and cultivation; to sprinkle water <ref>CD.</ref> To be absorbed 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>khrel</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>khrel</orth><ref>CD,
 DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>khrel</orth><ref>[DS],
 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>khrel</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label> <dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be 
ashamed; to provoke shame <ref>CD.</ref> To loose hope, to no longer desire 
<ref>DS.</ref> To be embarrassed (by the reproach of another), to be 
considerate 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>khro</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>khro</orth><ref>LZ,
 ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>'khro</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>khros</orth><ref>LZ,
 C D, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>khro</orth><ref>LZ, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>'khro</orth><ref> ND.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khros</orth><ref>LZ, ND, DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><denominative><label>Denominative 
of:</label><orth>khro</orth> 
'anger'.</denominative><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>sdang dgra sogs la</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>khro 
bor</orth><ref> ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be angry 
<ref>CD.</ref> To get angry; to be filled with anger; to be indignant 
<ref>DK.</ref> To be angry, aggressive <ref>DS.</ref> To go angry, to become 
angry 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>mkhas</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>mkhas</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 LZ, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>mkhas</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, 
LZ, ND, DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>mkhas</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 LZ, DK, [DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>mkhas</orth><ref>, LZ, DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>[KY<sub>N</sub>], 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>[KY<sub>N</sub>], 
TC, (Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. 
Obl.] <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>chos srid sogs las</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To become wise; to become a 
scholar; cause to be learned <ref>DK.</ref> To be able, skilled, to have 
compassion <ref>DS.</ref> To be learned 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label><ref>KY<sub>N</sub></ref>gives 
the imperative as <orth>mkhas par gyis</orth> implying that there is no 
imperative.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>mkho</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>mkho</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DK, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>mkho</orth><ref>LZ, 
ND, DK, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>mkho</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>mkho</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>'di dang phyi ma sogs la</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To want <ref>CD.</ref> To 
necessitate; to become necessary; to be in need <ref>DK.</ref> To want, to need 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>mkhyud</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>mkhyud</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>mkhyud</orth><ref>LZ, DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>mkhyud</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>mkhyud</orth><ref>LZ, DK. 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. 
Abs.] <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>don nam dpe sogs</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To keep, to hold, to retain 
<ref>CD.</ref> To be secretive, to conceal one's knowledge with ill intention 
<ref>DK.</ref> (archaic) To hide (small religious instructions &amp;c.) 
<ref>DS.</ref>  To conceal, to hide 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>mkhyen</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>mkhyend</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>mkhyen</orth><ref>
 CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>mkhyend</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref><orth>mkhyen</orth><ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>mkhyen</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>mkhyend</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>mkhyen</orth><ref> DK, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref><label>Involuntary:</label><ref>(Tournadre &amp;  Dorje 
2003: 191), (Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, (Skorupski 2001).</ref><label>Intransitive:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Tournadre &amp;  Dorje 2003: 191), (Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>dgongs yul du</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To know <ref>CD.</ref> To 
know, to understand; to comprehend <ref>DK.</ref> To know, understand, examine 
<ref>DS.</ref> (honorific) To know, to comprehend 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Root given as mkhyen &lt; 
*mkhyan &lt; mkhan<ref> (Beyer 1992: 84 n. 
15).</ref></note></entry><entry><headword><orth>mkhrang</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>mkhrang</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>mkhrangs</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>mkhrang</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label> <dash> <ref>ND.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>ND.</ref></volition><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>blo shed 
sogs</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> Hard, solid, 
compact (J&auml;) 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>mkhreg</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>mkhreg</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>mkhregs</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>mkhreg</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label> <dash> <ref>ND.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>ND.</ref></volition><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>sra ba'i</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> Hard, firm (J&auml;) 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>mkhren</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>mkhren</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>mkhrend</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>mkhren</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label> <dash> <ref>ND.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>ND.</ref></volition><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>thugs la</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khang</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khang</orth><ref>CD,
 ND, DK, DS, TC, (Denwood 1991: 
136).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khang</orth><ref>ND.</ref><orth>'khangs</orth><ref>
 DK, DS, TC, (Denwood 1991: 
136).</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khang</orth><ref>DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'khangs</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To hurt at 
heart or offend, also to irritate <ref>CD.</ref> To be unsatisfied, to be 
discontented or hateful <ref>DK.</ref>To believe, to not be happy 
<ref>DS.</ref> To be resentful, to be spiteful, to bear ill will  
<ref>TC.</ref>To recriminate, complain, resist <ref>(Denwood 1991: 
136).</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'kham</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'kham</orth><ref>CD,
 DK.</ref><orth>'khams</orth><ref> 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khams</orth><ref>DK, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'kham</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>'khams</orth><ref>
 TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'khams</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref>
 TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To sink or 
fall down senseless; to faint away; to swoon. 2. To take into one's mouth 
(Sch.) <ref>CD.</ref> To faint, to become unconscious 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khar</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khar</orth><ref>CD,
 DK, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khard</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>'khar</orth><ref>
 TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khar</orth><ref>DK,
 TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'khard</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To adhere, to 
stick to <ref>CD.</ref> To long for; to crave for, to be greedy; to be impeded 
<ref>DK.</ref>To adhere to, to stick to, to be caught on 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khal</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khal</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, (DS), TC.</ref><orth>'khel</orth><ref> DS, 
(TC).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkald</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref><orth>bkal</orth><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bkal</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
TC.</ref><orth>dgal</orth><ref> DS.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>kheld</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'khald</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref><orth>khol</orth><ref> DS.</ref><orth>'khol</orth><ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref> TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>skud pa sogs</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To spin. 2. (in West) To 
send; to forward things <ref>CD.</ref> To spin yard; to make thread 
<ref>DK.</ref> To spin wool, cotton, silk &amp;c. into thread <ref>DS.</ref> To 
spin <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>'khel</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khu</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khu</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DK, DS, TC, (Denwood 1991: 
136).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khus</orth><ref>LZ, DS, 
(Denwood 1991: 136).</ref><orth>'khu</orth><ref> ND, DK, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khu</orth><ref>LZ, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>'khu</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. 
Obl.] <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>zhe gnag gis</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To offend, to vie with, 
contend (J&auml;) <ref>CD.</ref> To be unsatisfied; to hate <ref>DK.</ref> To 
bear thoughts of harm <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To contend with, to vie with, to harm. 
2. (archaic) To oppose <ref>TC.</ref> To oppose, rebel <ref>(Denwood 1991: 
136).</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Perhaps to be linked with 
<orth>dku</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khun</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khun</orth><ref>LZ,
  DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khund</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>khund</orth><ref>
 DK.</ref><orth>'khun</orth><ref> [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khun</orth><ref>LZ, [DS], 
TC.</ref><orth>khun</orth><ref> DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'khun</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'khund</orth><ref> DK.</ref> 
<dash> <ref> TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. 
Obl.] <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>khur sogs kyis mnard te</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To pant, to whisper 
<ref>DK.</ref> For a sound to come from the throat because of illness 
<ref>DS.</ref> 1. To groan, to moan. 2. To be breathless. 3. To make a guttural 
sound like the cawing of a pigeon 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khum</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khum</orth><ref>CD,
 DK, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>khums</orth><ref>CD.</ref><orth>'khum</orth><ref>ND
 .</ref><orth>'khums</orth><ref> DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khum</orth><ref>DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'khums</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Tournadre &amp; 
 Dorje 2003), (Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. 
Obl.] <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative of: 
</label><orth>skum</orth><ref>(Gyurme 1992: 259), (Beyer 1992: 
116).</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To shrink <ref>CD.</ref> 
To contract, shrink; to be afraid of, to recoil <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To shrink in 
size. 2. To measure, be miserly <ref>DS.</ref> To shrink, contract 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khums</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khums</orth><ref>LZ,
 DK.</ref><orth>'khum</orth><ref>CD, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khums</orth><ref> LZ, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>khums</orth><ref>CD, DK.</ref><orth>'khum</orth><ref>ND 
.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khums</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'khum</orth><ref>DS,
 TC.</ref><orth>khum</orth><ref> DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'khums</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>khums</orth><ref> DK.</ref> 
<dash> <ref> DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, 
(Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref><label> Intransitive:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>tshig don 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To comprehend 
<ref>CD.</ref> To comprehend, to hear <ref>DK, DS.</ref> To know, to have an 
idea of 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khur</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khur</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS. TC.</ref><orth>bkur</orth><ref>CD (in 
West).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>khurd</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>khur</orth><ref>
 DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>bkurd</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>khur</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'khur</orth><ref>
 DS, TC.</ref><orth>bkur</orth><ref> DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khur</orth><ref>LZ, DS, TC.</ref><orth>khurd</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative of: 
</label><orth>skur</orth><ref>(Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>khres po sogs</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To carry; to fetch; in convey 
<ref>CD.</ref> To carry <ref>DK.</ref> To carry placed on a person's back or 
shoulders <ref>DS.</ref> To carry, to shoulder, to bear 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khul</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khul</orth><ref>CD,
 DK, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khuld</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>'khul</orth><ref>(Li
 yung khrang 
1988).</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khul</orth><ref>DK, (Li 
yung khrang 1988).</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'khuld</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> (Li yung khrang 
1988).</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>(Li yung khrang 
1988).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>skul</orth><ref>[Coblin 
1986].</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To subdue, to subject 
(Nag) (Cs.). 2.  To be uneasy about <ref>CD.</ref> To subdue, to force  
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khus</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khus</orth><ref>DK,
 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkus</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bku</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>khus</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
To extract juice from; to take out juice <ref>DK.</ref> (archaic) To conceal 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'kheng</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'kheng</orth><ref>
 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khengs</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'kheng</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label> <dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be frozen, 
to be congealed 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khel</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khel</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DK, TC.</ref><orth>khel</orth><ref>CD. DS.</ref><orth>'gel</orth><ref> 
(CD).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkald</orth><ref>LZ, 
ND.</ref><orth>khel</orth><ref> CD, DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bkal</orth><ref>LZ<sub>1</sub>.</ref><orth>dgal</orth><ref>LZ<sub>2</sub>.</ref><orth>'khal</orth><ref>
 ND.</ref><footnote> <ref>ND<sub>B</sub></ref> seems to read <orth>'khas</orth> 
but this is more likely a mistake than the <orth>'khal</orth> of 
<ref>ND<sub>A</sub>.</ref></footnote> <orth>'khel</orth><ref>DK, 
TC.</ref><orth>khel</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>kheld</orth><ref>LZ<sub>1</sub>, DK.</ref><orth>khold</orth><ref> 
LZ<sub>2</sub>, ND.</ref> <dash> <ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, 
DS.</ref><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Tournadre &amp;  Dorje 2003: 
313), (Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label>[Abs.] 
<ref>(Tournadre &amp;  Dorje 2003: 313).</ref>[Abs. Obl.] <ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>'gel</orth><ref>(Beyer 1992: 
113).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>khral dang chad pa sogs</orth><ref> 
LZ<sub>1</sub>.</ref><orth>khal dang gzer lung la</orth><ref> 
LZ<sub>2</sub>.</ref><orth>skud pa sogs</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To put on, to pack on, to 
load <ref>(<orth>'khel</orth>) CD.</ref> 1. To load upon; = <orth>'khel 
ba</orth> (J&auml;), 2. To rely upon; depend on <ref>(<orth>khel</orth>) 
CD.</ref> To be decided, to be confirmed; to strike, hit; to be on the way 
<ref>DK.</ref> 1. To strike (e.g. a target with arrow). 2. To decide on the 
meaning of a belief <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To be determined.  2. To make contact, to 
encounter, to co&iuml;ncide with, to endure. 3. To trust 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'kho</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'kho</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khos</orth><ref>(Zeisler
 2004: 454).</ref><orth>khos</orth><ref>(Zeisler 2004: 
454).</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dgos</orth><ref>(see 
note).</ref></wrIII><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To wish, to want, to think 
useful, serviceable, necessary (J&auml;) 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare <orth>khos pa</orth> 
'wanted, wished for'. Compare also <orth>mkho</orth> 'to be desirable, 
necessary' <orth>mkhos phub</orth> 'fancy for something' 
<ref>(CD).</ref><orth>dgos</orth> 'to need' may perhaps be related as the 
future stem <ref>(Zeisler 2004: 454 n. 
138).</ref></note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khong</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khong</orth><ref>CD,
 DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khong</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khong</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrIII><transitivity><label>Intransitive:
 </label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To draw in 
one's limbs; to sit in a cowering position, to squat; to hide one's self 
<ref>CD.</ref> 1. To be unsatisfiedly unhappy. 2. To remain with the body's 
limbs contracted. 3. (<orth>mdo smad</orth> dialect for 
<orth>sgong</orth><sub>1</sub>) To make into a ball (barley flower &amp;c.) 
<ref>DS.</ref>(archaic) To be disheartened 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note: </label> Compare 
<orth>bkong</orth><sub>1</sub> and 
<orth>'gong</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khod</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khod</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khod</orth><ref>LZ, [DS], 
TC.</ref><orth>khod</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khod</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'khod</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>khod</orth><ref> DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref> TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref><label>Transitive:</label><ref> (Gyurme 1992: 
247).</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>'god</orth><ref>(Beyer 1992: 112), (Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>gdan sogs 
la</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To sit, to 
dwell, to live; to be set down <ref>CD.</ref> To be registered; to sit down on 
a throne; to be enthroned; to become a leader; to be in line <ref>DK.</ref>To 
stay in one's place <ref>DS.</ref>1. To be placed, to be present, to be 
situated. 2. To be established, to be set down, to be recorded, to be labeled 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label><ref>(Uray 1972: 19) 
.</ref>connects this verb with 
<orth>mkhos</orth>/<orth>khos</orth>/<orth>khod</orth> 'institution, 
administration, settlement of the state' along with the verbs, <orth>sko</orth> 
and 
<orth>'god</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khon</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bkon</orth><ref>LZ,
 TC.</ref><orth>'khon</orth><ref>ND, 
DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkond</orth><ref>LZ, ND, 
DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bkon</orth><ref>LZ, ND, 
DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>bkond</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>kond</orth><ref>ND.</ref><orth>khond</orth><ref>
 DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>ND.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref> 
(Skorupski 2001).</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Causative of: 
</label><orth>'khon</orth><sub>2</sub>.</causation><example><label>Characteristic
 Example:</label><orth>gnod pa sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>logs 
la</orth><ref> ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To create 
enmity; to disturb a friendly relation or to cause disunion <ref>DK.</ref> To 
threaten, menace <ref>DS.</ref> (archaic) To bear a grudge, to harbor revenge 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khon</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khon</orth><ref>LZ.
 DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>khond</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>khon</orth><ref>
 DK.</ref><orth>'khon</orth><ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khon</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'khon</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>khond</orth><ref> DK.</ref> 
<dash> <ref> TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, 
(Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. 
Ass.] <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative of: 
</label><orth>'khon</orth><sub>1</sub>.</causation><example><label>Characteristic
 Example:</label><orth>gzhan dang</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To bear a grudge or ill will 
against a person; to be dissatisfied with a thing; to be malicious, spiteful 
<ref>CD.</ref> To be revengeful, spiteful, hateful <ref>DK.</ref>1. To bear 
enmity, hostility. 2. To be impeded, to be obstructed 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label><ref>(Chang 1971: vii.16) 
.</ref>suggests based on colloquial data a verb *'khon which means 'to get 
caught, or hung up' see note at <orth>skon</orth>, and 
<orth>rkon</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khob</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khobs</orth><ref>CD.</ref><orth>'khob</orth><ref>
 DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khobs</orth><ref>DS.</ref><orth>'khob</orth><ref>
 TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khob</orth><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label> <dash> <ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be 
startled, agitated, alarmed (J&auml;) <ref>CD.</ref> To be stiff due to cold 
<ref>DS.</ref> To be stiff, rigid 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khor</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khord</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'khor</orth><ref>
 CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khord</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref><orth>'khor</orth><ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khor</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>'khor</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref><orth>'khord</orth><ref> DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref> TC, (Tournadre 
&amp; Dorje 2003), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>skor</orth><ref>(Gyurme 1992: 259), (Beyer
 1992: 116).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic
 Example:</label><orth>las nyon gyis 'khor bar</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To turn round, 
circumambulate. 2. To be formed, perfected. <ref>CD.</ref> To rotate or turn 
round <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To turn at a hub. 2. To change direction. 3. To come, 
to gather <ref>DS.</ref> To revolve, to rotate, to spin, to go around, to 
elapse (of time) <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare the 
noun <orth>sgor mo</orth> 'round, a circle, 
globe'.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khol</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khol</orth><ref>CD,
 DK, TC.</ref><orth>khol</orth><ref> 
DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>khol</orth><ref>CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khol</orth><ref>DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khold</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Tournadre 
&amp; Dorje 2003: 306), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Abs.] <ref>(Tournadre 
&amp; Dorje 2003: 306).</ref>[Abs. Obl.] <ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>skol</orth><ref>(Gyurme 1992: 259), (Beyer 1992: 
116).</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> (in Medicine) To boil 
<ref>CD.</ref> 1. To be boiling. 2. To feel anxiety or to be agitated. 3. To be 
active in service, to be an obedient servant <ref>DK.</ref> For bubbles to 
arise from within a liquid which has arrived at a certain temperature 
<ref>DS.</ref> To boil, be boiled 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khol</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khol</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkold</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref><orth>bkol</orth><ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bkol</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
TC.</ref><orth>dgol</orth><ref> DS.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khol</orth><ref>LZ, CD, DS, TC.</ref><orth>khold</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>g.yog sogs su</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To make a person a slave; 
to bind as a servant, to cause to serve one. 2. To become insensible, to be 
asleep; to get benumbed in reference to the limbs (Sch.) <ref>CD.</ref> To use 
as a servant; to make somebody serve; to use <ref>DK.</ref> To use 
<ref>DS.</ref> To take into service, to assign someone, to use 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khol</orth><sub>3</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bkol</orth><ref>LZ,
 TC.</ref><orth>'khol</orth><ref>CD, ND, DK, 
DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkold</orth><ref>LZ, ND, 
DK.</ref><orth>bkol</orth><ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bkol</orth><ref>LZ, ND, DK, 
TC.</ref><orth>dgol</orth><ref> DS.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>bkold</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>khol</orth><ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>khold</orth><ref> ND, 
DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>CD, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>logs dang zur du</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>zur du las 
'am</orth><ref> ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To save; to 
spare; to enjoy with moderation (Cs.) <ref>CD.</ref> To isolate, to keep 
separately <ref>DK.</ref> To separate apart, put aside <ref>DS.</ref> To 
select, set aside, single out, separate 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khyag</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khyag</orth><ref>CD,
 ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khyags</orth><ref>ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>khyags</orth><ref> 
(DS).</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khyag</orth> <ref>ND, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label> <dash> <ref>ND, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>'khyags</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>grang ba'i</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To freeze, coagulate, feel 
cold <ref>CD.</ref> To freeze or become very cold, to be chilled 
<ref>DK.</ref>To cool <ref>DS.</ref>To be cold, to freeze<ref> 
TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khyam</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khyam</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khyams</orth><ref>LZ, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khyam</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khyams</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'khyams</orth><ref> DK.</ref> 
<dash> <ref> DS.</ref><orth>'khyoms</orth><ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary:</label><ref>DS.</ref><label> 
Voluntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>'khor ba sogs su</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To rove, to wander 
<ref>CD.</ref> To wander; to ramble <ref>DK.</ref>To go here and there without 
a definite goal<ref> DS.</ref>To wander, to roam, to travel aimlessly 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khyar</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khyar</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khyard</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>khyar</orth><ref>
 DK.</ref><orth>'khyar</orth><ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khyar</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'khyar</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>khyard</orth><ref> DK.</ref> 
<dash> <ref> TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. 
Obl.] <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>gzhan du</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To err, to go astray 
<ref>CD.</ref> To roam; to wander; to stray <ref>DK.</ref> To let out a secret 
<ref>DS.</ref> To be dislocated, to stray, to be dispersed, to be missing 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Root given as 'khyar &lt; 
'khor 'turn' (?) <ref>(Beyer 1992: 
83).</ref></note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khyal</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khyal</orth><ref>LZ,
 DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkyald</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bkyal</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>kyald</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'khyald</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrIV><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>don med 
pa'i ngag sogs</orth><ref> LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
talk nonsense, to gossip or drivel 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khyal</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khyald</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>'khyal</orth><ref>
 DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>khyal</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>'khyal</orth><ref>
 [DS], TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khyal</orth><ref>DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khyald</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. 
Obl.] <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
gossip; to converse meaninglessly <ref>DK.</ref> 1. For earlier and later words 
to not be connected, for earlier and later to not be connected. 2. To move away 
from an earlier position <ref>DS.</ref> To lapse, to lose control, to go astray 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare the nouns <orth>rkyal 
ka</orth>, and <orth>kyal ka</orth> 'a joke, jest, 
trick'.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khyig</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khyig</orth><ref>
 CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>'khyigs</orth><ref> LZ, 
(CD).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkyigs</orth><ref>LZ, CD, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bkyig</orth><ref>LZ, 
ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khyigs</orth><ref>LZ, ND, DS, TC.</ref><orth>'khyigs</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>rkang lag sogs</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>thag
 pas</orth><ref> ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To bind, to 
take prisoner; (in Central Tibet) To strangle, suffocate <ref>CD.</ref> To 
bind; to fasten or tie; to truss up <ref>DK.</ref>To restrain men, livestock 
&amp;c. with a rope <ref>DS.</ref> To tie, bind 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khyig</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khyig</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khyigs</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khyig</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label> <dash> <ref>DS.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To tightly 
bind 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khyigs</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khyigs</orth><ref>(J&auml;).</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 To comprise, encompass 
<ref>(J&auml;).</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khyid</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khyid</orth><ref>CD
 (archaic).</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To turn, roll (one's 
eyes); to draw out; strain; to roll, revolve 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khyims</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khyims</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khyims</orth><ref>LZ, 
[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khyims</orth><ref>LZ, 
[DS].</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>'khyims</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></wrIV><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>nyi zla sogs</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be encircled with a halo, 
like the sun and moon <ref>CD.</ref> To seep out from 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare <orth>'gyim pa</orth> 
'circumference'.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khyir</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khyir</orth><ref>CD,
 DS, TC.</ref><orth>'khyird</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>khyir</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>'khyir</orth><ref>
 [DS] TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khyir</orth><ref>DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khyir</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref><label> Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To turn 
around <ref>CD.</ref> To wind round; to move in a circle; to circle 
<ref>DK.</ref>To rotate a parasol<ref> DS.</ref>To rotate, spin 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khyil</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khyil</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DS, TC.</ref><orth>'khyild</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khyild</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>khyil</orth><ref>
 DK.</ref><orth>'khyil</orth><ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khyil</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'khyil</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>khyild</orth><ref> DK. -- 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative of: 
</label><orth>skyil</orth><ref>(Gyurme 1992: 259), (Beyer 1992: 
116).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>dgyibs kyi rnam pa sogs su</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To wind; to twist; to whirl 
around <ref>CD.</ref> To be collected or to be stored; to accumulate 
<ref>DK.</ref>1. To be bent like the pattern of a conch shell. 2. For liquids 
(water &amp;c.) to gather <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To be absorbed. 2. To whirl around, 
to twist, to coil up, to curl up, to spiral 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khyug</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khyug</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DS, TC.</ref><orth>'khyugs</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khyug</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>khyug</orth><ref>
 CD, DK.</ref><orth>'khyugs</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khyug</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'khyug</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>khyugs</orth><ref> DK.</ref> 
<dash> <ref> DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>DS, 
TC, (Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. 
Obl.] <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>glog dang nya chung sogs</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To run, move swiftly 
<ref>CD.</ref> To move swiftly, to flash <ref>DK.</ref> To move swiftly, to 
flash 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khyud</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khyud</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khyud</orth><ref>LZ, ND, [DS], 
TC.</ref><orth>khyud</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khyud</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'khyud</orth><ref>LZ, TC.</ref><orth>khyud</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>ND.</ref><label> 
Voluntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref><label> Transitive:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>phan 
tshun</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To 
embrace. 2. To glide in or into. 3. To be able <ref>CD.</ref> To embrace or 
hug; to encompass; to coil up; to surround or to encircle; to have great faith 
or interest in some one or some thing <ref>DK.</ref>1. Tug, to embrace. 2. To 
engage in sexual intercourse 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khyur</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khyur</orth><ref>CD,
 TC.</ref><orth>'khyurd</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>khyur</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>'khyur</orth><ref>
 TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khyur</orth><ref>DK, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khyurd</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>skyur</orth><ref> [CD].(Beyer 1992: 
116).</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To be separated, 
divorced (Cs.); to stop; to put an end to. 2. To be deserted (J&auml;) 
<ref>CD.</ref> To be transferred <ref>DK  .</ref>To be transferred, to be 
assigned 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khyus</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khyu</orth><ref>CD.</ref><orth>'khyus</orth><ref>
 ND, DK, DS (archaic), 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khyus</orth><ref>CD, ND, 
TC.</ref><orth>khyus</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khyu</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref><orth>'khyus</orth><ref> TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khyus</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>dkyu</orth>.</causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To run 
away <ref>CD, DK.</ref>(an archaic equivalent of <orth>'bros</orth>) To flee 
<ref>DS.</ref> To run away, to flee 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label><ref>ND</ref> lists another 
verb <orth>'khyus</orth>, <orth>dkyus</orth>, <orth>dkyu</orth>, 
<orth>dkyus</orth> with Characteristic Example <orth>bros pa'i</orth> which is 
clearly a confusion between this verb and <orth>dkyu</orth>. Compare 
<orth>dkyu</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khyeg</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khyeg</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkyeg</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'gyeg</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>khyog</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrIV><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>yar la</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khyed</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khyed</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>khyed</orth><ref>(Beyer
 1992: 113).</ref></wrII><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>'gyed</orth><ref>(Beyer
 1992: 113).</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To be 
sufficient, to suffice, to be enough; to hold out. 2. (Central Dialect) To gain 
(a lawsuit); to be acquitted (J&auml;) 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khyer</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khyer</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>khyerd</orth><ref> LZ, ND, 
DK.</ref><orth>khyer</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>khyer</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref><orth>'khyer</orth><ref> ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>khyer</orth><ref>LZ, 
DS, TC.</ref><orth>khyerd</orth><ref>ND.</ref><orth>'khyerd</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, DS, TC, (Tournadre 
&amp; Dorje 2003: 210), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref><label> Transitive:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 210). (Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>rdzas 
sogs gzhan du</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>lag tu</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To carry away, to take away 
<ref>CD.</ref> To carry, to take away, to bring <ref>DK.</ref>To carry, to take 
away<ref> 
TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khyel</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khyel</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 (in Ladakh) To hit, to strike 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khyog</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khyog</orth><ref>CD,
 ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>khyog</orth><ref>CD.</ref><orth>'khyog</orth><ref>
 ND.</ref><orth>'khyogs</orth><ref> DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khyog</orth><ref>DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khyog</orth><ref>CD.</ref><orth>'khyogs</orth><ref> DK.</ref> 
<dash> <ref> DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>CD.</ref><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To lift; 
lift up. 2. To carry, to bring <ref>CD.</ref> To be crooked; to become crooked, 
to twist <ref>DK.</ref>To be bent, to be crooked, to sway, to curve 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khyong</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khyong</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, TC.</ref><orth>'khyongs</orth><ref> CD, DK, 
DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khyongs</orth><ref>LZ, [DS], 
TC.</ref><orth>khyong</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khyong</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
TC.</ref><orth>'khyongs</orth><ref> [DS].</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khyongs</orth><ref>LZ, DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref><label>Voluntary:</label><ref> (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>nyin dnag thun 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To 
observe. 2. (in Ladakh) To bring (J&auml;), (Ramsay) <ref>CD.</ref> 1. To 
continue without interruption. 2. To arrive at a good or complete [state]. 3. 
To be able. 4. To enunciate, use good diction <ref>DS.</ref> To continue, to 
conclude 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khyom</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khyom</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khyoms</orth><ref>LZ, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khyom</orth><ref>LZ, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khyoms</orth><ref>LZ.</ref> <dash> <ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>skyom</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: v .4), (Gyurme 1992: 259), 
(Beyer 1992: 116).</ref> Beyer incorrectly gives <orth>'khyo</orth> [sic] 
'reel, stagger' for <orth>'khyom</orth>, with causative <orth>skyom</orth> 
'shake, agitate' (Beyer 1992: 
116).<ref>.</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>sa dang sems 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> (in Central 
Tibet) To reel, stagger <ref>CD.</ref> To be aroused, to be agitated, to be 
disturbed. 2. To sway, to roll, to rock 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khyor</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khyor</orth><ref>CD,
 DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khyor</orth><ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khyor</orth><ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be 
unsteady; to miss, fail, not to hit (Cs.); to reel, stager from intoxication 
<ref>CD.</ref> To be unsteady, to stagger, to totter 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Root given as 'khyor &lt; 
'khor 'turn' <ref>(Beyer 1992: 83).</ref></note></entry>
<entry><headword><orth>'khyol</orth></headword>
<wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khyol</orth><ref>LZ, CD, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>'khyold</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khyold</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>khyol</orth><ref>
 DK.</ref><orth>'khyol</orth><ref> [DS], TC.</ref></wrII>
<wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khyol</orth><ref>LZ, DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'khyold</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>khyold</orth><ref> (LZ), 
DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>nyams len sogs tshad 
du</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be carried, 
to be bought <ref>CD.</ref> To reach one's destination; to complete one's life 
<ref>DK.</ref> To be concluded, to be finished, to reach a goal 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> <ref>CD</ref> suggests 
comparison with <orth>skyel</orth>.</note></entry>
<entry><headword><orth>'khra</orth></headword>
<wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khra</orth><ref>LZ, CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI>
<wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khras</orth><ref>LZ, CD (probably), DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII>
<wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khra</orth><ref>LZ, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>'khras</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. 
Obl.] <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>rten gnas sogs 
la</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To lean to; to 
incline toward (Cs.) <ref>CD.</ref> To crave for; to be impeded <ref>DK.</ref> 
(archaic) To be attached, to stay in one place, to depend on 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khrab</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khrab</orth><ref>CD,
 DK, 
DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkrab</orth><ref>CD.</ref><orth>skrab</orth><ref>
 CD.</ref><orth>bkrabs</orth><ref> DK. 
DS.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bkrab</orth><ref>DK, 
(DS).</ref><orth>dkrab</orth><ref> DS.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'khrabs</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>khrobs</orth><ref> 
DS.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>skrab</orth>.</causation><denominative><label>Denominative 
of:</label><orth>'khrab ma</orth>'flail, 
fan'.</denominative><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To strike; to beat (in 
regular, strokes as in swimming and rowing). 2. To winnow, to fan. 3. To blink, 
twinkle, wink with the eyes. 4. To jest, joke. 5. To leap, jump. 6. To scoop 
out; to bail out <ref>CD.</ref> To select; to move legs, eyes etc. to dance 
<ref>DK.</ref>To thresh or winnow chaff from grain with a flail or fan 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khrab</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khrab</orth><ref>LZ,
 DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khrabs</orth><ref>LZ, 
TC.</ref><orth>'khrab</orth><ref> 
[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khrab</orth><ref>LZ, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khrobs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'khrobs</orth><ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:
 </label><ref>TC, (Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 339), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 339), (Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>skrab</orth>.</causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>bro gar 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To dance 
<ref>DS.</ref>To perform, to stage, to beat, to stamp 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khri</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khri</orth><ref>CD,
 ND, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khris</orth><ref>CD, 
DS, TC.</ref><orth>'khri</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khri</orth><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label> <dash> <ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative of: 
</label><orth>dkri</orth><ref>[CD] (Chang 1971: 
v.6).</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To wind, compress; 
entangle, hold fast <ref>CD.</ref> To be responsible, to be tied down by 
responsibilities 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khrig</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khrig</orth><ref>LZ,
 ND, CD, DK.</ref><orth>'khrigs</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khrigs</orth><ref>LZ, DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref><orth>'khrig</orth><ref> LZ, 
ND.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khrig</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref><orth>'khrigs</orth><ref> [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khrigs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'khrig</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref><orth>'khrigs</orth><ref> DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>dkrig</orth>.<label> Resultative 
of:</label><orth>'grig</orth><ref>(Beyer 1992: 
112).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>khug rna dang sprin sogs</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>'dod 
pas</orth><ref> LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To cohere; to 
stick together, become thick <ref>CD.</ref> To become overcast, to be piled up 
<ref>DK.</ref> To thicken, to become dense, to gather 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khrid</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bkri</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD (archaic), TC.</ref><orth>'khrid</orth><ref>CD, ND, DK, 
DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkris</orth><ref>LZ, CD, DK, 
(DS), 
TC.</ref><orth>bkri</orth><ref>CD.</ref><orth>bkrid</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bkri</orth><ref>LZ,
 ND, DK, (DS), TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khrid</orth><ref>ND, DK, DS.</ref><orth>bkris</orth><ref> LZ, 
(DS), TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative of: 
</label><orth>skri</orth>.</causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>thar lam dang gzhan sogs 
su</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>gnas 
su</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To lead; to 
conduct; bring to a place, especially used with in connection with animals and 
children, also of leading an army <ref>(<orth>'khrid</orth>) CD.</ref> To draw, 
to try, to acquire, to search for <ref>(<orth>bkri</orth>) CD.</ref>To lead; to 
bring to a place; to take; to guide from the worldly misery <ref>DK.</ref> 1. 
To lead on a path. 2. To teach, instruct. 3. To lead, turn someone to go in a 
particular direction <ref>(DS).</ref>To guide, lead 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khrid</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khrid</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>khrid</orth><ref>LZ, CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>khrid</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref><orth>'khrid</orth><ref> DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khrid</orth><ref>LZ, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Tournadre 
&amp; Dorje 2003: 306), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 306), (Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>gnas 
dang dpe cha sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning: 
</label>To lead; to conduct; bring to a place, especially used with in 
connection with animals and children, also of leading and army <ref>CD.</ref> 
To explain a book; to teach in detail <ref>DK.</ref>1. To lead on a path. 2. To 
teach, instruct. 3. To lead, turn someone to go in a particular direction 
<ref>DS.</ref> 1. To lead, to draw, to take, to guide, to bring, to conduct. 2. 
To instruct, to teach 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khrims</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khrims</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khrims</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khrims</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrIII><transitivity><label>Intransitive:
 </label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be 
cowardly, terror having arisen 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khril</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khril</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DS, TC.</ref><orth>'khrild</orth><ref> DK.</ref><orth>khril</orth><ref> 
(DS).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khrild</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>khril</orth><ref>
 DK, [(DS)].</ref><orth>'khril</orth><ref> [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khril</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref><orth>khril</orth><ref> 
[(DS)].</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'khril</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>khrild</orth><ref> DK.</ref> 
<dash> <ref>  TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, 
(Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. 
Obl.] <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>dkri</orth><ref>(Chang 1971:  
v.6).</ref><orth>sgril</orth>.</causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>lus dang shing sogs 
la</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To wind, coil 
round, to clasp round <ref>CD.</ref> To embrace; to hug; to coil up 
<ref>DK.</ref> To coil, wind around 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khris</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khris</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khris</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khris</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>'khris</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></wrIV><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>'dod yon sogs 
la</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khru</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khru</orth><ref>CD,
 DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>khrus</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref><orth>'khrus</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khru</orth><ref>DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>'khrus</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. 
Obl.] <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative of: 
</label><orth>'khrud</orth>.</causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To wash, 
to bathe <ref>CD.</ref> To become clean; to be washed <ref>DK.</ref>To have 
diarrhea 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khrug</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khrug</orth><ref>CD,
 ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khrug</orth><ref>CD, ND, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khrug</orth><ref>ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'khrugs</orth><ref>ND, DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>ND.</ref><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>dkrug</orth><ref>[CD], (Chang 1971: v. 6), (Gyurme 1992: 
258).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>dmag 
sogs</orth><ref>ND.</ref><orth>dmag</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 To be in commotion, to be disturbed <ref>CD.</ref> To fight; to quarrel; to 
disturb or to be in disorder; to be confused <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To be disturbed, 
to be agitated. 2. To fight,
 to quarrel 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khrung</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khrung</orth><ref>CD,
 DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>'khrungs</orth><ref> 
CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khrungs</orth><ref>DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khrung</orth><ref>DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'khrung</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Tournadre 
&amp;  Dorje 2003), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs.] <ref>(Tournadre 
&amp;  Dorje 2003).</ref>[Abs. Obl.] <ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> (honorific) 1. To be born 
to. 2. To arise, come from. 3. To come up, shoot, sprout, grow (J&auml;) 
<ref>CD.</ref> To be born <ref>DK.</ref>(honorific) To be born 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khrud</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khru</orth><ref>LZ,
 (TC).</ref><orth>'khrud</orth><ref>CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkrus</orth><ref>LZ, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>'khrus</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bkru</orth><ref>LZ,
 ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khru</orth><ref>(Zeisler 2004: 
348).</ref><orth>khrus</orth><ref>LZ, ND, DK DS 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, DS, TC, (Tournadre 
&amp; Dorje 2003), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003), (Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'khru</orth>.</causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>sgrub chu sogs 
kyis</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning: </label>To wash, to 
cleanse, to bathe <ref>CD.</ref> To wash; to cleanse; to take a bath 
<ref>DK.</ref> To wash 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khrul</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khrul</orth><ref>CD,
 DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khruld</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>'khrul</orth><ref>[DS],
 TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khrul</orth><ref>DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'khruld</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>'grul</orth><ref>(Beyer 1992: 
112).</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be insane or deranged 
<ref>CD.</ref> To be mistaken, to be confused <ref>DK.</ref> To be mistaken, to 
err, to be bewildered, to be deranged, to hallucinate 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khren</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khren</orth><ref>LZ,
 
CD.</ref><orth>'khrend</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khrend</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>khren</orth><ref>
 DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khren</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>khrend</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref></wrIV><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] <ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>khyim 
sogs la</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To 
wish, to long for. 2. To look upon with envy, jealousy (J&auml;) <ref>CD.</ref> 
To long for; to crave for; to be greedy 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khreb</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khreb</orth><ref>DS,
 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khreb</orth><ref>[DS].</ref><orth>'khrebs</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khreb</orth><ref>[DS],
 TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref><label>Intransitive:</label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.]<ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label>To squint (? <orth>mig 
rdeb</orth> <ref>DS.</ref>To be stubborn 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khrel</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khreld</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>khrel</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khrel</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>khreld</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
To hate, dislike; to be hesitant 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khrog</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khrog</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khrogs</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khrog</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label> <dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>dkrog</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: v.6), (Gyurme 1992: 
258).</ref><orth>skrog</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: 
v.6).</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To dislocate a joint. 2. 
To have a rumbling stomach, to have borborygmus. 3. To be hard of hearing 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label><ref>(Chang 1971: v.6)</ref> 
suggests a verb *[']-khrog-[s] with the definition 'to get churned'. 
<ref>(Gyurme 1992: 158)</ref> gives the definition 'to be 
agitated'.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khrol</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khrol</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DS.</ref><orth>dkrol</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkrold</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>dkrold</orth><ref>LZ,
 ND, DK.</ref><orth>dkrol</orth><ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>bkrol</orth><ref>(DS).</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dkrol</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khrold</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>khrol</orth><ref>CD, 
DS.</ref><orth>dkrold</orth><ref>ND, 
DK.</ref><orth>dkrol</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>CD, ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'khrol</orth><sub>2</sub>.</causation><example><label>Characteristic
 Example:</label><orth>rol mo sogs</orth><ref>(<orth>dkrol</orth>) 
LZ.</ref><orth>sil rnyan bon rna sogs</orth><ref>(<orth>'khrol</orth>) 
LZ.</ref><orth>rol ma 
sogs</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To cause to 
sound; make a noise; play <ref>CD.</ref> 3 To sound; to play musical 
instruments <ref>DK.</ref>To draw out sound from a music instrument 
<ref>DS.</ref> To play a musical instrument 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khrol</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khrol</orth><ref>DK,
 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khrold</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>'khrol</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khrol</orth><ref>DK,
 TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'khrold</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>'khrol</orth><sub>1</sub>.</causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 To sound <ref>DK.</ref> To play a musical instrument 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'khrol</orth><sub>3</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'khrol</orth><ref>TC
 (Bielmeier 1988: 
20).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'khrol</orth><ref>TC.</ref><orth>khrol</orth><ref>(Bielmeier
 1988: 
20).</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'khrol</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref>TC.</ref><label>Transitive:</label><ref>(Bielmeier
 1988: 20).</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative of: 
</label><orth>grol</orth><ref>(Bielmeier 1988: 
20).</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning: </label>To unravel, decipher, to 
be given permission, consent <ref>TC.</ref> To untie something <ref>(Bielmeier 
1988: 
20).</ref></trans></entry></div><div><head><orth>ga</orth></head><entry><headword><orth>gang</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>gang</orth><ref>CD,
 DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>'gang</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>gang</orth><ref>DK,
 [DS], TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>gang</orth><ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref><orth>'gang</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>gang</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Inst.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>'geng</orth><ref>(Gyurme 1992: 
259),</ref><orth>sgang</orth>.</causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
fill, to make fill <ref>CD.</ref> To be full; to become full <ref>DK.</ref> To 
pervade the parts, to reach the amount <ref>DS.</ref> To be full, to become 
full <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>kheng</orth>, and 
<orth>skong</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>gab</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>gab</orth><ref>CD,
 DS, TC.</ref><orth>'gabs</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>gab</orth><ref>DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'gab</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref><orth>gab</orth><ref>[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>gabs</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref><orth>gob</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref><label> Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>'gebs</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: vii.16-17), (Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To hide, to conceal one's 
self <ref>CD.</ref> To hide; to conceal one's self <ref>DK.</ref> To hide 
<ref>DS.</ref> To hide oneself, to conceal oneself 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gal</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>gal</orth><ref>CD,
 
DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>gald</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>gal</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>gald</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
To force, to press something on a person <ref>CD.</ref> To be liable for; to be 
subject to a tax 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gas</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>gas</orth><ref>
 [CD], DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>gas</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>gas</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrIII><transitivity><label>Intransitive:
 </label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>'gas</orth><sub>1</sub><ref>TC.</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 To split, to crack, to burst apart <ref>[CD].</ref> (for a substance) To 
fracture <ref>DS.</ref> To break, split 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> To be identified with 
<orth>'gas</orth><sub>2</sub>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>gug</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>gug</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, 
TC.</ref><orth>'gug</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkug</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>gug</orth><ref>DK,
 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bkug</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>gug</orth><ref>DK,
 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>gug</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'gugs</orth><ref>DK.</ref>
 <dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, 
(Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Charectaristic 
example:</label><orth>shing 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To stoop, 
bend, to bow down. 2. (In West) To rub or scratch gently; to tickle 
<ref>CD.</ref> To bend toward, to bend down <ref>DK.</ref> To bend down, to 
stoop down, to be bent, to be crooked, to bow down 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Related to <orth>dgu</orth>, 
also compare 
<orth>'gugs</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>gud</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>gud</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>gud</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>gud</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label> <dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To decline, 
to fade 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gus</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>gus</orth><ref>DK,
 TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>gus</orth><ref>DK, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>gus</orth><ref>DK, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>gus</orth><ref>DK, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To respect; 
to show respect <ref>DK.</ref> To be respectful, to bow down, to salute 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>go</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>go</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bgos</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>go</orth><ref>DK,
 [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bgo</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>go</orth><ref>DK,
 [DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>gos</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>go</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Gyurme 
1992: 252), [Goldstein 1991: 127], (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
(Gyurme 1992: 252), [Goldstein 1991: 127].</ref><label> Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative of: 
</label><orth>nyan</orth>.</causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>chos gos sogs lus 
pa</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To understand, 
to perceive mentally <ref>CD.</ref> To hear; to comprehend or understand; to 
perceive <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To understand. 2. To hear <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To 
understand. 2. To hear 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gog</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>gog</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkog</orth><ref>LZ 
.</ref><orth>gog</orth><ref> DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dgog</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>gog</orth><ref>DK,
 [DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>gog</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>(Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>'gog</orth><sub>2</sub><ref>(Chang 1971: 
vii.17).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>shing shun 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To crawl. 
2. To crumble off; to scale off <ref>CD.</ref> To become older and older; to 
age; to decay; to crawl <ref>DK.</ref> To crawl with four limbs on the ground 
<ref>DS.</ref> To crawl 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>god</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>god</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>god</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>god</orth><ref>LZ, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>god</orth><ref>LZ.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>rgyun nor 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To suffer 
loss <ref>CD.</ref> To be squandered, to be diminished 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gon</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>gon</orth><ref>CD,
 DK, 
DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>gond</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>gon</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>gon</orth><ref>DK,
 [DS].</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>gond</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>(Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref> DS.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>g.yog</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: 
vii.16).</ref><orth>skon</orth><ref> (Chang 1971: vii.16), (Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To put clothes on 
<ref>CD.</ref> To put on; to wear <ref>DK.</ref> To wear shoes etc 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> A variant of 
<orth>gyon</orth><ref>CD, (Gyurme 1992: 259), (Hoshi 2003).</ref> See note at 
<orth>skon</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>goms</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>goms</orth><ref>DK,
 DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>goms</orth><ref>DK,
 [DS], TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>goms</orth><ref>DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>goms</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>sgom</orth>.</causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be 
accustomed to, used to <ref>DK.</ref> To become familiar with, used to 
<ref>DS.</ref> To become accustomed to, to become familiar with 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gol</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gol</orth><ref>CD.</ref><orth>'gold</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>gol</orth><ref>DS
 (archaic), TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>gol</orth><ref>CD, 
DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'gol</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>gol</orth><ref>[DS],
 TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>gold</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>CD, DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: 
</label>[Abs. Obl.] <ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To part, separate. 2. To 
deviate, err, go astray <ref>CD.</ref> To go to an isolated place 
<ref>DK.</ref> (archaic) To err, go wrong <ref>DS.</ref> To mistake, to go 
astray, to miss <ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry>
<entry><headword><orth>gos</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>gos</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>gos</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>gos</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrIII><transitivity><label>Transitive:
 </label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> For one 
thing to stick on another 
thing<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gyar</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>gyar</orth><ref>
 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>gyar</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>gyar</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label> <dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To 
encounter, to fall into (a state). 2. To go astray, to wander. 3. To be 
dispersed, to get lost 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gyed</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>gyed</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>gyed</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>gyed</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrIII><transitivity><label>Intransitive:
 </label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To open a 
gap 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gyer</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>dgyer</orth><ref>CD,
 DK.</ref><orth>gyer</orth><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>gyer</orth><ref>CD, [DS], 
TC.</ref><orth>bgyerd</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>gyer</orth><ref>[DS],
 TC.</ref><orth>bgyer</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>gyer</orth><ref>TC.</ref><orth>bgyerd</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:
 </label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. 
Abs.] <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
sing, chant <ref>(<orth>gyer</orth>) [CD].</ref>To sing, chant (an expression 
of the Bon-po) <ref>(<orth>dgyer</orth>) CD.</ref> To put in tune, to chant 
<ref>DK.</ref>To recite with a certain intonation <ref>DS.</ref>To sing, chant, 
to hum a tune 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gyes</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>gyes</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 To analyze, to split asunder <ref>CD.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> 
Elsewhere <ref>CD</ref> refers <orth>gyes</orth> to 
<orth>'gyes</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>gyon</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>gyon</orth><ref>CD,
 DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>gyon</orth><ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>gyon</orth><ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>gyon</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. 
Abs.] <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>skon</orth><ref>(Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref><orth>skyon</orth>.</causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To put 
on; to dress; to wear <ref>CD.</ref> To cover the body with a hat &amp;c. 
<ref>DS.</ref> To wear, to put on 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Root given as gyon &lt; gon 
<ref>(Beyer 1992: 83).</ref></note><note><label>Note:</label> Not to be 
differentiated from <orth>gon</orth><ref>CD, (Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></note></entry><entry><headword><orth>gyol</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>gyol</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>gyol</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>gyol</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrIII><transitivity><label>Intransitive:
 </label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To have 
difficulty walking because of a problem with the feet (for either men or 
livestock) 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>grag</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>grag</orth><ref>CD,
 DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>grags</orth><ref>CD, 
DS.</ref><orth>grag</orth><ref>DK, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>grag</orth><ref>DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>grag</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To sound 
forth; to utter a cry or sound, of men, animals, thunder, &amp;c.; to shout 
<ref>[CD].</ref>To repeat a statement without agreeing with it <ref>DK.</ref> 
1. To make a noise, sound. 2. To speak. 3. To hear, understand (a name, some 
news &amp;c.) <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To resound, to emit sound, (preceded by 
<orth>kha</orth>) to speak. 2. To hear 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>grags</orth><sub>1</sub> and 
<orth>sgrog</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>grags</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'grags</orth><ref>CD.</ref><orth>grags</orth><ref>DK,
 TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>grags</orth><ref>CD, DK, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>grags</orth><ref>DK, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>grags</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative of: 
</label><orth>sgrog</orth><ref>(Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be famous; to be 
called <ref>CD.</ref> To become well known, to be famous <ref>DK.</ref> To be 
well known <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>grag</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>grags</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>grags</orth><ref>CD.</ref><orth>'grags</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 To bind, fasten up a load (J&auml;) 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>grang</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>grang</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>grang</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>grang</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrIII><volition><label>Involuntary:
 </label><ref>(Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> For the 
body to experience getting cold 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>grang</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><auxillary><label>Auxiliary:</label><orth>grang</orth><ref>(Gyurme
 1992: 150-152), (Hahn 1994: ?4, 126-8), (&#7748;ag dba&#7749; tshul khrims 
1997).</ref></auxillary><function><label>Function:</label> (Rare, main verb is 
negated) Its main function is to express a certain necessity <ref>(Hahn 1994: 
?4, 126-8).</ref> Introduces a question which anticipates a negative response 
<ref>(Gyurme 1992: 150-152).</ref>1. To be suitable, allowed. 2. (archaic) A 
question word similar to <orth>gam</orth>, <orth>ngam</orth>, &amp;c.<ref> 
(&#7748;ag dba&#7749; tshul khrims 
1997).</ref></function><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>krang</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>grabs</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>grabs</orth><ref>LZ.
 
.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>grabs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>grabs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>grabs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></wrIV><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>'gro chas 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning: </label>1. (verb + 
<orth>grabs</orth>) about to do the verbal action. 2. (transitive verb. + 
<orth>grabs</orth> + <orth>byed</orth>) To make preparations <ref>(Goldstein 
2001).</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gram</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>gram</orth><ref>[CD],
 DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>gram</orth><ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>gram</orth><ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>'grems</orth><ref>(Gyurme 1992: 
258).</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To spread (as of 
grain, for drying). 2. To put or lay down in order (beams, &amp;c.); to spread 
out; to display; to scatter; to draw (a curtain) <ref>[CD].</ref>To cover, 
pervade, arrive <ref>DS.</ref> To be covered, to be strewn, to be scattered 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>'grams</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>gras</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>gras</orth><ref>CD.</ref><orth>dras</orth><ref>
 CD.</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To bind 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>grim</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>grim</orth><ref>CD,
 DS, TC.</ref><orth>'grim</orth><ref>(Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>grims</orth><ref> 
DS.</ref><orth>grim</orth><ref> 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>grim</orth><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative of: 
</label><orth>sgrim</orth> <ref>(Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To hasten; to hurry 
(Sch.) <ref>CD.</ref> To be wound tighter (of thread, rope &amp;c.)  
<ref>DS.</ref>To become tight, to be tightened 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>grug</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>grug</orth><ref>CD,
 DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>grug</orth><ref>[DS].</ref><orth>grugs</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>grug</orth><ref>[DS],
 TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref><label>Intransitive:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To break into 
small pieces, to crumble, to bruise <ref>CD.</ref> 1. To break into small 
pieces. 2. For men's skin to become course because of cold <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To 
be chipped, to be broken, to be bruised. 2. To be chapped, cracked 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gron</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>gron</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>gron</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>gron</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrIII><transitivity><label>Transitive:
 </label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To waste, 
spoil 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>grol</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>grol</orth><ref>LZ,
 DS, TC.</ref><orth>'grol</orth><ref>CD, (Bielmeier 1988: 
20).</ref><orth>'grold</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>grold</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>grol</orth><ref>CD,
 DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'grol</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>grol</orth><ref>[DS],
 TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>grold</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC, (Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 287), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, TC, 
(Bielmeier 1988: 20).</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Abs.] 
<ref>(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 
287).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>'grol</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: vii.18), (Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref><orth>sgrol</orth><ref>(Gyurme 1992: 259) 
,</ref><orth>'khrol</orth><sub>3</sub><ref> (Bielmeier 1988: 
20).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>sdug 
bsngal sogs las</orth><ref> LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
To escape, be liberated, be released from <ref>CD.</ref> To be free from 
suffering; to become free; to be liberated <ref>DK.</ref> 1. For a knot or 
binding to come undone. 2. To individually separate, come to an end. 3. To 
become free <ref>DS.</ref> To adjourn, to close down, to break up, to uncoil. 
2. To be free, to be liberated <ref>TC.</ref> To get untied <ref>(Bielmeier 
1988: 
20).</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gla</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>gla</orth><ref>LZ,
 DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>glas</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>gla</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>glas</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK, DS.</ref><orth>glos</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>khal rta sogs brngan 
pas</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To hire; to 
rent <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To exploit. 2. To hire. 3. To rent <ref>DS.</ref> To 
hire, to rent 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>glan</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>glan</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK.</ref><orth>glon</orth><ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>gland</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref><orth>glan</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>glan</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
TC.</ref><orth>glon</orth><ref> DS.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>glan</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>gland</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref><orth>glon</orth><ref> DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>gling bu dang lhan pa 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To patch up; 
to mend. 2. To return. 3. (colloquial for <orth>glen</orth>) To speak 
(<orth>glan</orth>) <ref>CD.</ref> To return an answer; to reply. 2. To patch, 
mend (<orth>glon</orth>) <ref>CD.</ref> To answer, to patch <ref>DK.</ref> 1. 
To join, place, contact, one thing on another thing. 2. To send a reply, to 
harm in return for a reply which harms <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To patch, mend. 2. To 
return a favor, to respond to, to reciprocate. 3. (archaic) To love, crave, 
desire <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label><ref>(Beyer 1992: 
110)</ref> suggests a connection to the noun <orth>lan</orth> 
'answer'.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>glal</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>glal</orth><ref>CD,
 DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>klal</orth><ref> CD, 
(DS).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>glald</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>glal</orth><ref>[DS],
 TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>glal</orth><ref>DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>glald</orth><ref>DK.</ref> 
<dash><ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To yawn 
or gasp <ref>CD.</ref> To display emotion through physical posture; to open 
[the] mouth; to yawn <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To yawn. 2. To stretch out 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare the verb 
<orth>g.yal</orth> 'to 
yawn'.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>glas</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>glas</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 (archaic) To move house 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gleng</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>gleng</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>glengs</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>glengs</orth><ref>LZ,
 DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>gleng</orth><ref>LZ,
 DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>glengs</orth><ref>LZ, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>LZ, DK, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>gtam gzhi 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To say, 
converse, relate, describe <ref>CD.</ref> To talk, say, mention 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gleb</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>gleb</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>glebs</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>glebs</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>gleb</orth><ref>LZ, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>glebs</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>rkang 
pas</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To make flat, 
plain (Cs.) (<orth>gleb</orth>)<ref>CD.</ref> To trample; to tread down; to 
press down by the feet (<orth>glebs</orth>) <ref>CD.</ref> To press down; to 
tread on <ref>DK.</ref> To press down, make flat <ref>DS.</ref> To flatten, 
press 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>glem</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>glem</orth><ref>CD,
 
DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>glems</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>glem</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>glems</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
To press, squeeze; to crush, squash (J&auml;) <ref>CD.</ref> To squash, 
squeeze; to press, crush <ref>DK.</ref></trans></entry>
<entry><headword><orth>glong</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>glong</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>glongs</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>glong</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>glongs</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To scower 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>glod</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>glod</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>glod</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>glod</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>glod</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>bcur sems 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To relax, 
loosen; to release; to set free <ref>DK.</ref> To release, to set free, to let 
go, to let loose 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>dga'</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>dga'</orth><ref>CD,
 ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>dga'</orth><ref>ND, 
DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dga'</orth><ref>DK, [DS]. 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label> <dash> <ref>ND, 
TC.</ref><orth>dga'</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>ND, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To rejoice 
<ref>CD.</ref> To be happy, please; to be delighted <ref>DK.</ref> To become 
happy <ref>DS.</ref> To be glad, to be pleased, to be happy, take delight 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Related by ablaut to 
<orth>mgu</orth><ref>(Simon 1971: 474).</ref></note></entry>
<entry><headword><orth>dgar</orth></headword>
<wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>dgar</orth><ref>LZ, CD, DK, (DS) 
TC.</ref><orth>dgor</orth><ref>ND.</ref><orth>'ger</orth><ref> DS.</ref></wrI>
<wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkard</orth><ref>LZ, 
ND.</ref><orth>bkar</orth><ref>DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dgar</orth><ref>LZ, 
ND.</ref> <footnote><ref>ND<sub>B</sub></ref> appears to have <orth>dga'</orth> 
but this seems unlikely.</footnote><ref>, DK, (DS), 
TC.</ref><orth>bkar</orth><ref> DS.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>dgard</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref><orth>dkord</orth><ref>ND.</ref><orth>khor</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>mang po las</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>logs su.'aM zur 
du</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To separate; 
confine; place apart (men, cattle, goods) <ref>CD.</ref> To segregate; to cross 
examine; to separate; to isolate <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To separate. 2. To erect a 
tent with a poles. 3. To put under lamp light <ref>DS.</ref>1. To set aside, to 
separate, to isolate, to quarantine, (usually following <orth>logs su</orth>). 
2. To erect, pitch a tent with a pole <ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry>
<entry><headword><orth>dgas</orth></headword>
<wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>dgas</orth><ref>CD, 
DK.</ref><orth>'ges</orth><ref> CD.</ref><orth>'gas</orth><ref> 
DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkas</orth><ref>CD, DK, 
DS.</ref></wrII>
<wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dgas</orth><ref>CD, DK, DS.</ref></wrIII>
<wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>dgas</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>khos</orth><ref> CD, 
DS.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>CD, 
DS.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity>
<causation><label>Causative of:</label><orth>'gas</orth><sub>2</sub><ref>[Chang 
1971: vii.17].</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To crack; to 
split; to cleave (in two) <ref>(<orth>dgas</orth>) CD.</ref> To split, cleave, 
divide <ref>(<orth>'ges</orth>) CD.</ref> To crack; to split; to cut into 
halves or pieces <ref>DK.</ref> To split, break apart wood &amp;c. with a knife 
or axe 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>dgu</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>dgu</orth><ref>CD,
 DK, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>dgu</orth><ref>DK, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dgu</orth><ref>DK, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>dgu</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To bend; to 
make crooked <ref>CD.</ref> To bend down, to become crooked <ref>DK.</ref> To 
bend down, to stoop down <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> 
Related to 
<orth>gug</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>dge</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>dge</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>dge</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrII></entry><entry><headword><orth>dges</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>dges</orth><ref>CD,
 
DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>dges</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dges</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>dges</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
Delighted, pleased, cheered <ref>CD.</ref> To be delighted; to rejoice 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Perhaps related to 
<orth>dgyes</orth>?</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>dgogs</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>dgogs</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>gogs</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dgog</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>gogs</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
To cough 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>dgongs</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>dgongs</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>dgongs</orth><ref>LZ, ND, DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dgongs</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK, [DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>dgongs</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>thugs 
la</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To think, to 
reflect, to contemplate, to consider. 2. (usually with terminative of the 
infinitive) To purpose, intend  <ref>CD.</ref> To think, to reflect, to 
contemplate, to consider <ref>DK.</ref>(honorific) To think, remember 
<ref>DS.</ref>(honorific) To think, intend 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>dgod</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present
:</label><orth>dgod</orth><ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>rgod</orth><ref> CD, DK, (DS), 
(TC).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bgad</orth><ref>LZ, [CD], ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>brgad</orth><ref> [CD], 
(DS).</ref><orth>rgod</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bgad</orth><ref>LZ,
 ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>rgod</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>dgod</orth><ref>LZ, ND, 
DK DS, TC.</ref><orth>rgod</orth><ref> DK, 
(DS).</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><denominative><label>Denominative of:</label><orth>gad 
mo</orth> 'laughter'.</denominative><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>gad mo sogs</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>gad mo</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To laugh 
<ref>(<orth>dgod</orth>) CD.</ref> 1. To laugh. 2. To grow weak, languid, 
indolent <ref>(<orth>rgod</orth>) CD.</ref> To make laugh or smile 
<ref>(<orth>dgod</orth>) DK.</ref> To focus; to become mentally excited 
<ref>(<orth>rgod</orth>) DK.</ref> To make a sound of joy, and manifest a 
delighted mind <ref>DS.</ref> To laugh 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>dgos</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>dgos</orth><ref>CD,
 DK, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>dgos</orth><ref>DK, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dgos</orth><ref>DK, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>dgos</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Tournadre 
&amp; Dorje 2003: 191), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Obl. 
Abs.]<ref> (Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 191), (Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> Implies necessity and what 
is due or desired; to be necessary, to want <ref>CD.</ref> To want; to be 
necessary <ref>DK.</ref> To need, require 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>dgos</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><auxillary><label>Auxiliary:</label><ref>DS.</ref></auxillary><function><label>Function:</label>
 (an auxiliary verb when attached to the end of another verb) To encourage, 
exort to do 
<ref>DS.</ref></function></entry><entry><headword><orth>dgye</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>dgye</orth><ref>CD,
 DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>gye</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>dgye</orth><ref>[DS],
 TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dgye</orth><ref>DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>dgye</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
bend; to be curving or crooked <ref>CD.</ref> To straighten <ref>DK.</ref> To 
bend backwards or straighten the body <ref>DS.</ref> To bend backwards, to lean 
backwards <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>dgyed</orth>.</note></entry>
<entry><headword><orth>dgyed</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>dgyed</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>dgyed</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dgyed</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label> <dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To fall 
backwards <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>dgye</orth>.</note></entry>
<entry><headword><orth>dgyel</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>dgyel</orth><ref>CD,
 DS.</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To fall down, tumble down 
<ref>CD.</ref> To cause a person or upright thing to lie horizontally 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>sgyel</orth>.</note></entry>
<entry><headword><orth>dgyes</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>dgyes</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>dgyes</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, 
LZ, ND, DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dgyes</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 LZ, DK, [DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>dgyes</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, LZ, DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. 
Obl.] <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>rang gzhan 
la</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> (honorific) 1. 
To rejoice, to be glad. 2. To be pleased to; to choose <ref>CD.</ref> To be 
delighted; to be happy, pleased; to rejoice <ref>DK.</ref> (honorific) To 
become happy <ref>DS.</ref> (honorific) To rejoice, to be happy, to be 
delighted <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Root given as dgyes 
&lt; *dgya &lt; *dga<ref> (Beyer 1992: 84 n. 15).</ref>cf. 
<orth>dga'</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>dgrad</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>dgrad</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>dgrad</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dgrad</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrIII><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 1. Stretch the feet making the space between the two feet larger. 2. To spread 
apart (claws &amp;c.) 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>dgrong</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>krongs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>dgrong</orth><ref>CD,
 DK, TC.</ref><orth>'grong</orth><ref> ND, 
DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkrongs</orth><ref>LZ, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>'krongs</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bkrong</orth><ref>LZ,
 ND<sub>A</sub>, DK.</ref><orth>dgrong</orth><ref> DS, ND<sub>B</sub>, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>krongs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>dgrongs</orth><ref>DK, 
TC.</ref><orth>grongs</orth><ref> ND, 
DS.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
(Beckwith 1996).</ref><label> Intransitive: </label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'grongs</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: vii.19), (Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>dug 
mtshon sogs kyis</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>bsad 
pa'i</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To die 
(respectful for <orth>shi ba</orth>) <ref>CD.</ref> To assassinate; to kill 
<ref>DK.</ref> To kill <ref>DS.</ref> (honorific) To be killed, to die 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>bgag</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bgags</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'gog</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>bgag</orth><ref>
 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkags</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>bgags</orth><ref>
 (CD), DK, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bkag</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>bgag</orth><ref>
 DK, TC.</ref><orth>bkag</orth><ref>(DK).</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>gogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>khogs</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref><orth>bgogs</orth><ref> TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>lam 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To block, 
stop; to obstruct; to limit, retain <ref>DK.</ref> To impede, obstruct, block 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label><ref>DS</ref> gives 
<orth>bgags</orth> as an alternative spelling of <orth>bsgags</orth> the past 
of <orth>sgog</orth>. Compare 
<orth>'gog</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>bgam</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bgam</orth><ref>LZ,
 DK, TC.</ref><orth>'gam</orth><ref> 
DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bgam</orth><ref>LZ. 
TC.</ref><orth>bgams</orth><ref> DK, 
DS.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bgam</orth><ref>LZ, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>bgam</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>bgams</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref><orth>'goms</orth><ref> 
DS.</ref><orth>bgom</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>DS, C.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>nyams dang tshod 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To estimate a 
person; to examine indirectly, to spy <ref>DK.</ref>  1. To examine, determine, 
size
 up a situation <ref>DS.</ref> To test,
 to estimate, to judge, to guess 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>bgo</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bgo</orth><ref>ND,
 DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bgos</orth><ref>ND, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bgo</orth><ref>ND, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>bgos</orth><ref>ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref> <dash> <ref>ND.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 2003).</ref><label>Involuntary:</label><ref> 
ND.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>bgo sha go cha bag chags</orth><ref>(<orth>bgos</orth>) 
ND.</ref><orth>go cha dang skal ba</orth><ref>(-) 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To put on, to wear 
<ref>DK.</ref> To make wear, to wear a garment &amp;c. <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To 
wear, to clothe, to put on. 2. To divide, to apportion 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>bgod</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bgod</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bgos</orth><ref>LZ, 
CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bgo</orth><ref>LZ, CD, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>bgod</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref><orth>bgos</orth><ref>DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>DS, C.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>'bul rdzas 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To divide 
<ref>CD.</ref> To divide; to share <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To allocate, apportion, 
allot. 2. (mathematics) To divide <ref>DS.</ref> To divide, apportion, allocate 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>bgyid</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bgyid</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bgyis</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, 
LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bgyi</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>gyi</orth><ref>(Zeisler 2004: 
348).</ref><orth>gyis</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>chos dge ba sogs</orth><ref>LZ,</ref><orth>bya las 
sogs</orth><ref> ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To do, to 
make <ref>CD.</ref> To work, to do <ref>DK.</ref>To do an action 
<ref>DS.</ref>To do, to perform, to make, to carry out 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>bgrang</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'dren</orth><ref>LZ,
 DK, (TC).</ref><orth>grangs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>bgrang</orth><ref>CD, 
DS, TC.</ref><orth>bgreng</orth><ref> [CD] .</ref><orth>'grang</orth><ref>[CD] 
.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bgrangs</orth><ref>LZ, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bgrang</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'drongs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'drend</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>bgrongs</orth><ref>DS,
 TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>sgrong</orth>.</causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>grangs sogs</orth><ref>(<orth>grangs</orth>) 
LZ.</ref><orth>ma Ni sogs</orth> <ref>(<orth>'dren</orth>) 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To number, count, calculate 
<ref>CD.</ref> To count, calculate, find out by working with numbers 
<ref>DS.</ref> To count, enumerate, to compute, to calculate, to list, relate 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>bgrad</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bgrad</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DS, TC.</ref><orth>'grad</orth><ref> [CD], 
DK.</ref><orth>dgrad</orth><ref>(DS).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bgrad</orth><ref>LZ,
 DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bgrad</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
[DS] TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>bgrad</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'grad</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>bgrod</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:
 </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>bsgrad</orth>.</causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>rkang pa 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To open wide 
<ref>(<orth>bgrad</orth>) CD.</ref> To spread, enter <ref>(<orth>'grad</orth>) 
CD.</ref> To open widely, e.g. one's mouth or legs &amp;c. To stare 
<ref>DK.</ref> To open the eyes wide <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To open wide, to spread 
apart, to expose. 2. To stretch out 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>bgril</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bgril</orth><ref>CD,
 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bgril</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bgril</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>bgril</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Causative of: 
</label><orth>'gril</orth><ref>[TC].</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 To fall down; to drop down <ref>CD.</ref> To cause to fall down, to bring down 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>bgrung</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>grungs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>bgrung</orth><ref>CD,
 ND, DS, TC.</ref><orth>bgrungs</orth><ref>CD.</ref><orth>'grung</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bgrungs</orth><ref> LZ, ND, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bgrung</orth><ref>LZ, 
ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>grungs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>ND.</ref><orth>bgrungs</orth><ref>ND, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>'grungs</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>ND.</ref><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>chu'i rnyog pa sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>snyogs 
ma</orth><ref> (-) ND.</ref><orth>rnyog ma</orth><ref> (<orth>bgrungs</orth>) 
ND<sub>A</sub>.</ref> [illegible character]<orth>gs ma na</orth> (?) <ref> 
(<orth>bgrungs</orth>) 
ND<sub>B</sub>.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To strain; to 
depurate [sic] <ref>CD.</ref> To purify, to clean, to filter <ref>DK.</ref>To 
purify (water &amp;c.) <ref>DS.</ref> To filter, to strain, to purify water 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>bgrud</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>grus</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>bgrud</orth><ref>CD,
 ND, DK, (DS).</ref><orth>bgru</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bgrus</orth><ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bgru</orth><ref>LZ, CD, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>bkru</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>grus</orth><ref>LZ, CD, 
DS.</ref><orth>bgrud</orth><ref> DK.</ref><orth>bgrus</orth><ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>nas 'bras sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>yos dang 'gras 
sogs</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To clear of 
husks; to shell <ref>CD.</ref> To peel, to husk <ref>DK.</ref> To husk, to hull 
<ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>bgre</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bgre</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 (archaic) To wallow, to roll on the ground 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>bgres</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bgre</orth><ref>DK.</ref>
 <orth>bgres</orth><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bgres</orth><ref>DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bgre</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>bgres</orth><ref>[DS],
 TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>bgres</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To grow old; to age 
<ref>DK.</ref> (honorific) To become aged, to grow old 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Root given as bgre &lt; 
*b-gria <ref>(Beyer 1992: 83 n. 16).</ref></note><note><label>Note:</label> 
Compare 
<orth>rga</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>bgro</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bgro</orth><ref>LZ,
 ND, CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bgros</orth><ref>LZ, ND, CD, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bgro</orth><ref>LZ, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>bgros</orth><ref>LZ, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>gros</orth><ref>ND.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>ND.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, DS, 
TC.</ref><label>Involuntary:</label><ref>ND.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:
 </label><ref>DS.</ref><label> Intransitive:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>chos dang gzhang don 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>bka'</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 1. To argue, discuss, confer with, consider. 2. To resolve, decide 
<ref>CD.</ref> To discuss; to have a discussion; to debate <ref>DK.</ref> To 
discuss, confer <ref>DS.</ref> To discuss, consult, confer 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>bgrong</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bgrong</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bgrangs</orth><ref>ND.</ref><orth>bgrong</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bgrang</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 
</label><orth>bgrongs</orth><ref>ND<sub>B</sub>.</ref><orth>bgrangs</orth><ref>ND<sub>A</sub>.</ref>
 <dash> <ref> ND.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>ND.</ref><label> Involuntary: 
</label><ref>ND.</ref></volition><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>grangs 
su</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><note><label>Note:</label><ref>ND</ref> lists 
this verb twice once as <orth>bgrong</orth>, <orth>bgrong</orth>, -, -, and the 
second time with a textual problem in the imperative <orth>bgrong</orth>, 
<orth>bgrangs</orth>, <orth>bgrang</orth>, <orth>bgrongs</orth> / 
<orth>bgrangs</orth>. The verb is only given in <ref>ND</ref> and he gives very 
ambiguous data. It is possible the involuntary listing, which has no 
Characteristic Example, I have mis-read for <orth>bgrod</orth>, 
<orth>bgrod</orth>, -, 
-.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>bgrod</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bgrod</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>'grod</orth><ref>[CD], 
(DK).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bgrod</orth><ref>LZ, DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bgrod</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>bgrod</orth><ref>LZ, DK. TC.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>TC.</ref><label> 
Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. 
Obl.] <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>lam 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To walk; to 
get over; wonder <ref>CD.</ref> To take route; to cross to go, to get through 
<ref>DK.</ref>1. To go. 2. <orth>'dod spyad</orth><ref>DS.</ref>To go, to 
cross, to transverse <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> In the 
verb appendix of <ref>TC</ref> an imperative is given, but it is omitted in the 
body of the 
dictionary.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>mgar</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>mgar</orth><ref>DS,
 TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>mgar</orth><ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>mgar</orth><ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>mgor</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
smith <ref>DS.</ref> To forge utensils out of iron 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>mgu</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>mgu</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>mgu</orth><ref>LZ, ND, DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>mgu</orth><ref>LZ, DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>mgu</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>ND, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>ND, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>yid 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To 
rejoice, to be glad, joyful, content. 2. To exhilarate, to gladden, to make 
content <ref>CD.</ref> To rejoice; to satisfy; to be glad <ref>DK.</ref> To 
rejoice, to be pleased <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Related 
by ablaut to <orth>dga'</orth><ref>(Simon 1971: 474).</ref></note></entry>
<entry><headword><orth>mgyog</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>mgyog</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>mgyogs</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>mgyog</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label> <dash> <ref>ND.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>ND, (Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>rta 
sogs</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be 
quick.</trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gag</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gag</orth><ref>LZ,
 [CD], DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'gags</orth><ref>LZ, [CD], DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'gag</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>'gag</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>'gog</orth><ref>(Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>chu 
rgyun dang rnam rtog 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be 
stopped; to be halted <ref>CD.</ref> 1. To speak unclearly, to have difficulty 
speaking. 2. For something to be unable to be free from inside (e.g. a hole). 
3. For a continuum to break off <ref>DS.</ref> To be blocked, to be obstructed 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gad</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gad</orth><ref>DS,
 TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkad</orth><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dgad</orth><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>khod</orth><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Causative of: 
</label><orth>'gas</orth>.</causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To 
crack, split apart. 2. To make the pedals of a flower open <ref>DS.</ref>  To 
crack open, to blast apart 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gam</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gam</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'gams</orth><ref>LZ, TC, 
(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 239).</ref><orth>bgam</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref><orth>bgams</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'gam</orth><ref>LZ,
 
TC.</ref><orth>dgam</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>bgam</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>'goms</orth><ref>LZ, DS, TC.</ref><orth>'gams</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Tournadre 
&amp; Dorje 2003: 239), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 
239).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>phye 
rtsam sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To cram 
into the mouth, especially of dry edibles <ref>CD.</ref> To throw food into the 
mouth <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To examine, determine, size up a situation 2. To put 
(roasted barley flour &amp;c.) in to the mouth <ref>DS.</ref> To swallow, gulp 
down (used of barley flour and dry powders) 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gal</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gal</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'gald</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref><orth>'gal</orth><ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'gal</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'gald</orth><ref>LZ, DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Abs. Ass.] 
<ref>(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 368), (Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>phan 
tshun</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
contradict, to disagree, to mistake <ref>CD.</ref> To be mistaken; to be 
violated, trespassed <ref>DK.</ref> To be contradictory, to contradict, to be 
contrary to 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gas</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gas</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 KY<sub>N</sub>, LZ, CD, ND, DS, TC.</ref><orth>'ges</orth><ref> 
CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkas</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, 
KY<sub>N</sub>, LZ, CD, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dgas</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 CD, ND, DS, TC.</ref><orth>bkas</orth><ref> 
KY<sub>NZ</sub>.</ref><orth>bkad</orth><ref>KY<sub>NC</sub>, 
LZ.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khos</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, LZ, CD, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, 
KY<sub>N</sub>, CD, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative of: 
</label><orth>'gas</orth><sub>2</sub><ref>[Chang 1971: vii.17] (Chang 1971: 
vii.27), (R&oacute;na-Tas 1985: 
178).</ref><orth>gas</orth><ref>TC.</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic
 Example:</label><orth>mgo bo sogs</orth><ref>LZ,</ref><orth>dum bur kha 
sogs</orth><ref>ND<sub>B</sub>,</ref><orth>dum bur ka bkas 
sogs</orth><ref>ND<sub>A</sub>.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
To split, to crack, to burst apart <ref>(<orth>'gas</orth>) CD.</ref> To split, 
cleave, divide <ref>(<orth>'ges</orth>) CD.</ref> To cleave, crack, split (wood 
&amp;c.) by striking with a knife or axe <ref>DS.</ref> To  crack, to split 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> This verb and 
<orth>dgas</orth> are not to be 
distinguished.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gas</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gas</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>gas</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dgas</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'gas</orth><ref>DK,
 TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>gas</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative of: 
</label><orth>'gad</orth>, <orth>'gas</orth><sub>1</sub><ref> (Chang 1971: 
vii.27), (R&oacute;na-Tas 1985: 
178).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>snod dang shel 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To split, to 
crack, to burst apart <ref>CD.</ref> To be cracked, to be broken <ref>DK.</ref> 
To crack, to split open, to burst open 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> To be identified with 
<orth>gas</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gi</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gi</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrI><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref>(Skorupski
 2001).</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> (dialect) To be 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gugs</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gug</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 KY<sub>N</sub>, (LZ), [CD], (ND), (DS).</ref><orth>'gugs</orth><ref> TD, LZ, 
CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkug</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, 
KY<sub>N</sub>, LZ, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>bkugs</orth><ref>TD.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dgug</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>bkug</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khug</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, TD, ND, [CD], LZ, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>khugs</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, 
DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, 
KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>khug</orth><ref>(Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>lcags kyu sogs</orth><ref>TD,</ref><orth>rnam shes dang 
grogs sogs</orth><ref>LZ,</ref><orth>mdun du tshe 
sogs</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To summon, 
bring back <ref>CD.</ref> To call, recall somebody; to cause to come; to bend 
something <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To make bend. 2. To overpower. 3. To change the 
characteristic of something into something else <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To bend, to 
cause to bend. 2. To summon, to call, to attract, to interest 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gud</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gud</orth><ref>[CD],
 DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>gud</orth><ref>[CD], 
DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>gud</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>gud</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
go aside; to avoid 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label><ref>CD</ref> invites under 
<orth>'gud</orth> &quot;v[ide] <orth>gud</orth>&quot; and under 
<orth>gud</orth> &quot;v[ide] 
<orth>'gud</orth>&quot;.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gum</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gum</orth><ref>CD
 (archaic), DK, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>gum</orth><ref>DK, 
TC.</ref><orth>'gums</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: 
vii.17).</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'gum</orth><ref>DK, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>gums</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>'gums</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: vii.17), (Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To die (of natural death, 
of disease) <ref>CD.</ref> To die <ref>DK, 
TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>kum</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gums</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gums</orth><ref>ND,
 DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>'gum</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: 
vii.17).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkums</orth><ref>ND, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>bkum</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dgum</orth><ref>ND,
 DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>gums</orth><ref>ND.</ref><orth>'gums</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>khum</orth><ref>DS.</ref><orth>khums</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:
 </label><ref>ND, DS, TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Causative of: 
</label><orth>'gum</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: vii.17), (Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>srog</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To kill; to put to death 
<ref>DK.</ref>  To kill <ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gul</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gul</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'guld</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref><orth>'gul</orth><ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'gul</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'gul</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'guld</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>sgul</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: vii.17), (Gyurme 1992: 259), 
(Beyer 1992: 116).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>sa 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To move, 
quake, shake <ref>CD.</ref> To become unsteady, to move <ref>DK.</ref> To move 
apart from a previous location, to change a previous characteristic or location 
<ref>DS.</ref> To move, to shake 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'geng</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'geng</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 KY<sub>N</sub>, LZ, (DK), DS.</ref><orth>'gengs</orth><ref>TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkang</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>bkangs</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dgang</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>bkang</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khengs</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>.</ref><orth>khong</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 CD, TC.</ref><orth>khongs</orth><ref>LZ, ND, DS.</ref><orth>gengs</orth><ref> 
LZ .</ref><orth>'gengs</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, CD, ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>gang</orth><ref>(Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>kheng</orth><ref>(Beyer 1992: 
113).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>bum 
bchus</orth><ref>TD.</ref><orth>snod sogs</orth><ref>(<orth>'geng</orth>, 
<orth>bkang</orth>, <orth>bkang</orth>, <orth>khongs</orth>) 
LZ.</ref><orth>mda'</orth><ref>(<orth>'gengs</orth>, <orth>bkangs</orth>, 
<orth>bkang</orth>, <orth>gengs</orth>) LZ.</ref><orth>bum pa lta bu chu sogs 
kyis</orth><ref>(<orth>'gengs</orth>, <orth>bkhang</orth>, <orth>dgang</orth>, 
<orth>khongs</orth>) LZ.</ref><orth>snod dang gzhu 
sogs</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To fill up, 
to satiate <ref>CD.</ref> To fill up; to fulfill; to pull the string of a bow 
with an arrow for shooting <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To fill. 2. To draw a bow string 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare <orth>skong</orth>, 
and 
<orth>kheng</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gebs</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gebs</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>'geb</orth><ref> 
(DK).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkab</orth><ref>LZ, CD, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dgab</orth><ref>LZ, 
ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>bgab</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khobs</orth><ref>LZ, ND, DS.</ref><orth>khob</orth><ref>CD, DK, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>CD, ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>khebs</orth><ref>(Gyurme 1992: 259), (Beyer 1992: 
113).</ref><orth>gab</orth><ref> (Chang 1971: vii.16-17), (Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>sgab</orth><ref>[CD], [Coblin 
1986].</ref></causation><denominative><label>Denominative 
of:</label><orth>khebs</orth> 'a 
cover'.</denominative><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>na 
bza' sogs kyis</orth><ref>LZ,</ref><orth>gos dang drebs sogs</orth> (?) 
<ref>ND<sub>B</sub>,</ref><orth>gos dang khebs 
sogs</orth><ref>ND<sub>A</sub>.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
To cover up, to put on; to conceal <ref>CD.</ref> To cause to spread over; to 
cover; to put on, to wear <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To become obscure from darkness. 2. 
To hide, make secret <ref>DS.</ref> To conceal, to cover 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gem</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gem</orth><ref>DS.</ref><orth>'gems</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'gems</orth><ref>DS,
 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'gem</orth><ref>DS.</ref><orth>'gems</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>'gems</orth><ref>DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
defeat, subdue, overcome <ref>DS.</ref>To crush 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gel</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gel</orth><ref>CD,
 ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>kal</orth><ref>CD.</ref><orth>bkald</orth><ref>ND.</ref><orth>bkal</orth><ref>DK,
 DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dgal</orth><ref>CD, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khol</orth><ref>CD, DS, TC 
.</ref><orth>khold</orth><ref>ND.</ref><orth>'geld</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:
 </label><ref>ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative of: 
</label><orth>sgal</orth><ref>[Coblin 1986] 
.</ref></causation><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'khel</orth><ref>(Beyer 1992: 
113).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>khal dang khral 
sogs</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To load, to 
lay on a burden, to impose tax or rent, to commission; to put, to place on, 
over; to impose a fine; to give punishment <ref>CD.</ref> To give 
responsibilities, to load; to impose, lay a tax, to levy a tax <ref>DK.</ref> 
1. To burden cattle with a load. 2. To trust, hope. 3. For someone of high rank 
to impose a certain task or aim to be accomplished upon person of lower rank 
<ref>DS.</ref>  1. To impose, to burden. 2. To load a pack animal. 3. to hang. 
4. To trust, to entrust 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'go</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'go</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'gos</orth><ref>LZ, 
CD, DK, DS.</ref><orth>gos</orth><ref>CD, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'go</orth><ref>LZ, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>gos</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'gos</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, 
(Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>sgo</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: 
vii.18).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>lus lha dang skyon 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To stain, 
lose color, dirty sully <ref>CD.</ref> To be infected; to be covered 
<ref>DK.</ref> For one thing to stick to or contaminate another thing 
<ref>DS.</ref> 1. To catch (an illness), to be infected. 2. To be stained, to 
be sullied, to have a stain or substance stick to oneself 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gog</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gog</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>'gogs</orth><ref>CD.</ref><orth>'gegs</orth><ref> CD, 
(DS).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkag</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, CD, LZ, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dgag</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>dgags</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khogs</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, DK, 
DS.</ref><orth>khog</orth><ref> KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, ND, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, 
KY<sub>N</sub>, TC, ND, DS, TC, (Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 276), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 276), (Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'gag</orth><ref>(Gyurme 1992: 
259),</ref><orth>khegs</orth><ref>(Beyer 1992: 
113).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>gzhan gyi grub mtha' sogs</orth><ref>TD,</ref><orth>grub 
mtha' dang rgol ngan sogs</orth><ref>LZ,</ref><orth>lam sogs dgag 
bya</orth><ref> ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To prevent; 
to avert unfortunate events, as danger, to suppress, drive back, expel 
<ref>CD.</ref> To hinder, obstruct, keep back or in <ref>CD.</ref>To block, 
obstruct; to stop, hinder; limit <ref>DK.</ref>1. To obstruct, to block, to 
interrupt. 2. To resist, to oppose 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>bgag</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gog</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>dgog</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'gog</orth><ref>CD,
 ND, DS, TC.</ref><orth>dgogs</orth><ref>DK 
.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bkogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>bkog</orth><ref>CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bkog</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>dgog</orth><ref>CD,
 ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>gog</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>khog</orth><ref>CD, ND, DK, 
TC.</ref><orth>khogs</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>CD, ND, DS TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>gog</orth><ref>(Chang
 1971: vii.17).</ref><orth>khog</orth><ref> (Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>rtsa ba sogs</orth><ref>LZ,</ref><orth>rtsa ba 
nas</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To take 
away forcibly; to snatch, take away, pull out. 2. To take off a cover, lid 
<ref>CD.</ref> To detach from; to pull out; to extract; to extirpate <ref>DK  
.</ref>1. For something which adheres together to separate apart. 2. To pluck, 
comb <ref>DS.</ref>1. To extract, to pull out. 2. To detach, to scrape off, to 
peel off 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gong</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gong</orth><ref>CD,
 DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkong</orth><ref>CD.</ref><orth>'gongs</orth><ref>DK,
 DS.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'gong</orth><ref>DK, 
DS.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'gongs</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>DS.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To bewitch, 
enchant, pass over, get the better of. (the past  <orth>bkong</orth> in 
compounds means 'threat') <ref>CD.</ref> To be trespassed or violated; to be 
disgraced; to be afraid of <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To obtain release from entrapment. 
2. To surpass, exceed <ref>DS.</ref>  (archaic) 1. To be intimidated, to be 
afraid, to be oppressed. 2. To transgress. 3. To rival, to get the better of. 
4. To demean, to put down. 5. To exceed, to go beyond. 6. To be released, to 
escape <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>bkong</orth><sub>1</sub> and 
<orth>'khong</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'god</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'god</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>dgod</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bgod</orth><ref>KY<sub>TC</sub>.</ref><orth>'god</orth><ref>KY<sub>TZ</sub>.</ref><orth>bkod</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dgod</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>'khod</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khod</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>NZ</sub> (see note), LZ, 
ND, CD, DS, TC.</ref><orth>'khod</orth><ref>KY<sub>NC</sub>, TD, LZ, 
(DS).</ref><orth>'god</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, CD, ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative of: 
</label><orth>'khod</orth><ref>(Beyer 1992: 112), (Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref><orth>'go</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: vii.19, see 
note).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>gnas su</orth><ref>TD,</ref><orth>tshom bu dang yi ger 
sogs su</orth><ref>(<orth>'god</orth>) LZ,  .</ref><orth>gral dang gnas 
su</orth><ref>(<orth>dgod</orth>) LZ.</ref><orth>rgyan dang bde dang bral 
sogs</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To design, 
project, plan; to found, establish, lay out; to fix, put 
<ref>(<orth>'god</orth>) CD.</ref> To build, arrange, plan 
<ref>(<orth>bkod</orth>) CD.</ref> To register, make a record; to coronate, 
enthrone; to make peace; to put a signature or seal on <ref>DK.</ref> 1.  To 
insert, to establish, to put, to secure. to rectify. 2. To design, to 
formulate, to plan out, to build, to lay out. 3. To write, to sign, to record, 
to document <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Root given as 
*go+d <ref>(Chang 1971: 
vii.18).</ref></note><note><label>Note:</label><ref>KY<sub>NZ</sub></ref> has 
an erasure of one character i.e. <orth>'khod</orth> may have been the original 
reading. <ref>(Chang 1971: vii.18)</ref> suggests that <orth>'god</orth> 
functions as a causative of <orth>'go</orth> in Lhasa dialect. <ref>(Uray 1972: 
19) .</ref>connects this verb with 
<orth>mkhos</orth>/<orth>khos</orth>/<orth>khod</orth> 'institution, 
administration, settlement of the state' along with the verbs, <orth>sko</orth> 
and <orth>'khod</orth>. <ref>(Takeuchi 1990b: 175) .</ref>suggests that the 
noun <orth>god</orth> 'order to execute' is derived from the intransitive 
perfect form of this 
verb.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gom</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>gom</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'gom</orth><ref>CD,
 DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>bgom</orth><ref> CD, ND.</ref><orth>bgoms</orth><ref> 
(CD).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bgoms</orth><ref>LZ, CD, ND, 
DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bgomd</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>bgom</orth><ref>ND,
 DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'gom</orth><ref>LZ.</ref> <dash> <ref> 
ND.</ref><orth>goms</orth><ref>DK, 
DS.</ref><orth>bgoms</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary:</label><ref>
 ND.</ref><label> Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>rkang pa sogs kyis</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>gom 
pa</orth><ref>ND<sub>A</sub>,</ref><orth>gom 
pas</orth><ref>ND<sub>B</sub>.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
walk, step, stride, pace <ref>(<orth>bgom</orth>) CD.</ref>1. To tread. 2. 
(Acc. Sch. = <orth>'ges</orth>, <orth>'gum</orth>) To pass over, = 
<orth>'gro</orth><ref>(<orth>'gom</orth>) CD.</ref> To walk; to pace 
<ref>DK.</ref> To pass thither from above <ref>DS.</ref> To walk over, to cross 
over, to pass over 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gor</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bgor</orth><ref>CD,
 TC.</ref><orth>'gor</orth><ref> CD, DK, 
DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bgord</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>bgor</orth><ref>
 DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bgor</orth><ref>DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'gord</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>bgor</orth><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Causative of: 
</label><orth>'gor</orth><sub>2</sub>.</causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 To linger, loiter in the way; delay <ref>CD.</ref> To delay; to detain 
<ref>DK.</ref> To make time pass <ref>DS.</ref> To take [time], to elapse, to 
delay 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gor</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gor</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'gord</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref><orth>'gor</orth><ref> 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'gor</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>'gord</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC, (Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 271), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs.]<ref> 
(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 271).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>'gor</orth><sub>1</sub>.</causation><example><label>Characteristic
 Example:</label><orth>dus dang lam sogs 
su</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To tarry, 
linger, loiter <ref>CD.</ref> To be delayed; to be late <ref>DK.</ref> To take 
time, to be delayed 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gyag</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gyag</orth><ref>CD,
 
DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>gyags</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>gyag</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>'gyags</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
To be sold, spend, expended (Cs.) <ref>CD.</ref> To lose, to destroy 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans><note><label>Note: </label><ref>CD .</ref>suggests 
comparison with 
<orth>skyag</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gyang</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gyang</orth><ref>CD,
 DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'gyangs</orth><ref>CD, 
DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'gyang</orth><ref>DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'gyangs</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative of: 
</label><orth>'gyangs</orth>. 
<orth>sgyang</orth>.</causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 To
 be delayed, postponed,
 farthest [sic] <ref>CD.</ref>
 To be delayed; to be late <ref>DK.</ref> For time to pass <ref>DS.</ref> To 
delay, to postpone, to put off 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gyangs</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gyangs</orth><ref>LZ,
 
DK.</ref><orth>bgyang</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bgyangs</orth><ref>LZ,
 DK, (DS), 
TC.</ref><orth>brgyangs</orth><ref>(LZ).</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bgyang</orth><ref>LZ,
 DK, (DS), TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'gyangs</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref><orth>bgyongs</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'gyang</orth>.</causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>dus dang yun 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To delay 
<ref>DK.</ref> To cause a delay <ref>DS.</ref> To postpone, delay 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note: </label> Compare 
<orth>sgyang</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gyas</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gyas</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>gyas</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>gya</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>gyos</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
To decay; to diminish 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gying</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gying</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DK, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'gyings</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
TC.</ref><orth>'gying</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'gying</orth><ref>LZ,
 DK, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'gying</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'gyings</orth><ref>DK, TC.</ref> 
<dash> <ref> ND.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>ND.</ref><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref> TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>sgying</orth>.</causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>nyams 
kyis</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To assume 
air or appearance of greatness; to sit lifting up in the manner of a lion. 2. 
To look haughtily; to look down upon; to slight a person <ref>CD.</ref> To 
assume a posture, to pose <ref>DK.</ref>  To put on airs, to act haughtily or 
arrogantly 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gyu</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gyu</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'gyus</orth><ref>LZ, CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'gyu</orth><ref>LZ, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'gyu</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'gyus</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>dus tshe sogs 
la</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To move quickly 
to and fro (e.g. lightning, a mirage, the mind) <ref>CD.</ref> To focus one's 
mind on an object; to scatter from the intended object of meditation; to form 
the limbs of a child in the womb <ref>DK.</ref>1. To quiver back and forth. 2. 
To be mentally distracted <ref>DS.</ref>To move 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>rgyu</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gyur</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gyur</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD DS.</ref><orth>'gyurd</orth><ref>DK. <dash> TC (see 
note).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>gyurd</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref><orth>gyur</orth><ref>CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>'gyur</orth><ref>DS, 
TC (see 
note).</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'gyur</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>'gyur</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>gyurd</orth><ref>DK.</ref>
 <dash> <ref>DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary:</label><ref>DS, 
TC, (Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Goldstein 1991: 130), (Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>sgyur</orth><ref>[CD], (Chang 1971: vii.20-21), (Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To become; to grow, 
increase, change. 2. (Annexed to an infinitive may denote either the perfect or 
future tense, the context decides in every instance how it is to be understood) 
<ref>CD.</ref> To change, become <ref>DK.</ref> For an essence, ingredient, 
circumstance &amp;c. to arise as different from before <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To 
change, alter. 2. To turn into, become 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label><ref>DS</ref> gives two verbs 
<orth>'gyur</orth>, <orth>gyur</orth>, <orth>'gyur</orth>, - and 
<orth>'gyur</orth>, <orth>'gyur</orth>, <orth>'gyur</orth> -, just  as 
<ref>TC</ref> does. However for <ref>DS</ref> the two definitions are the same. 
<ref>TC</ref> lists <orth>'gyur</orth>, <orth>'gyur</orth>, <orth>'gyur</orth>, 
-, and -, <orth>gyur</orth>, <orth>'gyur</orth>, - as two verbs the second 
immediatley following the first in his verb tables. However in the body of the 
dictionary under <orth>'gyur</orth> the first definition is listed without verb 
stems. The second definition is listed with the stems: <orth>'gyur</orth>, 
<orth>gyur</orth>, <orth>'gyur</orth>, <dash> with the definition 'to be 
established, or arise different than before'. <ref>(Li yung khrang 1988)</ref> 
which is supposed to be an excerpt of verb material form <ref>TC</ref> is 
exactly the same but lists defintion one with the stems: <orth>'gyur</orth>, 
<orth>'gyur</orth>, <orth>'gyur</orth>, <dash>. <ref>(Hoshi 2003)</ref> also 
distinguishes two 
verbs.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gyed</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gye</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'gyed</orth><ref>(LZ),
 CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkyes</orth><ref>LZ, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>bgyes</orth><ref>CD.</ref><orth>bkye</orth><ref>DK, 
(DS).</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bkye</orth><ref>LZ, CD, 
TC.</ref><orth>dgye</orth><ref>ND, 
DS.</ref><orth>dgyed</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>bkye</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>kyes</orth><ref>(LZ).</ref><orth>khyes</orth><ref>ND,
 (DS), 
TC.</ref><orth>'gyed</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>khye</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:
 </label><ref>ND, DS, TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>CD (def. 1), DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: 
</label>[Erg. Abs.] <ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'gyes</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: 
vii.20).</ref><orth>'khyed</orth><ref> (Coblin 1986), (Beyer 1992: 
113).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>'od 
zer sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>sprul pa 'od sbyin</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To divide, to scatter, 
disperse. 2. To institute, set going. 3. To give an entertainment, banquet 
<ref>CD.</ref> To focus rays; to send; to distribute; to fight a war 
<ref>DK.</ref> 1. To deploy (troops in battle). 2. To apply paint, varnish. 3. 
To mutually fight. 4. To give, having divided into pieces. 5. To give off, 
radiant light <ref>DS.</ref>1. To send, to dispatch. 2. To emit. 3. To display, 
to send forth. 4. To dispute. 5. To give 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gyed</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gyed</orth><ref>DS.</ref><orth>dgyed</orth><ref>(DS).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkyed</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bgyed</orth><ref>DS.</ref><orth>dgyed</orth><ref>(DS).</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>khyed</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To stretch, 
prolong 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gyed</orth><sub>3</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gyed</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'gyed</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'gyed</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>'gyed</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></wrIV><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>'gyed ston 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><note><label>Note:</label> Perhaps to be 
connected with 
<orth>'gyed</orth><sub>1</sub>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gyer</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gyerd</orth><ref>CD.</ref><orth>'gyer</orth><ref>DK,
 DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>gyer</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'gyer</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>gyerd</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><syntax><label>Syntax: 
</label>[Erg. Abs.] <ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To drop, or let fall; to 
throw down; to quit, abandon, throw away (Sch.) <ref>CD.</ref> To give up; to 
abandon <ref>DK.</ref> (archaic) 1. To get rid of, hide away. 2. To separate, 
break a connection <ref>DS.</ref> (archaic) To renounce, to abandon 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gyel</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gyel</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'gyeld</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'gyel</orth><ref>ND,
 [DS], TC.</ref><orth>gyel</orth><ref>(Chang 1971:  
vii.20).</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'gyel</orth><ref>LZ, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'gyel</orth><ref>LZ.</ref> <dash> <ref>ND, 
TC.</ref><orth>gyel</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: 
vii.20).</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>ND, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>[CD], 
DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>sgyel</orth><ref>CD, (Chang 1971: vii.20), (Beyer 1992: 
116).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>sa 
la</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To fall; to 
tumble down <ref>CD.</ref> (for a person or upright thing) To lie horizontally 
<ref>DS.</ref> To fall, to collapse 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Root given as gyel &lt; *gyal 
&lt; gal <ref>(Beyer 1992: 84 n. 
15).</ref></note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gyes</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gye</orth><ref>
 LZ, CD, DS.</ref><orth>'gyes</orth><ref>CD, ND, DK, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>gyes</orth><ref>CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref> 
<orth>'gyes</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'gyes</orth><ref>ND,
 TC.</ref><orth>'gye</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
DS.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>gyes</orth><ref>LZ, CD, 
ND.</ref><orth>gyed</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, CD.</ref><label> 
Involuntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref> TC, 
DS.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>'gyed</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: vii.20), [Coblin 
1986].</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic Example: 
</label><orth>so sor</orth><ref>LZ, 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To be dispersed; to be 
divided. 2. To issue, proceed, spread, branch from <ref>CD.</ref> To become 
separate; to disperse; to be divorced <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To separate, place 
apart <ref>DS.</ref> To be separated, to separate, to split 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Root given as gye &lt; *gya 
&lt; *ga<ref> (Beyer 1992: 84 n. 15).</ref>cf. 
<orth>'gas</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gyog</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gyog</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'gyags</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>bkyags</orth><ref>DS,
 TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'gyog</orth><ref>LZ, 
DS.</ref><orth>bkyag</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>chogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>khyogs</orth><ref>DS.</ref><orth>khyog</orth><ref>(DS),
 TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Tournadre 
&amp; Dorje 2003: 137), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Erg. Abs.], 
<ref>(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 
137).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>mgron 
'grul rnams</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
ascend <ref>CD.</ref> To lift, hold a thing up <ref>DS.</ref>To raise, to lift, 
to support 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gyod</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gyod</orth><ref>CD,
 ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'gyod</orth><ref>ND, DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'gyod</orth><ref>DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'gyod</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> ND, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>ND, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To repent; to grieve 
for. To lament, relent (not only for bad, but also for good actions, when the 
latter are attended with disadvantages) <ref>CD.</ref> To repent; to feel 
sorry; to befall of regret <ref>DK.</ref> To mentally suffer later, on account 
of an action previously done <ref>DS.</ref> To regret, to feel remorse, to feel 
sorry 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'grang</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'grang</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'grangs</orth><ref>LZ, [CD], DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'grang</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'grang</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'grangs</orth><ref>DK.</ref> 
<dash> <ref>DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>DS, 
TC, (Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC, (Gyurme 1992: 
249).</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic Example: 
</label><orth>zas sogs 
kyis</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To satisfy 
with food; to satiate <ref>CD.</ref> To be full (after meals) <ref>DK.</ref> To 
be sated, satiated, to be full 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gran</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gran</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'grand</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref><orth>'gran</orth><ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'gran</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'gran</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'grand</orth><ref>DK.</ref> 
<dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>sgrun</orth><ref>[CD].</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic
 Example:</label><orth>phan tshun rtsal 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To vie with, 
contend with; to strive (for victory) <ref>CD.</ref> To compete, to challenge 
<ref>DK.</ref>To contest for victory <ref>DS.</ref> To rival, to compete, to 
contest, to hold a test 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'grams</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'grams</orth><ref>CD,
 DK, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>gram</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>'grams</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'gram</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>'gram</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>grams</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To spread 
over <ref>CD.</ref>To be spread out, dispersed, scattered <ref>DK.</ref> To 
pervade, to diffuse, to be agitated 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare <orth>gram</orth> and 
<orth>'grem</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gras</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gras</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'gras</orth><ref>LZ, ND, DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'gras</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK, [DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'gras</orth><ref>LZ, DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>ND, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>ND, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>dgra sogs 
dang</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To hate, to 
bear ill-will, to have spite against <ref>CD.</ref> To have spite; to hate 
<ref>DK.</ref> For the thought of fighting against an enemy to arise 
<ref>DS.</ref> To come to hate, to dislike 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Related to noun 
<orth>dgra</orth> 
'enemy'.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'grig</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'grig</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'grigs</orth><ref>LZ, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'grig</orth><ref>LZ,
 DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'grigs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'grigs</orth><ref>DK.</ref> 
<dash> <ref>DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>DS, 
TC, (Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 166), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 166). (Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative of: 
</label><orth>'khrig</orth><ref>(Beyer 1992: 
112).</ref></causation><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>sgrig</orth><ref>[CD], (Chang 1971: vii.19), (Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>rten 'brel 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To suit, 
agree, correspond; to be right <ref>CD.</ref> To be suitable; to be fitting; to 
be ok <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To agree, accord, be in harmony. 2. To be appropriate, 
suitable <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To suit, to be suitable. 2.  To make harmonious, to 
reconcile 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'grib</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'grib</orth><ref>CD,
 ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>grib</orth><ref>(Zeisler 2004: 
462).</ref><orth>'grib</orth><ref>ND, [DS], 
TC.</ref><orth>'gribs</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'grib</orth><ref>DK,
 [DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'gribs</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>ND, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>ND, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>sgrib</orth><ref>[CD], (Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To grow dim; to get 
dark (Cs.) 2. To grow less, to decrease, to be diminished, to decay 
<ref>CD.</ref> To be diminished; to decay; to become smaller; to be reduced 
<ref>DK.</ref> To become smaller, to become fewer <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To 
decrease, to decline. 2. To grow dim, to be covered to set, to disappear 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label><ref>(Beyer 1992: 73) 
.</ref>suggests comparison with <orth>rab rib</orth> 'mist, 
dimness'.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'grim</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'grim</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'grims</orth><ref>LZ, CD, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'grim</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>grims</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'grims</orth><ref>DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>za tugs dang chos grwa 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To march 
about, perambulate; to rove or stroll about; walk round <ref>CD.</ref> To 
wander from place to place; to travel widely, to advance through monastic life, 
&amp;c. <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To go to many places. 2. To link from one thing to 
another <ref>DS.</ref> To travel, to journey, to wander, to undergo, to attend 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gril</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gril</orth><ref>CD,
 DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>'grild</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>gril</orth><ref>CD,
 DS, 
DS.</ref><orth>'gril</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'gril</orth><ref>DK,
 DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>grild</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>sgril</orth><ref>[CD], (R&oacute;na-Tas 1978: 359), (Beyer 
1992: 116), (Gyurme 1992: 259).</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
1. To be twisted or wrapped round, to be collected, concentrated; to flock or 
crowd together. 2. To be turned, rounded, made circular or cylindrical. 3. To 
fall, drop down (for <orth>'khril</orth> Sch.) <ref>CD.</ref> To roll up; to 
snowball <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To twist, turn. 2. (according to some <orth>dag 
yig</orth>  'spelling primers') To collect together, to wrap in <ref>DS.</ref> 
1. To be rolled up, to recoil, to be condensed, to be assembled. 2. To roll 
down <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Root given as ril 
<ref>(R&oacute;na-Tas 1978: 359), (Beyer 1992: 
73).</ref></note><note><label>Note:</label><ref>(R&oacute;na-Tas 1978: 359) 
.</ref>calls <orth>'dril</orth> 'to be turned, rolled round, twisted into a 
thing.' the 'passive' of this verb, in addition he suggests a connection to the 
adjective <orth>hril po</orth> 'round, globular, close, dense' and the noun 
<orth>ril ba</orth> 'scroll'. <ref>(Beyer 1992: 73)</ref> similarly suggests 
comparision with <orth>ril po</orth> 
'round'.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'grub</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'grub</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>'grubs</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>grub</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'grub</orth><ref>LZ, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'grub</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>grubs</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, 
(Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>[CD], DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: 
</label>[Abs. Obl.] <ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>sgrub</orth><ref>(Gyurme 1992: 259), (Beyer 1992: 
116).</ref></causation><denominative><label>Denominative of: 
</label><orth>grabs</orth> 'preparation' <ref>(Simon 1971: 
474).</ref></denominative><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>bsam don 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> (Situ 69) To 
be accomplished; to be made ready, to be finished <ref>CD.</ref> To be 
accomplished <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To become, arise. 2. To exist, stay. 3. To know, 
understand <ref>DS.</ref> To become accomplished, to be made, to be fulfilled, 
to be completed 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'grum</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'grum</orth><ref>CD.</ref><orth>'grums</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>grums</orth><ref>DS.</ref><orth>grum</orth><ref>TC.</ref><orth>drum</orth><ref>
 (TC).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>grums</orth><ref>CD, DK, 
[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'grum</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>grums</orth><ref>[DS].</ref><orth>grum</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>grums</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
pinch, nip off (the point of a thing); to cut off; to prime, lop, clip the 
wings (Cs.) <ref>CD.</ref> To be broken or cracked <ref>DK.</ref> To break into 
many pieces <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To be broken, to be damaged. 2. To be exhausted, 
to be worn out 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'grul</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'grul</orth><ref>CD,
 DK, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'gruld</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>'grul</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'grul</orth><ref>DK,
 TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'gruld</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Causative of: 
</label><orth>'khrul</orth><ref>(Beyer 1992: 
112).</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To walk; to pass; to 
ravel. 2. Fig. To walk, to live, act, or behave. 3. To pass as good; to be 
current (of coins) <ref>CD.</ref> To journey; to go <ref>DK.</ref>To travel, to 
tour, to take a trip 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'grus</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'grus</orth><ref>LZ,
 
TC.</ref><orth>'gru</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'grus</orth><ref>LZ,
 [CD], 
TC.</ref><orth>grus</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'grus</orth><ref>LZ,
 TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>'grus</orth><ref>LZ, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>chos phyogs 
la</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 To bestow pains upon a thing <ref>CD.</ref> To persevere, to be diligent 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gre</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gre</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'gres</orth><ref>LZ, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'gre</orth><ref>LZ, ND, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'gres</orth><ref>LZ, ND, DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND.</ref><label> 
Involuntary: </label><ref>ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>sgre</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: vii.19), (Beyer 1992: 
116).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>snga 
phyi</orth><ref>LZ,</ref><orth>rigs</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 To roll one's self <ref>CD.</ref> To apply a same reasoning; to adjust one's 
sleeping position <ref>DK.</ref>1. To turn over the body while lying down. 2. 
To use previous reasoning to consider an new topic <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To be 
collated, to be juxtaposed, to be mixed. 2. To toss and turn. 3. (archaic) To 
move 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'greng</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'greng</orth><ref>LZ,
 ND, CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'grengs</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
TC.</ref><orth>'greng</orth><ref>ND, 
[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'greng</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>grengs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>ND.</ref><orth>'grengs</orth><ref>DK, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>ND.</ref><label> 
Voluntary: </label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. 
Obl.] <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>sgreng</orth><ref>[CD], (Chang 1971: vii.19), [Coblin 1986], 
(Gyurme 1992: 259), (Beyer 1992: 
116).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>gyen dang lus 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To stand 
<ref>CD.</ref> To rise up; to get up <ref>DK.</ref> To stand up, to rise up 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'grem</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'grem</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 KY<sub>N</sub>, CD, (ND), DS.</ref><orth>'grems</orth><ref>LZ, ND, DK, (CD), 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkram</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, 
KY<sub>N</sub>, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dgram</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 KY<sub>N</sub>, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khroms</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, LZ, CD, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>khrems</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, CD, ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>gram</orth><ref>(Gyurme 1992: 
258).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>rgyan dar sogs</orth><ref>LZ,</ref><orth>chu dang gcal 
du</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To spread (as 
of grain, for drying) <ref>CD.</ref> To scatter; to spread out <ref>DK.</ref> 
To spread, to lay out many things <ref>DS.</ref> To be spread out, to lay out, 
to distribute 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'grem</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'grem</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'grems</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'grem</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>grems</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></wrIV><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>chab 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example></entry><entry><headword><orth>'grel</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'grel</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkrald</orth><ref>LZ, ND, 
DK.</ref><orth>bkral</orth><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dgrol</orth><ref>LZ, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>dgral</orth><ref>ND.</ref><orth>bkral</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>'greld</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref><orth>khrold</orth><ref>ND.</ref><orth>khrol</orth><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>gzhung tshig sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>dgongs la 
khyal dang 'grel</orth><ref>ND<sub>B</sub>.</ref><orth>dgongs la khyal dang 
'grel pa</orth><ref>ND<sub>A</sub>.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning: 
</label>1. To beg, supplicate. 2. To put in, arrange. 3. To explain, comment 
upon <ref>CD.</ref> To classify; to elucidate meaning; to explain in detail 
<ref>DK.</ref> To comment on, to elucidate the difficult points of a text 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'grel</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'grel</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'grel</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrII></entry><entry><headword><orth>'gro</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'gro</orth><ref>CD,
 ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>song</orth><ref>CD, 
DS.</ref><orth>'gro</orth><ref>ND.</ref><orth>phyind</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>phyin</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'gro</orth><ref>DK,
 DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>song</orth><ref>CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>CD, DS, TC, (Goldstein 
1991: 93), (Gyurme 1992: 251), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, TC, 
(Goldstein 1991: 93), (Gyurme 1992: 
251).</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To go, to 
live <ref>CD.</ref> To go, to move <ref>DK.</ref>1. To go, proceed,  set off, 
move. 2. To be acceptable [to the senses]. 3. To hold, to contain. 4. To 
become. 5. To be used for <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Root 
given as 'gro &lt; ' + TB *ga + *ro, *ro &lt; TB *ra 'to come' <ref>(Delancey 
1908: 233).</ref></note><note><label>Note:</label>song &lt; s + *ong, *ong &lt; 
TB *wang <ref>(Delancey 1980: 233).</ref></note><note><label>Note:</label> The 
past <orth>song</orth> is more typical of eastern dialects whereas 
<orth>phyin</orth> more of central dialects. For more etymological thoughts on 
motion verbs compare 
<orth>'ong</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'grogs</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'grogs</orth><ref>CD,
 ND, DK, TC.</ref><orth>'grog</orth><ref>(DK), 
DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>'grogs</orth><ref>ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'grogs</orth><ref>DK, 
TC.</ref><orth>'grog</orth><ref>(DK), DS.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label> <dash> <ref>ND, DS.</ref><orth>'grogs</orth><ref>DK, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>ND, 
DS.</ref><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref><label> Transitive:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Ass.] 
<ref>(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 368), (Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To associate with; to keep 
company, to be in the company of; to accompnay <ref>CD.</ref> To be accompanied 
by; to associate with; to stay together <ref>DK.</ref> To act with mutual 
connection, to co-habitate, to co-operate <ref>DS.</ref> To accompany, to 
associate with <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Perhaps to be 
compared with <orth>rogs</orth> 'help'.</note></entry>

<entry><headword><orth>'grongs</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'grong</orth><ref>ND.</ref><orth>'grongs</orth><ref>DK,
 TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>'grong</orth><ref>ND.</ref><orth>grong</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>grongs</orth><ref>.
 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>'grong</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>'grongs</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label> <dash> <ref>ND, 
TC.</ref><orth>grongs</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>ND, TC, (Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition>
<transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity>
<causation><label>Resultative
1.of:</label><orth>dgrong</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: vii.18), (Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><denominative><label>Denominative 
of:</label><orth>ro</orth>'corpse'<ref>(Hahn 1999: 
124).</ref></denominative><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To die 
<ref>CD.</ref>(honorific) To die<ref> 
TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Root given as 'g- ro - ng 
<ref>(Hahn 1999: 124).</ref></note></entry>

<entry><headword><orth>'grol</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>'grol</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>dgrol</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bkrol</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 KY<sub>N</sub>, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>bkrold</orth><ref>TD, LZ, 
ND.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>dgrol</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khrol</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>khrold</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, LZ, ND, 
DK.</ref><orth>grold</orth><ref>TD, LZ.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>grol</orth> <ref>(Chang 1971: vii.18), (Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>sgrol</orth>.</causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>mdud pa sogs</orth><ref>TD.</ref><orth>mdud bcings 
sogs</orth><ref> (<orth>'grol</orth>) LZ.</ref><orth>bcings pa 
sogs</orth><ref>(<orth>dgrol</orth>) LZ</ref>. <orth>mdud pa khrims</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To unravel, to make loose, to 
set free, to unfasten <ref>CD.</ref> To loosen; to set free from bondage 
<ref>DK.</ref>1. (for a knot, tied rope &amp;c.) To unravel, unwind. 2. (for a 
higher ranking [person]) To allow, approve <ref>DS.</ref>1. To untie, to 
unravel, to liberate, to release, to unfasten. 2. To comment on, to elucidate 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rga</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>rga</orth><ref>CD,
 DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>rgad</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>rgas</orth><ref>CD,
 DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>rga</orth><ref>DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>rgas</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To be old, 
aged. 2. To go down, to set (of the sun) (J&auml;) <ref>CD.</ref> To become 
old; to become physically weak, to become lean and thin <ref>DK.</ref> 1. (for 
men or cattle) To age. 2. To become old, for time to pass <ref>DS.</ref> To 
age, to grow old <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Root given as 
rga &lt; *gra <ref>(Beyer 1992: 85 
n.16).</ref></note><note><label>Note:</label> Related to the nouns <orth>rgad 
po</orth>, <orth>rgad mo</orth>, <orth>rgan po</orth>, <orth>rgan mo</orth>, 
<orth>rgas po</orth>, <orth>rgas mo</orth> 'old man, old woman' and the verb 
<orth>bgres</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>rgal</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>rgol</orth><ref>LZ,
 ND, (DS).</ref><orth>rgal</orth><ref>CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>brgald</orth><ref>LZ, ND, 
DK.</ref><orth>brgal</orth><ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>brgal</orth><ref>LZ, ND, CD, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>rgold</orth><ref>LZ, ND, DK.</ref><orth>rgol</orth><ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>CD, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref><label> Transitive</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label><orth>sgrol</orth><ref>[Beyer 1992: 
85].</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>chu 
sogs dang gzhan dang</orth><ref>LZ,</ref><orth>phar 
la</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To ford (a 
river), to travel through, to pass over, to surmount a pass <ref>CD.</ref> To 
cross the river, to cross a limit, to take a bath <ref>DK.</ref> To cross (a 
river, valley, pass). 2. To pass, exceed a measure. 3. To go into water 
<ref>DS.</ref> To cross, to traverse, to go beyond, to exceed 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Root given as rgal &lt; *gral 
<ref>(Beyer 1992: 85).</ref></note><note><label>Note:</label><ref>CD</ref> 
gives <orth>rgal ba</orth> and <orth>rgal pa</orth>, the latter perhaps 
indicates the variant <orth>rgald 
pa</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>rgud</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>rgud</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>rgud</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>rgud</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>rgud</orth><ref>LZ, DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>rlung rta 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To decline, 
to sink, grow fail <ref>CD.</ref> To decay; to decline; to become weak or 
smaller <ref>DK.</ref> To break down (of power, ability &amp;c. ) 
<ref>DS.</ref> To decline, to deteriorate 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rgol</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>rgol</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>brgald</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 
DK.</ref><orth>brgal</orth><ref>TC.</ref><orth>rgol</orth><ref>CD.</ref><orth>rgol</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>brgal</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 ND, DK, 
TC.</ref><orth>brgol</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>rgold</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>.</ref><orth>rgol</orth><ref> DK, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, ND, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To dispute, 
combat, fight, make controversy <ref>CD.</ref> To find out by debating, to 
debate <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To fight. 2. To negate <ref>DS.</ref> To oppose, to 
attack, to assault, to resist <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> 
Whether <ref>KY<sub>N</sub></ref> intends these forms here or at 
<orth>rgal</orth> cannot be 
known.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>rgya</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>rgya</orth><ref>CD,
 ND, TC.</ref><orth>rgyas</orth><ref>DK, 
DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>rgyas</orth><ref>CD, ND, [DK], 
DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>rgya</orth><ref>ND, 
TC.</ref><orth>rgyas</orth><ref>DK, [DS].</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label> <dash> <ref>ND, TC.</ref><orth>rgyas</orth><ref>ND, 
DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>ND, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref><label> Voluntary: 
</label><ref>ND.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref>DS,
 TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>sangs</orth><ref>(-) ND,</ref><orth>sangs rgya dmigs 
rgya</orth><ref> (<orth>rgyas</orth>) ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning: 
</label>To increase in bulk or quantity, to augment, to spread <ref>CD.</ref> 
To increase, enlarge, flourish <ref>DK.</ref> To increase, to multiply 
<ref>DS.</ref> To increase, to swell, to grow larger, to develop 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rgya</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>rgya</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
  To be useful and of service, to exert oneself 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rgyag</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>rgyob</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>rgyab</orth><ref>CD,
 DK.</ref><orth>rgyag</orth><ref>(CD Central Dialect), DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>rgyeg</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>brgyab</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DS, TC.</ref><orth>brgyabs</orth><ref>ND, DK, 
(DS).</ref><orth>rgyag</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>brgyab</orth><ref>LZ, CD, 
DK, DS.</ref><orth>brgyag</orth><ref>ND, TC.</ref><orth>rgyag</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>rgyob</orth><ref>LZ, 
CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>rgyabs</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref><orth>rgyag</orth><ref> DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:
 </label><ref>CD, DS, TC, (Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 166), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Erg. Abs.]<ref> 
(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 166), (Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>zor 
dang mtshon sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>rdo 
sogs</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To throw, to 
fling; to hit, to beat, to strike <ref>CD.</ref> The meaning of this verb 
differs according to context, e.g. to build; to shoot; to reply; to mark, etc. 
<ref>DK.</ref>1. i. To strike, to hit. ii. A house, wall etc. to make new. iii. 
To propel to cast 2. In the colloquial language there are many definitions, 
used like <orth>'jug</orth><ref> DS.</ref>To project, propel away, send off; to 
enter, place inside; to do; to make 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Root given as rgyab &lt; 
*gryab <ref>(Beyer 1992: 
4).</ref></note><note><label>Note:</label><ref>DK</ref> lists two verbs 
<orth>rgyag</orth>, <orth>rgyag</orth>, <orth>rgyag</orth>, <orth>rgyag</orth> 
and and <orth>rgyab</orth>, <orth>rgyabs</orth>, <orth>brgyab</orth>, 
<orth>rgyabs</orth>/<orth>rgyob</orth> with nearly identical meanings. 
<ref>(Chang &amp; Chang 1984) .</ref>conjectures that the termination -b is 
original. This verb is frequently added to nouns to form new verbs, it 
generally indicates a voluntary verb, whereas <orth>'thebs</orth> is used in 
the same way to indicate lack of volition or to show that the action was well 
done <ref>(Chang &amp; Chang 
1984).</ref></note></entry><entry><headword><orth>rgyag</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>rgyag</orth><ref>
 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>brgyab</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>rgyag</orth><ref>
 TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label> <dash> <ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To rise, to emit 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rgyags</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>rgyags</orth><ref>LZ,
 DK, TC.</ref><orth>rgyag</orth><ref> 
DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>brgyags</orth><ref>LZ, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>brgyag</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>rgyags</orth><ref>LZ, DK.</ref><orth>rgyogs</orth><ref> DS.</ref> 
<dash> <ref> TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref><label> Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label> 
<ref>DS.</ref><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>nor dang nga rgyal sogs 
kyis</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To use 
provisions on a journey <ref>DK.</ref> To give a bribe of wealth <ref>DS.</ref> 
To be full, to be satisfied, to be satiated 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label><ref>LZ</ref> evidently 
conflates this verb with the following. <ref>TC</ref> fits here morphologically 
but semantically is better at <orth>brgyags</orth>. The relationship between 
these three verbs (<orth>rgyags</orth><sub>1</sub>, 
<orth>rgyags</orth><sub>2</sub>, <orth>brgyags</orth>) is hardly 
clear.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>rgyags</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>rgyags</orth><ref>DK,
 TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>rgyags</orth><ref>DK, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>rgyags</orth><ref>DK, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>rgyags</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref>
 TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be self satisfied, 
to be haughty, priggish <ref>DK.</ref> To be self satisfied 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rgyang</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>rgyang</orth><ref>(CD),
 
DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>brgyangs</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>brgyang</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 
</label><orth>rgyangs</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
To stretch, extend, stretch forth (one's hands to a person), put out (the 
tongue); spread; distend (the wings, a curtain) <ref>CD.</ref> To cause to be 
delayed; to extend <ref>DK.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Root given 
as rgyang &lt; *gryang <ref>(Beyer 1992: 
85).</ref></note><note><label>Note:</label> Compare <orth>rgyong</orth> and 
<orth>rkyong</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>rgyan</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>rgyan</orth><ref>LZ,
 DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>brgyand</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK .</ref><orth>brgyan</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>brgyan</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>rgyand</orth><ref>LZ, DK.</ref><orth>rgyan</orth><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><denominative><label>Denominative of: 
</label><orth>rgyan</orth> 'ornament' <ref>(Beyer 1992: 
111).</ref></denominative><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>rgyan dang dar sogs 
kyis</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To ornament; 
to beautify or to decorate, to wear or to put on <ref>DK.</ref> To adorn, 
ornament <ref>DS.</ref> To adorn, ornament, to decorate 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rgyal</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>rgyal</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>rgyald</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref><orth>rgyal</orth><ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>rgyal</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>rgyal</orth><ref>LZ, DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Abl/Ela.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>gzhan dang sho sogs 
las</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be 
victorious; to win; to conquer; to subdue, to overpower <ref>CD.</ref> To win, 
conquer, subdue <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To remain having defeated an opposing side or 
enemy. 2. To be superior than another <ref>DS.</ref> To be victorious, to 
conquer 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rgyu</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>rgyu</orth><ref>CD,
 DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>rgyu</orth><ref>DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>rgyu</orth><ref>DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>rgyu</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To go, 
walk, move, wander, range (this verb is generally used instead of 
<orth>'gro</orth> in Sikkim) <ref>CD.</ref> To go; to move <ref>DK.</ref> To go 
<ref>DS.</ref>To move, to roam, to go<ref> 
TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>'gyu</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>rgyug</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>rgyug</orth><ref>DK,
 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>rgyug</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>rgyugs</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>rgyug</orth><ref>DK,
 TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>rgyug</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>rgyugs</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:
 </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To run; to 
race <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To run. 2. To flow. 3. To sell, engage in commerce 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rgyug</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>rgyug</orth><ref>TD,
 LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>brgyugs</orth><ref>TD, LZ, CD, 
ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>brgyug</orth><ref>TD, LZ, 
ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>rgyugs</orth><ref>TD, LZ, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>rgyug</orth><ref> DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> 
ND.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>TD, ND, DS, TC, 
(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003:
 292), (Hoshi
 2003).</ref><label> Involuntary: 
</label><ref>ND.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref><label> Transitive:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Erg.] <ref>(Tournadre 
&amp; Dorje 2003: 292).</ref>[Erg. Abs.] <ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>rta 
sogs</orth><ref>TD,</ref><orth>sngon rjes sogs su</orth><ref> 
LZ,</ref><orth>rta zong dang sogs</orth><ref>(<orth>rgyugs</orth>) 
ND<sub>B</sub>,</ref><orth>rta dang zong sogs</orth><ref>(<orth>rgyugs</orth>) 
ND<sub>A</sub>,</ref><orth>zong sogs</orth><ref>(-) 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To run <ref>CD.</ref> To run 
a race; to make one run <ref>DK.</ref> To race 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rgyugs</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>rgyugs</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>rgyugs</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>rgyugs</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>rgyugs</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
To serve; to serve drink 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rgyung</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>rgyung</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>rgyungs</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>rgyung</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>rgyungs</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To wash the 
stomach (as with cleansing medicine) 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rgyud</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>rgyud</orth><ref>TD,
 LZ, CD, ND, TC.</ref><orth>rgyu</orth><ref>DK, DS, 
(TC).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>brgyus</orth><ref>TD, LZ, CD, 
ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>brgyu</orth><ref>TD, LZ, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>rgyus</orth><ref>TD, LZ, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>TD, ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>phreng ba sogs</orth><ref>TD, LZ.</ref><orth>skud pa mig 
la</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To tie, fasten, 
connect together <ref>(<orth>rgyud</orth>) CD.</ref> To make a string of, to 
stick together <ref>(<orth>brgyus</orth>) CD.</ref> To string; to put in line 
<ref>DK.</ref> To put a rope or thread through a hole <ref>DS.</ref> To thread, 
to 
string<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rgyo</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>rgyo</orth><ref>CD,
 DK, DS (dialect), 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>brgyos</orth><ref>CD, DK, 
DS.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>brgyo</orth><ref>CD, DK, 
DS.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>rgyos</orth><ref>CD, 
DK, DS.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>CD, DS, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To have sexual 
intercourse; (acc. to Cs.) To deflower, ravish <ref>CD.</ref> To deflower; to 
have sexual intercourse <ref>DK.</ref> To have sexual intercourse 
<ref>DS.</ref>(archaic) To have sexual intercourse 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rgyong</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>rgyong</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>brgyang</orth><ref> 
CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>brgyangs</orth><ref>LZ, CD, ND, 
DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>brgyang</orth><ref>LZ, CD, 
ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>rgyongs</orth><ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>CD, ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref><label> Transitive:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>pags pa sogs</orth><ref>LZ,</ref><orth>gru 
sogs</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To extend, 
stretch forth, distend <ref>(<orth>rgyong</orth>) CD.</ref> To extend, stretch 
out, set out, arrange <ref>(<orth>brgyang</orth>) CD.</ref> To fill up, to 
stretch <ref>DK.</ref>1. To stretch, to extend, to distend. 2. To fill up 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Root given as *rgyang &lt; 
*gryang <ref>(Coblin 
1986).</ref></note></entry><entry><headword><orth>rgyor</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>rgyor</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 To kill 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgag</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgag</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgags</orth><ref>LZ, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgag</orth><ref>LZ, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>khog</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>sgogs</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:
 </label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic Example: 
</label><orth>mna' 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To ravish, to 
copulate; to embrace in sexual union <ref>CD.</ref> To bind, to tie, to fasten 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgang</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgang</orth><ref>CD,
 ND, DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgang</orth><ref>CD, 
DK.</ref><orth>bsgongs</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgang</orth><ref>CD,
 ND, DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>sgongs</orth><ref>ND.</ref><orth>sgangs</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:
 </label><ref>ND.</ref></volition><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>gang</orth>.</causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>zas 
sogs</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To grow, 
become full (Cs.) <ref>CD.</ref> To cause to fill 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare <orth>kheng</orth>, 
<orth>skong</orth>, 
<orth>'geng</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgab</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgab</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, 
TC.</ref><orth>sgob</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgabs</orth><ref>LZ,
 
DK.</ref><orth>bsgab</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgab</orth><ref>LZ,
 DK, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>sgobs</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref><orth>sgob</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'gebs</orth><ref>[CD], (Coblin 
1986).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>'dri dang sri 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To cover 
<ref>CD.</ref> To cause to cover or to spread over; to cause to wear or patch 
<ref>DK.</ref>1. To cover, to conceal. 2. To protect 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare the noun 
<orth>khebs</orth> 'a 
cover'.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgar</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgar</orth><ref>DK,
 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgard</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>bsgar</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgar</orth><ref>DK,
 TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>sgord</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>sgor</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:
 </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To dip fry; to solidify 
in oil <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To condense, solidify. 2. To attach, to fit, to insert 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgal</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgal</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrI><causation><label>Causative
 of:</label><orth>'gel</orth><ref>[Coblin 
1986].</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To carry a load (on 
one's back), to cause a load to be carried on the back of a beast of burden 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare the noun 
<orth>khal</orth> 'a load, 
burden'.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgug</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgug</orth><ref>TD,
 LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgugs</orth><ref>TD, LZ, CD, 
ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgug</orth><ref>LZ, CD, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref> <footnote> TD gives <orth>bsgrub</orth>, an obvious 
manuscript error.</footnote></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>sgugs</orth><ref>TD, LZ, CD, ND<sub>B</sub>, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>skugs</orth><ref>ND<sub>A</sub>.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:
 </label><ref>TD, CD, ND, DS, TC, (Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 306), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:
 </label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. 
Abs.]<ref> (Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 
306).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>rjes 
la</orth><ref>TD,</ref><orth>grogs po sogs</orth><ref> LZ,</ref><orth>lam 
du</orth><ref> ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To wait 
<ref>CD, DK.</ref> To wait for <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> 
This word may be a causative formed on a stem *gug. Perhaps it is cognate to 
<orth>'gugs pa</orth> 'to summon' and <orth>'gugs pab po</orth> 'one who is 
summoned, a waiter' <ref>(Coblin 
1986).</ref></note></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgur</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgur</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgurd</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref><orth>bsgur</orth><ref>TC.</ref><orth>sgur</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>sgur</orth><ref>LZ,
 [DS].</ref><orth>bsgur</orth><ref>DK, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>sgurd</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref><orth>sgur</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref> TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>rked pa 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To become 
afraid <ref>CD.</ref> To cause to bow down, to bend down <ref>DK.</ref> (Of the 
body) To bend forward <ref>DS.</ref> To bend, to bend down 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgul</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgul</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsguld</orth><ref> LZ, ND, 
DK.</ref><orth>bsgul</orth><ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgul</orth><ref>LZ, CD, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>sguld</orth><ref>LZ, ND, DK.</ref><orth>sgul</orth><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, TC, 
(Gyurme 1992: 248).</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. 
Abs.] <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'gul</orth><ref>[CD], (Chang 1971: vii.17), (Gyurme 1992: 
259), (Beyer 1992: 116).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>lag pa sogs kyis</orth><ref>LZ,</ref><orth>g.yo 
ba'i</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To move, 
agitate, put in motion <ref>CD.</ref> To shake; to cause to move <ref>DK.</ref> 
1. To make something move, or shake. 2. To cause a transformation 
<ref>DS.</ref>To move, to shake, to agitate 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgeg</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgeg</orth><ref>CD.
 (Goldstein 2001).</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To brag, boast 
(Cs.) <ref>CD.</ref> To be charming, graceful <ref>(Goldstein 
2001).</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgo</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgo</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgos</orth><ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgo</orth><ref>LZ, 
[CD], ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>sgos</orth><ref>LZ, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'go</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: 
vii.18).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>dri bzang sogs skyis</orth><ref>LZ,</ref><orth>dka' dang 
dus ra dri ma sogs</orth> (?) 
<ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> (obsolete) To say; to 
speak, (mostly) to bid, to order <ref>CD.</ref> To order; to cause to be 
predisposed; to be habituated <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To make one thing to stick to 
or contaminate another thing. 2. To teach to another <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To 
command, to order, to exhort, to instruct. 2. To be contaminated, to be 
polluted <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label><ref>CD</ref> lists 
the fut separately with definition 'to rub with; to apply on'. <ref>(Chang 
1971: vii.18).</ref> only gives the definition 'to soil, stain, defile, infect 
with 
disease'.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgog</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgog</orth><ref>CD,
 ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgags</orth><ref>CD, ND, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgag</orth><ref>CD, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>sgogs</orth><ref>ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>mna'</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To make one swear (Cs.) 
<ref>CD.</ref> To make one swear; to cause to take an oath <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To 
bind tightly. 2. To restrict, prohibit. 3. To coerce, force, compel 
<ref>DS.</ref> To take an oath, to swear an oath 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgong</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgong</orth><ref>TD,
 LZ, CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgangs</orth><ref>TD, LZ, 
DS.</ref><orth>bsgongs</orth><ref> CD, DK, (DS), 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgang</orth><ref>TD, LZ, 
DS.</ref><orth>bsgong</orth><ref> CD, DK, (DS), 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>sgongs</orth><ref>TD, 
LZ, CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>sgong</orth><ref> 
CD.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>TD, CD, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>zan sogs</orth><ref>TD,</ref><orth>zas sogs dang gcig 
tu</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To make in tea 
balls to eat [sic], to make round balls of dough (Cs.). <ref>CD.</ref> To make 
a globular mass: to heap; to make paste for food <ref>DK.</ref> To make into a 
ball (barley flower &amp;c.) <ref>DS.</ref>To make into a ball 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgong</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgong</orth><ref>DS,
 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>sgong</orth><ref>[DS].</ref><orth>bsgongs</orth><ref>
 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>sgong</orth><ref>[DS].</ref><orth>bsgong</orth><ref>
 TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>sgongs</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref> TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref> 
DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To load firewood 
&amp;c. on to a fire <ref>DS.</ref> (dialect) To heap fuel onto a fire 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgongs</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgong</orth><ref>CD.</ref><orth>sgongs</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 To hide; to conceal (a thing) (Sch.) 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgom</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgom</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgoms</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgom</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>sgoms</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>sgom</orth><ref> 
CD.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, 
KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, CD, ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>goms</orth>.</causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>ting nge 'dzin</orth><ref>TD,</ref><orth>ting nge 'dzind 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ,</ref><orth>ting 
'dzin</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. 
(originally) To fancy, imagine. 2.  (now, with accusative and dative) To 
meditate, contemplate systematically. 3. (with accusative and terminative, or 
with double accusative) To have; to entertain; to reproduce (in one's mind) 
<ref>CD.</ref> To meditate, to practice meditation; to cultivate in meditation 
<ref>DK.</ref>To bring to memory again and again in the mind <ref>DS.</ref> To 
meditate 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgor</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgor</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgard</orth><ref>LZ, 
ND.</ref><orth>bsgar</orth><ref> CD, 
DS.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgar</orth><ref>LZ, CD, ND, 
DS.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>sgord</orth><ref>LZ, 
ND.</ref><orth>sgor</orth><ref> DS.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>ND, DS.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic
 Example:</label><orth>bu ram sogs</orth><ref>LZ,</ref><orth>bu 
ram</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To boil 
down; to condense by boiling. 2. To turn on a lathe (J&auml;) <ref>CD.</ref> 1. 
To make syrup by boiling down tree sap. 2. (dialect) To invert a vessel 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgyang</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgyang</orth><ref>LZ,
 
DS.</ref><orth>sgyong</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgyangs</orth><ref>LZ,
 ND, DS.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgyang</orth><ref>LZ, 
ND<sub>A</sub>, 
DS.</ref><orth>bsgyong</orth><ref>ND<sub>B</sub>.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>sgyangs</orth><ref>LZ, 
ND.</ref><orth>sgyongs</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'gyang</orth>.</causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>dus sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>ring du</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To cause a delay 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>'gyangs</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgying</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgying</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DK, 
DS.</ref><orth>bsgyings</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgyings</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgying</orth><ref>LZ, CD, 
ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>bsgyings</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>sgyings</orth><ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref> <dash> <ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>CD, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref><label> Intransitive:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'gying</orth><ref>[CD].</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic
 Example:</label><orth>nyams kyis rnam par</orth><ref>LZ,</ref><orth>seng ge 
rnam par</orth><ref> ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To yawn, 
to gape <ref>CD.</ref> To display emotion through physical posture 
<ref>DK.</ref> To yawn and to stretch out the limbs when tired. 2. To 
straighten. 3. To leap, jump, to be erect. 1. To sigh, to stretch the limbs. 2. 
To straighten. 3. To leap, to  jump, to act haughtily 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgyur</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgyur</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgyurd</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 TD, LZ, ND, DK.</ref><orth>bsgyur</orth><ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgyur</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>sgyurd</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, ND, 
DK.</ref><orth>sgyur</orth><ref>DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, CD, ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'gyur</orth><ref>CD, (Chang 1971: vii.20-21), (Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>chos sogs</orth><ref>TD,</ref><orth>chos sogs dang chos 
kyis</orth><ref>LZ,</ref><orth>dbang dang skad mdog bon chos</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To transform, alter, 
change, to correct; translate; revise. 2. To cast aside; dissuade, divert; to 
turn; to cause to turn. 3. To govern, steer, control <ref>(<orth>sgyur</orth>) 
CD.</ref>  To multiply, increase <ref>(<orth>bsgyur</orth>) CD.</ref> To 
translate; to change; to transform; to multiply <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To change, 
transform (method, essence, characteristic, direction, &amp;c.). 2. To 
translate. 3. To take control, power. 4. To make various kinds of sound appear 
(from an instrument &amp;c.). 5. To multiply. 6. To show various styles of body 
(as in dance &amp;c.). 7. To drive away, expel, repel, reverse <ref>DS.</ref>1. 
To change, to transform, to alter. 2. To translate, to interpret. 3. (math) To 
multiply, times, fold 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgyel</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgyel</orth><ref>TD,
 LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgyeld</orth><ref>TD, LZ, ND, 
DK.</ref><orth>bsgyel</orth><ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgyel</orth><ref>TD, LZ, 
CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>sgyeld</orth><ref>TD, LZ, ND, DK.</ref><orth>sgyel</orth><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>TD, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'gyel</orth><ref>CD, (Chang 1971: vii.20), (Beyer 1992: 
116).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>rtsig pa sogs</orth><ref>TD,</ref><orth>shing dang gyang 
sogs</orth><ref> LZ,</ref><orth>kan rkyal dang par la</orth><ref> 
ND<sub>B</sub>.</ref><orth>gan rkyal dang phar 
la</orth><ref>ND<sub>A</sub>.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
throw down, to overturn, to lay or put down (a bottle, a book); to thwart (the 
charm of an enemy); to kill (J&auml;) <ref>CD.</ref> To cause to fall down; to 
cause to break down, to overturn <ref>DK.</ref> To cause to a person or upright 
thing to lie horizontally <ref>DS.</ref> To cause to fall down, to bring down 
to overthrow, to thwart, to be thrown down 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>dgyel</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgyong</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgyong</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgyongs</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgyong</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrIII><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 1. To fill, to stuff (a sausage). 2. (colloquial in West) to put into (the 
pocket) <ref>CD.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Perhaps originally = 
<orth>sgong</orth> 'to hide' 
<ref>CD.</ref></note></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgral</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgral</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 1. To cut into small pieces, viz. the picture of an enemy one wishes to 
destroy (J&auml;). 2. To pass over or travel upon a river or sea 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgrig</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgrig</orth><ref>TD,
 LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgrigs</orth><ref>TD, LZ, CD, 
ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgrig</orth><ref>TD, LZ, 
CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>sgrigs</orth><ref>TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>sgrig</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TD, CD, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'grig</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: vii.19), (Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>gral du</orth><ref>TD,</ref><orth>go rim sogs</orth><ref> 
LZ,</ref><orth>cho ga dang bral la</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To arrange in order or row, 
to lay or put in order, to arrange, adjust; to put or fit together; to join 
(the separate parts), to compile (books), to stitch close [sic](books etc.) 
<ref>CD.</ref> To put in order; to arrange or to rectify <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To 
arrange in a certain plain, order. 2. To collect in one place. 3. To mutually 
agree, be in one house <ref>DS.</ref>1. To arrange, to put in order, to align. 
2. To compile, to collect, to edit, to assemble, to join together 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgrin</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgrin</orth><ref>LZ,
 DK, DS (archaic), 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgrind</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref><orth>bsgrin</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgrin</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>sgrind</orth><ref>LZ, DK.</ref><orth>sgrin</orth><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>phan 
tshun</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To have a 
competition; to cause to compete or to compare <ref>DK.</ref> (archaic) To 
contest for victory <ref>DS.</ref>To rival, compete with, to compare 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgrib</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgrib</orth><ref>TD,
 LZ, CD, ND, DK,
 DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgribs</orth><ref>TD, LZ, 
CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgrib</orth><ref>TD, LZ, 
CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>sgribs</orth><ref>TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>sgrib</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TD, CD, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label> <ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'grib</orth><ref>(Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>'od 
sogs</orth><ref>TD.</ref><orth>zla nyi sogs</orth><ref> LZ,</ref><orth>yol 
bas</orth><ref> ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To obscure; 
to cover, to darken, defile <ref>CD.</ref> To cover, to hide by covering, to 
hide <ref>DK.</ref>To cover, hide, create an obstacle for seeing something 
<ref>DS.</ref>To obscure, to cover, to conceal 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgrim</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgrim</orth><ref>TD,
 LZ, ND, CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgrims</orth><ref>TD, LZ, ND, 
CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgrim</orth><ref>TD, LZ, 
ND, CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>sgrims</orth><ref>TD, LZ, ND, CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>TD, ND, CD, DS, TC, 
(Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>grim</orth><ref> (Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>blo 
dang skud pa sogs</orth><ref>TD,</ref><orth>rig pa dang skud pa 
sogs</orth><ref> LZ,</ref><orth>rig las skud pa</orth><ref> 
ND<sub>B</sub>.</ref><orth>rig pa las dang skud 
pa</orth><ref>ND<sub>A</sub>.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. 
To hold fast; to force or twist together; to endeavor; (Cs.) to squeeze in, 
crow in, (Sch.) to be confused <ref>CD.</ref> To concentrate; to exercise the 
mental power on; to pay attention; to spin or twist the threads together, to 
entwine <ref>DK.</ref>1. To tightly spin (rope, thread &amp;c.). 2. To be 
intelligent, careful <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To concentrate, to focus. 2. To twist 
together 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgril</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgrild</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>sgril</orth><ref>CD,
 ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgrild</orth><ref>LZ, ND, 
DK.</ref><orth>bsgril</orth><ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgril</orth><ref>LZ, CD, 
ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>sgrild</orth><ref>LZ, ND, DK.</ref><orth>sgril</orth><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'gril</orth><ref>[CD], (R&oacute;na-Tas 1978: 359), (Beyer 
1992: 116), (Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref><orth>'khril</orth>.</causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>thig skud sogs</orth><ref>LZ,</ref><orth>mar la dang gcig 
tu</orth><ref> ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To make a roll 
of, to roll, wrap up; to wind into a spool <ref>CD.</ref> To fold, to wrap up; 
to cause to fold or roll up; to combine <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To make something 
roll. 2. To roll up, make into a ball. 3. To twist, braid, spin (rope and 
thread) <ref>DS.</ref>  1. To twist, to wind. 2. To combine, to muster. 3. To 
stuff. 4. To barter, to convert currency, to exchange currency, exchange 
merchandise. 5. (math) To convert lower digits into higher numeric places 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label><ref>(R&oacute;na-Tas 1978: 
359) .</ref>calls <orth>'dril</orth> 'to be turned, rolled round, twisted into 
a thing.' the 'passive' of this verb, in addition he suggests a connection to 
the adjective <orth>hril po</orth> 'round, globular, close, dense' and the noun 
<orth>ril ba</orth> 
'scroll'.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgrug</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgrug</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgrugs</orth><ref>LZ, CD, ND, 
DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgrug</orth><ref>LZ, CD, 
ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>sgrugs</orth><ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>sgrug</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>CD, ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Erg. 
Abs.]<ref>(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 
276).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>rdo ba 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ,</ref><orth>shing 
sogs</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To collect, 
gather, pluck, pick <ref>CD.</ref> To collect; to pick up <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To 
gather, collect. 2. (in some dialects) To take care of, preserve <ref>DS.</ref> 
To pick up, to gather, to collect 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgrung</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgrung</orth><ref>CD,
 DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgrungs</orth><ref>CD, 
DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgrung</orth><ref>CD, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>sgrungs</orth><ref>DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To mix, to invert, to 
feign (Cs.) <ref>CD.</ref> To cause to purify <ref>DK.</ref> To absorb, having 
been wet in water <ref>DS.</ref>  To dissolve 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgrun</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgrun</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD (archaic), ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgrund</orth><ref>LZ, ND, 
DK.</ref><orth>bsgrun</orth><ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgrun</orth><ref>LZ, CD, 
ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>sgrund</orth><ref>LZ, ND, DK.</ref><orth>sgrun</orth><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'gran</orth><ref>[CD].</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic
 Example:</label><orth>yon tan sogs phan tshun</orth><ref>LZ,</ref><orth>'bran 
pa'i</orth><ref> ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To 
resound; to reply in the same tone; to rival. 2. To compare; emulate, vie, 
contend with (Cs.) <ref>CD.</ref> To have competition; to compete; to compare 
<ref>DK.</ref> To compete, rival <ref>DS.</ref> To rival, to compare 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgrub</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgrub</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgrubs</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgrub</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>sgrubs</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, TD, LZ, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>sgrub</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, TD, CD, ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, TC, 
(Gyurme 1992: 247).</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. 
Abs.] <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'grub</orth><ref>[CD], (Gyurme 1992: 259), (Beyer 1992: 
116).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>cho 
sgrub sogs</orth><ref>TD,</ref><orth>cho ga dang tshe sgrub 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ,</ref><orth>bya ba chos sogs</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To complete, finish, carry 
out, accomplish <ref>CD.</ref> To carry out; to accomplish; to perform 
<ref>DK.</ref> 1. To do an action. 2. To judge the truth, having presented 
arguments and scriptural citations. 3. To take on the means of religion 
<ref>DS.</ref> 1. To attain, to do, to perform, to carry out, to execute. 2. To 
procure, to gain to acquire through effort. 3. (logic) To prove, to affirm, to 
establish, to establish a proof. 4. (math) To calculate, to find the value of, 
to make. 5. To attain, to practice religion, to perfect 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgre</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgre</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgres</orth><ref>LZ, ND, DK, 
DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>bsgre</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgre</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>sgres</orth><ref>LZ, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'gre</orth><ref>(Chang 1971: vii.19), (Beyer
 1992: 116).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>rigs pas gong 'og 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ,</ref><orth>rigs</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To repeat; to put or place in 
order; put together; collate <ref>CD.</ref> To yoke; to apply the same method 
<ref>DK.</ref>1. To compare a known situation in order to know a similar 
situation. 2. To churn something inside a liquid (such as water) <ref>DS.</ref> 
To collate, to juxtapose, to assimilate 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgreg</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgreg</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>sgregs</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrII><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 To belch 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgreng</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgreng</orth><ref>TD,
 LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgrengs</orth><ref>TD, LZ, CD, 
ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgreng</orth><ref>TD, LZ, 
CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>sgrengs</orth><ref>TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>sgreng</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TD, CD, ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>'greng</orth><ref>[CD], (Chang 1971: vii.19), [Coblin 1986], 
(Gyurme 1992: 259), (Beyer 1992: 
116).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>rgyal mtshan</orth><ref>TD,</ref><orth>rgyal mtshan 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ,</ref><orth>rgyal mtshan dar 
sogs</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To lift, 
hoist, rise up <ref>CD.</ref> To make stand up, to make erect <ref>DS.</ref> To 
erect, to raise up, to hoist 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgro</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgro</orth><ref>CD,
 DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgros</orth><ref>CD, 
DS.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgro</orth><ref>CD, 
DS.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>sgro</orth><ref>CD.</ref><orth>bsgros</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:
 </label><ref>CD, DS.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
debate, discuss, chatter freely <ref>CD.</ref> 1. <orth>'go bar bya 
pa'i</orth>, e.g. <orth>'go nad mi la ma bsgo</orth>. 2. To speak to others 
(e.g. a teacher to students) 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgrog</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgrog</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgrags</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgrag</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>,
 TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>sgrogs</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>sgrag</orth><ref>CD.</ref><orth>sgrags</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:
 </label><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, CD, ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>grags</orth><ref>(Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>dam 
tshig dang dril bu</orth><ref>TD,</ref><orth>dam tshig dang bka' shog 
sogs</orth><ref> LZ,</ref><orth>skad sgra</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To call, shout forth, 
publish, proclaim, declare <ref>CD.</ref> To read; to announce; to declare; to 
proclaim, promulgate <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To make a large noise. 2. To make known 
to all by speaking from the mouth or presenting in writing <ref>DS.</ref> To 
call out, to shout out, to roar, to proclaim, to read aloud 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgrog</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgrog</orth><ref>DK,
 DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgrogs</orth><ref>DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgrog</orth><ref>DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>sgrogs</orth><ref>DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To mend; to re-stitch 
<ref>DK.</ref> To bind with a rope &amp;c. the feet and hands of men and cattle 
<ref>DS.</ref> 1. To sew, to stitch. 2. To tie, to fasten, to attach 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgrong</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgrong</orth><ref>
 TD, LZ, ND, TC.</ref><orth>sgrang</orth><ref>CD, DK, 
DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgrangs</orth><ref>TD, LZ, CD, 
ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgrang</orth><ref>TD, LZ, 
CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>sgrong</orth><ref>CD.</ref><orth>sgrongs</orth><ref>TD, LZ, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>TD, CD, ND, 
DS, TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Causative of: 
</label><orth>bgrang</orth>.</causation><example><label>Charateristic 
Example:</label><orth>grangs dang phreng ba 
sogs</orth><ref>TD.</ref><orth>gzhan gyis grangs 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>grangs 
su</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To enumerate; 
to reckon up separately <ref>CD.</ref> To make someone count <ref>DK.</ref> To 
count, calculate, find out by working with numbers <ref>DS.</ref>  To deem, to 
consider, to estimate, to count 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgrod</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgrod</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgrod</orth><ref>LZ, ND, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgrod</orth><ref>LZ, ND, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>sgrod</orth><ref>LZ, 
ND, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>bgrod</orth><ref>[CD], 
[DS].</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>phan tshun</orth><ref>LZ,</ref><orth>lam 
la</orth><ref>ND<sub>B</sub>,</ref><orth>shing khams lam 
sogs</orth><ref>ND<sub>A</sub>.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
(rare) To go <ref>CD.</ref> (in some <orth>dag yig</orth>  'spelling primers' a 
way of spelling <orth>bgrod</orth>) 1. To go. 2. <orth>'dod spyad</orth> 
<ref>DS.</ref>To engage in sexual intercourse 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgron</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgron</orth><ref>CD,
 ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgron</orth><ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>bsgrond</orth><ref>ND, 
DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgron</orth><ref>CD, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>sgrond</orth><ref>ND.</ref><orth>bsgrond</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>sgron</orth><ref>DS,
 TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>na 
bza'</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To cover, lay 
over, adorn, decorate; to light, kindle <ref>CD.</ref> To cause to wear or put 
on <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To set on fire. 2. (honorific) To ornament with ornaments, 
have wear attire <ref>DS.</ref> 1. (honorific) To offer. 2. (honorific) To 
wear. 3. (honorific) To report. 4. (honorific) To lay out, to set out. 5. To 
light a fire, to kindle, to ignite, to set fire to 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sgrol</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgrol</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgral</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 CD, DS, TC.</ref><orth>bsgrald</orth><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, 
DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgral</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>,
 KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>sgrol</orth><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>sgrold</orth><ref> TD, LZ, 
DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, 
KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>grol</orth><ref>(Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref><orth>rgal</orth><ref> [Beyer 1992: 
85].</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>dgra 
dang 'khor ba</orth><ref>TD,</ref><orth>dgra bo dang 'khor ba sogs 
las</orth><ref> LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To save, 
rescue, deliver; to set free; to liberate <ref>CD.</ref> To save, rescue; to 
set free; to liberate <ref>DK.</ref>1. To set free from (fear &amp;c.). 2. To 
sentence to death <ref>DS.</ref> To liberate, to free, to deliver, to release, 
to cross over 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>brgyags</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>brgyags</orth><r
ef>DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past: 
</label><orth>brgyags</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future: 
</label><orth>brgyags</orth><ref>[DS].</ref></wrIII><transitivity><label>Intransitive:
 </label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To be 
satisfied with food and drink. 2. (of bodily flesh) To be fatty, corpulent 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>rgyags</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>brgyal</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>brgyal</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>rgyal</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>brgyald</orth><ref>LZ,
 DK.</ref><orth>brgyal</orth><ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>brgyal</orth><ref>LZ, DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>brgyal</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>rgyald</orth><ref>DK.</ref> 
<dash> <ref> TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, 
(Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>dug sogs 
kyis</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To fall 
down senseless; to lie senseless, to sink down unconscious, to faint. 2. To 
howl, of a fox (Sch.) <ref>CD.</ref> To become unconscious; to faint; to become 
weary; to tire <ref>DK.</ref> To become unconscious; to faint; to become weary; 
to tire <ref>DS.</ref> To faint, to become unconscious 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>brgyud</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>rgyud</orth><ref>[CD],
 DK.</ref><orth>brgyud</orth><ref> LZ, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>brgyud</orth><ref>LZ, [CD], DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>brgyud</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK, [DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>rgyud</orth><ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> 
TC.</ref><orth>brgyud</orth><ref> LZ.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref><label>Voluntary:</label><ref> (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref><label>Intransitive:</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic
 Example:</label><orth>gcig la gcig</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To descend; to send, arrive 
by way of; to do indirectly; to continue without interruption <ref>DK.</ref> 1. 
(trans.) To pass many stages. 2. (intr.) i. To pass through a place on one's 
way somewhere else. ii. To transmit consecutively <ref>DS.</ref>To pass 
through, to conduct, to transmit, to pass down, to hand down, through care of, 
by way of 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>bsgom</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bsgom</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bgoms</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bgom</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>bkoms</orth><ref>ND.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>ND.</ref></volition><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>gom 
pas</orth><ref>ND.</ref></example><note><label>Note:</label> A baffling list of 
principal parts, presumably he has conflated <orth>sgom</orth>, and 
<orth>bgom</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>bsgrang</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bsgrang</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrI><causation><label>Causative
 of:</label><orth>grang</orth>.</causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
cause to get cold 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>bsgrad</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>sgrad</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>bsgrad</orth><ref>LZ,
 CD, [DS], TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bsgrad</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bsgrad</orth><ref>LZ, 
DK, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label><orth>bsgrad</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>sgrad</orth><ref>DK.</ref><orth>bsgrod</orth><ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:
 </label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref> TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label><orth>bgrad</orth>.</causation><example><label>Characteristic  
Example: </label><orth>mig 
sogs</orth><ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To open wide 
<ref>CD.</ref> To cause to open (eyes, mouth &amp;c.) <ref>DK.</ref> To open 
the eyes wide (alternate orthography of <orth>bgrad</orth>) <ref>DS.</ref> 1. 
To open wide. 2. To set apart, to spread open 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>bsgral</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bsgral</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 To pass, cross over <ref>CD.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Perhaps a 
specialization of <orth>sgrol</orth>, or a varient of 
<orth>rgal</orth>.</note></entry></div><div><head><orth>nga</orth></head><entry><headword><orth>ngar</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>ngar</orth> <ref>DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>ngard</orth> <ref>DK.</ref><orth>ngar</orth> <ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>ngar</orth> <ref>DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>ngard</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To strengthen the mental 
power; to be vigorous; to be active <ref>DK.</ref> To become increasingly 
hot<ref> DS.</ref>To be encouraged, to be inspired, to be stimulated, to be 
excited, to be inflamed 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>ngal</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>ngal</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>ngald</orth> <ref>LZ, DK.</ref><orth>ngal</orth> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>ngal</orth> <ref>LZ, 
DK, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>ngald</orth> 
<ref>LZ, DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>lus sogs</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be fatigued, wearied, 
prostrate with exercise of the body <ref>CD.</ref> To feel tired; to be weary 
<ref>DK.</ref> To be tired, to be exhausted 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>ngu</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>ngu</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>ngus</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>ngu</orth> <ref>LZ, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>ngu</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref><orth>ngus</orth> <ref>DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> 
<orth>nyam thag pa sogs kyis</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To cry, weep 
<ref>CD.</ref> To cry; weep <ref>DK.</ref>1. To shed tears and make a noise of 
suffering because of pain, illness, or sadness. 2. To make a noise like crying, 
sobbing <ref>DS.</ref> To weep, to cry<ref> 
TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>ngur</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>ngur</orth> <ref>CD, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>ngur</orth> <ref>[DS], TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>ngur</orth> <ref>[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label> 
<dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label> <orth>sngur</orth> 
<ref>[CD].</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To grunt (of pigs 
and yaks) <ref>CD.</ref> For a yak or dri to make a sound <ref>DS.</ref> To 
grunt (used of pigs and cattle) 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>nger</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>nger</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>nger</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>nger</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label> 
<dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref><label>Intransitive:</label><ref>(Li yung khrang 
1988).</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To growl, to snarl, 
to roar (used of dogs and so forth) 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>nges</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>nges</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>nges</orth> <ref>LZ, DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>nges</orth> <ref>LZ, DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>nges</orth> 
<ref>LZ, DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>blo la</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 To be the sum of a mathematical calculation, i.e. to hold it as a certain 
result <ref>CD.</ref> To be confirmed; to be certain <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To hold 
in mind having come to know. 2. To decide, resolve <ref>DS.</ref> To determine, 
to ascertain, to be certain; (preceded by a verb) will, would certainly do; 
must, ought to 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>ngom</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>ngom</orth> <ref>CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>ngoms</orth> <ref>CD, DK, TC.</ref><orth>ngom</orth><ref> 
[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>ngom</orth> <ref>DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>ngoms</orth> 
<ref>DK, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To satisfy 
one's self with gain, to be contented <ref>CD.</ref> To be satisfied; to be 
content; to quench <ref>DK.</ref> To show and make another understand one's own 
qualities and merits <ref>DS.</ref> To show off 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>ngoms</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>ngoms</orth> <ref>ND, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>ngoms</orth> <ref>ND, [DS], TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>ngoms</orth> <ref>[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label> <dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be satisfied, 
appeased <ref>DS.</ref>To be satisfied, to be satiated 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>dngang</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>dngang</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>dngangs</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref> <orth>sngangs</orth> 
<ref>CD.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>dngang</orth> <ref>LZ, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>dngangs</orth> 
<ref>LZ, DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> 
<orth>yid sogs</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. 
To be out of breath, to pant, to feel oppressed (e.g. when plunged into cold 
water, but especially when frightened and terrified). 2. To be frightened, to 
fear, to be afraid of <ref>CD.</ref> To suffocate, to be out of breath; to 
choke, to be frightened <ref>DK.</ref> Same as 
<orth>sngangs</orth><ref>DS.</ref> To gasp, to pant (out of fear). 2. To be 
afraid, to be terrified <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> 
Perhaps not to be separated from <orth>sngang</orth> I have given 
<orth>dngangs</orth><ref>ND,</ref> and <orth>sngangs</orth><ref>CD</ref> in 
both places. See note at 
<orth>sngang</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>dngar</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>dngar</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>dngard</orth> <ref>LZ, DK.</ref><orth>dngar</orth> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>dngar</orth> <ref>LZ, 
DK, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>dngar</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref><orth>dngard</orth> <ref>DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>go rim sogs legs par</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To put in order, arrange 
properly <ref>CD.</ref> To put in order, to put in a line, to arrange properly; 
to line up or to be in a line <ref>DK.</ref>To line up, put in rows<ref> 
TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>dngom</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>dngom</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>dngoms</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>dngom</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>ngoms</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>(Goldstein 2001).</ref></volition><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>yon tan dang nor sogs</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To boast, to show off 
<ref>(Goldstein 
2001).</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>mngag</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>mngag</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>mngags</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>mngag</orth> 
<ref>LZ, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>mngag</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>ND.</ref><orth>mngags</orth> <ref>DK, DS.</ref><orth>mngogs</orth> <ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>ND.</ref><label> 
Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 227), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Obl. Abs.] 
<ref>(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 
227).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> <orth>gzhan 
du</orth> <ref>LZ,</ref><orth>las la</orth> 
<ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To commission, charge, 
send, delegate (a messenger commissary &amp;c). <ref>CD.</ref> To send a 
delegate or a message; to give instructions, to keep as a servant 
<ref>DK.</ref> To entrust, commit someone to go to do an action <ref>DS.</ref> 
1. To entrust, to assign, to commission, to appoint. 2. To send, to dispatch 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>mngan</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>mgan</orth> <ref>CD.</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To curse, 
to execrate (J&auml;) 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label><ref>(Stein 1942: 
317-218)</ref> connects this with the adjective <orth>ngan</orth> 'evil'. He 
notices the alternate spelling <orth>ma ngan</orth> 'accursed' of a nominal use 
in Gesar, and suggests <orth>mngan</orth> is a contraction of <orth>mo 
ngan</orth> 'evil woman.' Other dictionaries <ref>DS, TC</ref> list the word 
only as an archaic noun 'sin, 
fault'.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>mnga'</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>mnga'</orth> <ref>CD, ND, DK, DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>mnga'</orth> <ref>ND, DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>mnga'</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>mnga'</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><syntax><label>Syntax: 
</label>[Abs. Obl.] 'to have dominion over' <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref>[Obl. 
Abs.] 'to have' <ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To own, possess. 2. 
(honorific) To be, exist <ref>CD.</ref> To own, possess; to have something in 
mind, to have knowledge of; to remember <ref>DK.</ref> To be 
(<orth>yod</orth>), to have (<orth>ldan</orth>) 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>mnga'</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><auxillary><label>Auxiliary:
 </label><ref>DS.</ref></auxillary><function><label>Function:</label> To be 
(<orth>yod</orth>), to have (<orth>ldan</orth>) 
<ref>DS.</ref></function></entry><entry><headword><orth>mngar</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>mngar</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>mngar</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>mngar</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>mngar</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>(Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>bza' ba'i ro sogs</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> [To be ] 
sweet<ref>(Hoshi 
2003).</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>mngon</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>mngon</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>mngond</orth> <ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref><orth>mngon</orth> <ref>ND, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>mngon</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, 
DK, [DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>mngond</orth> 
<ref>LZ, DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>ND, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>ND, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>rtags mtshan sogs</orth> <ref>LZ,</ref><orth>mthong 
ba'i</orth> <ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be 
evident, to appear clearly <ref>CD.</ref> To manifest, to observe, to become 
visible <ref>DK.</ref> To become clear <ref>DS.</ref> To become clear, to 
become visible, to become evident, to appear 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rnga</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>rnga</orth> <ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>brngad</orth> <ref>[CD].</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>brngas</orth> <ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>brnga</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>rngos</orth>
 <ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, 
CD, ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. 
Abs.] <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>btsas ma sogs</orth> <ref>TD,</ref><orth>rtswa dang 
btsas ma sogs</orth> <ref>LZ,</ref><orth>btsas ma</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To mow, reap, cut with a 
sickle <ref>CD.</ref> To mow, reap; cup with a sickle; harvest <ref>DK.</ref> 
To cut down grain <ref>DS.</ref> To cut, mow, harvest 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rngan</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>rngan</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, TC.</ref><orth>rngon</orth> 
<ref>DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>brngand</orth> <ref>LZ, 
ND, DK.</ref><orth>brngan</orth> <ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>brngan</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>rngan</orth> 
<ref>LZ, DK.</ref><orth>rngond</orth> <ref>ND.</ref><orth>rngon</orth> <ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> 
<orth>mchod pa dang nor sogs</orth> <ref>LZ,</ref><orth>gla rdan</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To pay hire to, to pay wages 
or remuneration; (sometimes) to bribe, corrupt <ref>(<orth>rngan</orth>) 
CD.</ref> To honor, worship <ref>(<orth>brngan</orth>) CD.</ref> To reward; to 
award; to give a present, to give a prize; to bribe <ref>DK.</ref> To give a 
person salary for work performed <ref>DS.</ref> To bribe 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rngab</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>rngab</orth> <ref>CD, DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>brngabs</orth> <ref>DK, 
TC.</ref> <orth>brngab</orth> 
<ref>[CD].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>brngab</orth> 
<ref>DK, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>rngabs</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To be 
hungry, to be greedy, have a craving appetite. 2. (cf. <orth>rnam</orth>) To 
crave, to desire earnestly (J&auml;)<ref> CD.</ref> To feel greedy; to crave 
<ref>DK.</ref> (archaic) To be hungry <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To be hungry. 2. To be 
greedy for, to crave for, to have an appetite for 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rngab</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>rngab</orth> <ref>CD .</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 3. (In 
West) To mow, reap, cut down with a sickle 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>rnga</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>rngam</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>rngom</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, (TC).</ref> <orth>rngam</orth> <ref>CD, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>brngams</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>brngam</orth> 
<ref>LZ, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>rngams</orth> <ref>DK.</ref><orth>rngom</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref> 
<orth>rngoms</orth><ref> ND, DS.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:</label><ref>ND, 
DS.</ref><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>lus srog sogs la</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref> <orth>dgra dang 
las la</orth> <ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To rage 
at; be furious; devastate. 2. To breathe violently, to pant for, to desire 
ardently <ref>CD.</ref> To feel greedy, to crave <ref>DK.</ref> To be angry 
<ref>DS.</ref> To want, to crave, to be desirous of. 2. To be hostile, to be 
ferocious 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rngam</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>rngam</orth> <ref>DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>rngam</orth> <ref>[DS].</ref><orth>rngams</orth> 
<ref>[CD].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>rngam</orth> 
<ref>[DS].</ref></wrIII><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To hunger, 
crave <ref>[CD].</ref> To thirst for, crave 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rngub</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>rngub</orth> <ref>LZ, CD (archaic), ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>brngubs</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>brngub</orth> 
<ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>rngubs</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>CD, ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> 
<orth>du ba sogs</orth> <ref>LZ,</ref><orth>kha sna ru</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To draw in, inhale, breathe 
in <ref>CD.</ref> To breathe, to inhale, sniff <ref>DK.</ref> To draw inside 
the mouth (breath, smoke &amp;c.) <ref>DS.</ref> To sip, to inhale, to breath 
in 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rngul</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>rngul</orth> <ref>LZ, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>rnguld</orth> <ref>LZ, DK.</ref><orth>rngul</orth> <ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>rngul</orth> <ref>LZ, DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>rnguld</orth> 
<ref>LZ, DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>sman dang dub pas</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To perspire 
<ref>DK.</ref> To sweat, perspire <ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rngul</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>rngul</orth> <ref>CD, DK .</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>brngul</orth> <ref>CD.</ref> <orth>brnguld</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>brngul</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>rnguld</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><causation><label>Causative of: 
</label><orth>rngul</orth><sub>1</sub><ref>[DK].</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 To sweat, perspire <ref>CD.</ref> To cause to perspire 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rngo</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>rngo</orth> <ref>CD.</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be 
able (Cs.) 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rngod</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>rngod</orth> <ref>TD, CD, DS, TC .</ref><orth>rngo</orth> <ref>(TD), ND, 
DK, TC.</ref><orth>rngos</orth> 
<ref>(TD).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>brngos</orth> <ref>TD, 
CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>brngod</orth> 
<ref>[CD].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>brngod</orth> 
<ref>TD, CD, DS, TC .</ref><orth>brngo</orth> <ref>(TD), (CD, J&auml;, Cs.), 
ND, DK, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>rngos</orth> 
<ref>TD, CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>rngod</orth><ref> 
CD.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>TD, CD, ND, DS, TC, 
(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 227), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs] 
<ref>(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 
227).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative of: 
</label>ngh&ouml;&#726;&ouml;&#768; <ref>(Chang 1971: ii.5, see 
note).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> 
<orth>nas sran sogs</orth> <ref>TD,</ref><orth>yos</orth> 
<ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To parch (barley, wheat, 
or rice); to bruise, to roast; to fry (e.g. meat in a pan) 
<ref>(<orth>rngod</orth>) CD.</ref> (barley) To be cropped (Situ 77) 
<ref>(<orth>brngod</orth>) CD.</ref> To roast barley, fry meat, &amp;c. 
<ref>DK.</ref>Having put (foot &amp;c.) in a frying pan to heat and cook 
<ref>DS.</ref> To parch, to roast, to fry 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> The spoken Tibetan 
non-causative ngh&ouml;&#726;&ouml;&#768; has no written Tibetan correspondent, 
and may be a secondary derivative, formed by analogy to such pairs as 
<i>p&acirc;r</i> 'to cause to be increased', <i>ph&acirc;r</i> 'to be 
increased' <ref>(Chang 1971: 
ii.5).</ref></note></entry><entry><headword><orth>rngod</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>rngod</orth> <ref>TD, [CD?], DK, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>brngod</orth> <ref>TD, CD, DK, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>brngod</orth> <ref>TD, DK, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>brngod</orth> <ref>TD, 
DK, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>TD, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>
 TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> 
<orth>gzhan sgyu babs kyis dring pa</orth> 
<ref>TD.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> (acc. to Cs.) To desire 
<ref>(<orth>rngod</orth>) CD.</ref> To seduce, deceive (Situ 75) 
<ref>(<orth>brngod</orth> pf.) CD.</ref> to seduce; deceive <ref>DK.</ref> To 
delude, deceive 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rngon</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>rngon</orth> <ref>LZ, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>brngond</orth> <ref>LZ, DK.</ref><orth>brngon</orth> <ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>brngon</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>rngon</orth> 
<ref>LZ, DS, TC.</ref><orth>rngond</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> 
<orth>ri dwags sogs</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To pursue wild 
beasts, to hunt. 2. To seduce, especially to sensual indulgences (J&auml;) 
<ref>CD.</ref> To hunt; to chase wild animals for killing <ref>DK.</ref> To 
catch and slay a beast <ref>DS.</ref> To hunt 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rngob</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>rngob</orth> <ref>CD.</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To do, 
to be able (cf. <orth>rngo</orth>) 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>snga</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>snga</orth> <ref>CD, DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>sngas</orth> <ref>CD.</ref><orth>snga</orth><ref> 
[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>snga</orth> 
<ref>[DS].</ref></wrIII><volition><label>Involuntary:</label><ref>(Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be the 
first, to come first, to be beforehand <ref>CD.</ref> To happen at a certain 
early time 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sngang</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>sngang</orth> <ref>DK, DS.</ref><orth>dngang</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>sngangs</orth> <ref>CD, DK, 
DS.</ref> <orth>bsngangs</orth> 
<ref>ND.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>sngang</orth> <ref>DK, 
DS.</ref> <orth>bsngang</orth> <ref>ND.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>sngangs</orth> <ref>ND, DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>ND.</ref><orth>sngongs</orth><ref> 
DS.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS.</ref><label> 
Involuntary: 
</label><ref>ND.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>skrag pa'i</orth> <ref>(-) ND.</ref><orth>bred 
pa'i</orth> <ref>(<orth>sngangs</orth>) 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To be out of breath, to 
pant, to feel oppressed (e.g. when plunged into cold water, but especially when 
frightened and terrified). 2. To be frightened, to fear, to be afraid of 
<ref>CD.</ref> To fear; frighten; suffocate <ref>DK.</ref> To be suddenly 
afraid <ref>DS.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label><ref>ND</ref> lists this 
verb twice, his conjugation seems unlikely but compare <orth>sbyin</orth> / 
<orth>byin</orth>. I would like to see three verbs: (1) <orth>sngang</orth>, 
<orth>sngangs</orth>, <orth>sngang</orth>, <orth>sngnags</orth> (2) 
<orth>sngang</orth>, <orth>bsngangs</orth>, <orth>bsngang</orth>, 
<orth>sngangs</orth>, (3) <orth>dngang</orth>, <orth>dngangs</orth>, 
<orth>dngang</orth>, <orth>dngangs</orth> but the evidence does not 
warrant.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>sngab</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>sngab</orth> <ref>DS.</ref><orth>rngab</orth><ref> 
(DS).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>sngab</orth> <ref>[DS].</ref> 
<orth>rngab</orth> <ref>[(DS)].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>sngab</orth> <ref>[DS].</ref><orth>rngab</orth><ref> 
[(DS)].</ref></wrIII><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To very 
much crave 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sngam</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>sngam</orth> <ref>LZ, DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bsngam</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref><orth>sngam</orth> 
<ref>[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>sngam</orth> 
<ref>LZ, [DS].</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>sngam</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref></wrIV><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>dbugs sogs</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To breath deeply 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sngal</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>sngal</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bsngal</orth> <ref>CD.</ref> <orth>bsngald</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bsngal</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>sngald</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] <ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be faint or exhausted 
(Cs.) <ref>CD.</ref> To exhaust, to cause to be weary 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sngur</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>sngur</orth> <ref>LZ, CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bsngurd</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>sngur</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>sngurd</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></wrIV><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label> <orth>ngur</orth> 
<ref>[CD].</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> 
<orth>gnyid kyis</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
To snore 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sngo</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>sngo</orth> <ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, CD (Cs.), ND, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref><orth>sngod</orth><ref> CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bsngos</orth> <ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bsngo</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>sngos</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, 
KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, CD, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>rge rtsa sogs</orth> <ref>TD,</ref><orth>dge ba</orth> 
<ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> I. To bless, pronounce 
benedictions. 2. To design, intend <ref>(<orth>sngo</orth>) CD.</ref> To make a 
firm resolve to go the way of Nirv&amacr;&#7751;a, or do any act of piety 
<ref>(<orth>bsngos</orth>) CD.</ref> To dedicate one's virtue; to transfer, 
multiply <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To give or send with the mind. 2. To explain the 
reason <ref>DS.</ref> To calculate, to enumerate, to estimate, to investigate 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sngo</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>sngo</orth> <ref>CD (Cs.), DK, TC.</ref><orth>sngod</orth><ref> 
CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bsngos</orth> <ref>CD, DK, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bsngo</orth> <ref>CD, DK, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>sngos</orth> <ref>CD, 
DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To become 
green <ref>CD.</ref> To make blue <ref>DK.</ref>To become blue or black 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>sngog</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>sngog</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bsngogs</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, CD, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bsngog</orth> 
<ref>LZ, ND, CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>sngogs</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, TC, 
(Hoshi 2003).</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>skyon dang mtshang sogs</orth> 
<ref>LZ,</ref><orth>'khrugs pa'i skyo</orth> <ref>ND,</ref><orth>smyu gu snag 
tshar</orth> <ref>ND<sub>B</sub>,</ref><orth>snyu gu snag tshar</orth> 
<ref>ND<sub>A</sub>.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To vex, 
annoy, cause petty irritation, disturb from rest <ref>CD.</ref> To excavate, 
search;
 find out, discover a mistake <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To speak critically. 2. To dig, 
excavate <ref>DS.</ref> To rummage through, to search, to empty out, to extract 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>brngad</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>brngad</orth> <ref>CD.</ref><orth>brngab</orth><ref> (CD def. 
1).</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To crop barley. 2. To tempt 
(Situ 77). 3. To seduce deceitfully (a woman or man) (Sch.); to draw out; 
distill; extract the juice of 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>brngog</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>brngog</orth> <ref>CD.</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
point out another's faults; seek out faults; to search for a lost article 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Probably a xylograph error for 
<orth>bsngog</orth> future of 
<orth>sngog</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>bsngags</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>bsngags</orth> <ref>LZ, DK, TC.</ref><orth>sngag</orth><ref> CD, 
DS.</ref><orth>sngags</orth><ref> CD.</ref><orth>sngog</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bsngags</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bsngags</orth> 
<ref>LZ, DK, TC.</ref><orth>bsngag</orth><ref> CD, ND, 
DS.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>bsngags</orth> <ref>LZ, 
DK, TC.</ref><orth>sngog</orth><ref> CD.</ref><orth>sngogs</orth><ref> ND, 
DS.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>CD, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><denominative><label>Denominative 
of:</label><orth>ngag</orth> 'speech, talk, word' <ref>(Chang 1971: 
ii.4).</ref></denominative><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> 
<orth>yon tan dang bkas</orth> <ref>LZ,</ref><orth>bstod pa'i</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To praise, commend, extol, 
recommend <ref>CD.</ref> To praise, eulogize <ref>DK.</ref> To speak well of a 
man, deed, or thing <ref>DS.</ref> To praise, to eulogize, to glorify 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>bsngas</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>sngas</orth> <ref>DK.</ref><orth>bsngas</orth> <ref>CD, 
DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bsngas</orth><ref>, DK. 
{DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bsngas</orth> <ref>DK, 
[DS].</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>sngas</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><denominative><label>Denominative 
of:</label><orth>ngas</orth> 'pillow, 
cushion'.</denominative><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To place the head or 
body upon a cushion, to recline <ref>CD.</ref> To rest on a pillow; to lean on 
or support <ref>DK.</ref> One's own body not falling down is supported by 
another object 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry></div><div><head><orth>ca</orth></head><entry><headword><orth>can</orth></headword><auxillary><label>Auxiliary:</label>
 <orth>can</orth> <ref>DS.</ref></auxillary><function><label>Meaning:</label> 
To have, posses 
<ref>DS.</ref></function><note><label>Note:</label><ref>DS</ref> is wrong to 
think of this as a verb, rather than a nominal 
suffix.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>cog</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>cog</orth> <ref>CD.</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To have 
leisure <ref>CD.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label><ref>DS,</ref> and 
<ref>[Li shi'i gur khang]</ref> consider this to be a suffix added to the 
reduplicating sentence final particle, meaning <orth>tham cad</orth> 'all' or 
<orth>yod tsad</orth> 
'quality'.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>cong</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>cong</orth> <ref>CD.</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To raise 
wailings, loud lamentations 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label><ref>CD</ref> probably infers 
this verb from the word <orth>gcong skad</orth> 'a cry, lamentation' which may 
also be spelled <orth>cong 
skad</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>gcar</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>gcar</orth> <ref>LZ, DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bcard</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref><orth>bcar</orth><ref> 
DS.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>gcar</orth> <ref>LZ, 
DS.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>gcord</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref><orth>gcor</orth><ref> 
DS.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>gam du</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> In the presence of, near to 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gcar</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>gcar</orth> <ref>DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>gcar</orth> <ref>DS.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>gcar</orth> <ref>DS.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>gcor</orth> <ref>DS.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To hit or 
strike 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gcal</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>gcal</orth> <ref>CD.</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
spread, display; lay out (e.g. precious stones, jewels on a table or the ground 
(J&auml;)). <ref>CD.</ref></trans><note><label>Note: </label>probably the 
substantive <orth>gcal</orth> 'flat, 
surface'.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>gci</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>gci</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>gcid</orth><ref> 
CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>gcis</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref> <orth>bcis</orth> 
<ref>(DK).</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>gci</orth> <ref>LZ, 
CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref> <orth>bci</orth> 
<ref>(DK).</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>gci</orth> 
<ref>LZ, DK.</ref><orth>gcis</orth><ref> CD, (DK), DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><denominative><label>Denominative of: 
</label><orth>gcin</orth> 'urine'.</denominative><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>gcin</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To discharge urine, to 
make water; to piss <ref>CD.</ref> To urinate <ref>DK, DS, TC 
.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Root gci &lt; *gtsyi &lt; *g-tsi &lt; 
*tsi <ref>(Beyer 1992: 
83).</ref></note></entry><entry><headword><orth>gcir</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>gcir</orth> <ref>DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bcir</orth> <ref>DS.</ref><orth>gcir</orth><ref> 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>gcir</orth> <ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>chir</orth> 
<ref>DS.</ref><orth>gcir</orth><ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To press flat 
<ref>DS.</ref> To squeeze, to press 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label><orth>'chir</orth> and 
<orth>'tshir</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>gcil</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>gcil</orth><ref>CD,
 DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>gcil</orth> 
<ref>[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>gcil</orth> 
<ref>[DS].</ref></wrIII><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To spoil, 
destroy (Sch.) <ref>CD.</ref> To cut (meat &amp;c.) with a knife 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gcis</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>gcis</orth> <ref>ND.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>gcis</orth> <ref>ND.<footnote><ref> ND<sub>A</sub></ref> seems to have 
<orth>gces</orth>, a carving mistake.  
</footnote></wrII><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>ND.</ref></volition><note><label>Note:</label> A variant present 
for 
<orth>gci</orth>?</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>gcu</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>gcu</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, DS, TC.</ref><orth>gcud</orth><ref> CD, 
DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>gcus</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref> <orth>bcus</orth> <ref>ND.</ref> <orth>lcus</orth> 
<ref>CD.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>gcu</orth> <ref>LZ, 
CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>lcu</orth><ref> 
CD.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>cus</orth> <ref>LZ, 
ND.</ref><orth>'chus</orth><ref> DK.</ref><orth>gcus</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, DC, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic
 Example:</label> <orth>ske dang gyas gyon du</orth> <ref>LZ,</ref><orth>lag 
pas</orth><ref> ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To squeeze, 
strain, whirl, turn round like the twisting of a screw <ref>(<orth>gcud</orth>) 
CD.</ref> To turn, to turn round, to twist, to twine, to plate, to braid 
<ref>(<orth>gcu</orth>) CD.</ref> To twist, to turn aside <ref>DK.</ref> To 
make something change from being straight <ref>DS.</ref>To twist around, to 
wring, to screw in 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gcugs</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>gcugs</orth> <ref>LZ, DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>gcugs</orth> <ref>LZ, [DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>gcugs</orth> <ref>LZ, [DS].</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>gcugs</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref></wrIV><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref><label> Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>mdza' grogs sogs dang</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. (intrans.) To be 
emotionally close, in harmony. 1. (trans.) To love 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gcud</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>gcud</orth> <ref>DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>gcud</orth> <ref>[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>gcud</orth> <ref>[DS].</ref></wrIII><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To wrap, 
enclose inside of something 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gcur</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>gcur</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, TC.</ref><orth>bcur</orth> 
<ref>CD.</ref><orth>'jur</orth> <ref>DS.</ref> <orth>'chur</orth> 
<ref>[TC].</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>gcurd</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref><orth>bcurd</orth> <ref>ND.</ref> <orth>bcur</orth> <ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>gcur</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, 
DS.</ref><orth>bcur</orth><ref> TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>churd</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref> <orth>curd</orth> <ref>ND.</ref> 
<orth>chur</orth> <ref>DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> 
<orth>phug dang dka' sar</orth> <ref>LZ,</ref><orth>phug tu</orth> 
<ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To be flattened down 
(Sch.). 2. (colloquial) To bar, obstruct, block up by snow obstructing a 
road<ref>CD.</ref> To become helpless <ref>DS.</ref>  1. To squeeze into, 
inside some place. 2. To be trapped, helpless 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare <orth>'jur</orth> and 
<orth>'churd</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>gcus</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>gcus</orth> <ref>CD.</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
interfere, to meddle with (Nag) 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gcer</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>gcer</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bcard</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>bcar</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>gcerd</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
To squash, squeeze <ref>DK.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>bcer</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>gces</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>gces</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>gces</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>gces</orth> <ref>LZ, 
DK, [DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>gces</orth> 
<ref>LZ, DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>ND, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>ND, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>rang gzhan la</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To have attachment, to 
love <ref>CK.</ref> To feel sympathy or pity for <ref>DS.</ref>To value, 
cherish, prize, respect 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gcog</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>gcog</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bcag</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>gcog</orth> 
<ref>LZ, DS.</ref><orth>gcag</orth><ref> ND, DK, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>gcog</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref><orth>cog</orth><ref> ND, CD, TC.</ref><orth>chogs</orth><ref> 
CD, DK, DS.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>CD, ND, DS, 
TC, (Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. 
Abs.] <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative 
of:</label> <orth>'chag</orth> <ref>[CD], (Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> 
<orth>sgo nga dang rdo sogs</orth> <ref>LZ,</ref><orth>rdo sogs</orth> 
<ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To break, to burst 
asunder, to cleave, to split, blast, to violate <ref>CD.</ref> To break, split 
<ref>DK.</ref> 1. To break something hard into many pieces. 2. To recover from 
illness. 3. To not respect, not comply, not agree to. 4. To make fewer 
<ref>DS.</ref> 1. To break, split, fragment. 2. To oppress, to suppress. 3. To 
reduce, deduct, lower. 4. To contradict, to break a pledge, to disobey 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gcong</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>gcong</orth> <ref>CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bshongs</orth> <ref>CD.</ref></wrII><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To 
excavate, wash out, undermine through the action of water. 2. To get faint, 
languid wearied in mind (J&auml;) 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>gshong</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>gcod</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>gcod</orth> <ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bcad</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>gcad</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>chod</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>gcod</orth><ref> CD.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, CD, ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative of: 
</label><orth>'chad</orth> <ref>[CD], (Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> 
<orth>shing sogs</orth><ref> TD,</ref><orth>srog dang don thag sogs</orth><ref> 
LZ,</ref><orth>gri tshar stangs dang nam 'phang tha ga dang mchams khrims 
sogs</orth> <ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To cut, to 
cut asunder, to cut down, to fell; (variety of metaphorical uses) stop, hinder, 
judge, avoid, lock, to wake from sleep <ref>CD.</ref> To hew or cut; to decide 
a case <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To cut a long thing into a short one. 2. To settle, 
determine. 3. To follow pursue something gone earlier. 4. To examine a 
circumstance and come to have knowledge. 5. To sever, stop, cut off. 6. To 
quite (a bad habit &amp;c.). 7. To block, obstruct. 8. To kill. 9. To break off 
a previous mutual connection. 10. To annihilate, get rid of. 11. To arrive at a 
goal. 12. To understand a profound meaning having analyzed and argued. 13. To 
block the end (of a hole &amp;c.) by stuffing in something round <ref>DS.</ref> 
1. To cut, to shear, to shave off. 2. To kill. 3. To intervene, to interrupt. 
3. To give up, to abandon, to stop, to break off. 5. To close, to block off, to 
impede. 6. To establish, to determine. 7. To implement, to execute, to exact. 
8. To explore, to investigate, to pursue. 9. To differentiate, to discriminate, 
to scrutinize, to analyze, to discern. 10. To traverse, to arrive after a 
journey 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gcom</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>gcom</orth><ref>LZ,
 ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>gcoms</orth><ref>LZ.</ref><orth>bcam</orth><ref>
 ND.</ref><orth>bcams</orth><ref> DS, TC.</ref> <orth>'chams</orth> 
<ref>DS.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>gcom</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref><orth>bcam</orth><ref>ND<sub>B</sub>, 
TC.</ref><orth>gcam</orth><ref> 
ND<sub>A</sub>.</ref><orth>bcom</orth><ref>DS.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>coms</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'choms</orth> <ref>ND, 
DS.</ref><orth>gcoms</orth><ref> TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>ND, DS, TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>gros sogs</orth><ref>
 LZ,</ref><orth>gros</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> (archaic) To negotiate 
<ref>DS.</ref>To promise, to make a promise or contract 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gcor</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>gcor</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK,  DS, TC.</ref><orth>bcor</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bcard</orth> <ref>LZ, 
ND.</ref><orth>bcar</orth><ref> [CD], DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>gcar</orth> <ref>LZ, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref><orth>bcar</orth><ref> LZ, 
ND.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>gcord</orth> <ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref><orth>bcord</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref><orth>cord</orth><ref> 
ND<sub>A</sub>.</ref><orth>chord</orth><ref> 
ND<sub>B</sub>.</ref><orth>chor</orth><ref> DS.</ref><orth>gcor</orth><ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> 
<orth>sku mdun sogs su</orth> <ref>(<orth>gcor</orth>) LZ,</ref><orth>mig 
sogs</orth><ref> (<orth>bcor</orth>) LZ.</ref><orth>mig sogs</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To spread, scatter, disperse 
(Cs.) <ref>(<orth>gcor</orth>) CD.</ref> 1. To squeeze to press. To crowd, to 
throng. 2. To pull or force down, to wrest <ref>(<orth>bcar</orth>) CD.</ref> 
To maker closer, to cause to meet <ref>DK.</ref> To squash, squish 
<ref>DS.</ref> 1. To go to meet, to approach, to draw near. 2. To crush, to 
squeeze 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gcol</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>gcol</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>gcol</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>gcol</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>gcol</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Causative of: 
</label><orth>'chol</orth>.</causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
scatter, to disperse, to cause disruption 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>bcas</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>bcas</orth> <ref>DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bcas</orth> <ref>[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>bcas</orth> <ref>[DS].</ref></wrIII><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Abs. Ass.] 
<ref>(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 
368).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To have 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>bcum</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>bcum</orth> <ref>CD.</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label> (= 
<orth>bskum</orth> also <orth>bzung</orth>) 1. To become contracted. 2. (acc. 
Sch.) To use artifices; to chicane 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>bcem</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bcem</orth><ref>LZ,
 TC.</ref><orth>'chems</orth><ref> CD (archaic).</ref><orth>gcem</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bcems</orth><ref>LZ, CD, DK, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>bcem</orth><ref>LZ, CD, DK, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>bcem</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref><orth>gcems</orth><ref> DK.</ref><orth>bcems</orth><ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>so yis bca' ba sogs</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To chew (Medical, 
J&auml;) <ref>CD.</ref> To crush with teeth; to squash or press together 
<ref>DK.</ref> To chew 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>bcer</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>gcer</orth> <ref>[CD].</ref><orth>bcer</orth><ref> CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bcer</orth> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bcer</orth> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIII><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To heap, to pile up; 
collect in one place. 2. To glare at. 3. (colloquial = <orth>bcir</orth>)  to 
squeeze, press <ref>CD.</ref> (archaic) To heap, pile up <ref>DS.</ref> To 
heap, to pile up <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Root bcer 
&lt; *btyer &lt; *bter <ref>(Beyer 1992: 84) .</ref>cf. gter 
'treasure.'.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>bco</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bco</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label>
 <orth>bcos</orth> <ref>CD.</ref></wrII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>bcos</orth> <ref>CD.</ref></wrIV><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
(properly the root of the future of <orth>'chos</orth>, but in the West the 
usual word for <orth>byed</orth>) To make, to perform 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>bcog</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>bcog</orth><ref>CD.</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 To reduce, cut down 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>lcigs</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>lcigs</orth><ref>DS,
 TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>lcigs</orth> <ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>lcigs</orth> <ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary:</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref>DS.</ref><label>
 Intransitive:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be able, capable 
<ref>DS.</ref>To understand, realize 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>lceb</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>lceb</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>lcebs</orth> <ref>LZ, DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>lceb</orth> <ref>LZ, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>lcebs</orth> <ref>LZ, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> 
<orth>brag gyang sogs la</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To kill oneself, to commit 
suicide. 2. (used of insects that fly into a flame) <ref>CD.</ref> To end ones 
own life <ref>DS.</ref> To commit suicide (especially by jumping off a high 
place), to take one's own life 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>lcogs</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>lcog</orth> <ref>CD.</ref><orth>lcogs</orth><ref> CD,  DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>lcogs</orth> <ref>DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>lcogs</orth> <ref>DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>lcogs</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To be 
agitated, shaken, to tremble. 2. To be able <ref>CD.</ref> To be able, capable 
<ref>DS.</ref> To have time for or to have time to. 2. To handle, to be able to 
cope 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry></div><div><head><orth>cha</orth></head><entry><headword><orth>cha</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>chas</orth><ref> LZ, DS, TC.</ref><orth>cha</orth> <ref>CD, DK, 
(TC).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>chas</orth> <ref>LZ, CD (see 
def.), DK, [DS], TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>cha</orth> 
<ref>LZ, DK.</ref><orth>chas</orth><ref> [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>chos</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref><orth>chas</orth><ref> DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. 
Obl.] <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>gzhan du</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To adorn, bedeck, wear (S. 
Lex). 2. (archaic) To go away, to start, to leave (a place) 
<ref>(<orth>cha</orth>) CD.</ref> (<orth>chas</orth>, originally the past of 
<orth>cha</orth> but always used as a separate verb) 1. To set forth, depart. 
2. To prepare for, to set about, to start <ref>(<orth>chas</orth>) CD.</ref>To 
go, to compose <ref>DK.</ref> To go on a path <ref>DS.</ref> To go, to set out, 
to depart <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> J&auml; gives this 
as the normal verb 'go' in the West,
 the
 past and imperative song having replaced
 
<orth>chas</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>chags</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>chags</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>chags</orth> <ref>LZ, DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>chags</orth> <ref>LZ, DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>chags</orth> 
<ref>LZ, DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC, [Hoshi 
2003].</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>'dod yon la</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To be fond of, to be 
attached to, to love; to cling to. 2. To be begotten, produced <ref>CD.</ref> 
To be attached to, to rest upon, to love, to lust <ref>DK.</ref> To become 
attached to, to be loyal to etc. <ref>DK.</ref> To become desirous, to feel 
loyal &amp;c. <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To be attached to, to be in love. 2. To be 
situated, to be settled 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>chags</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>chags</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>chags</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>chags</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label> 
<dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, 
(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 117), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Abs.] <ref>(Tournadre 
&amp; Dorje 2003: 117).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To become, 
to occur, to form, to be created, to come into being<ref> 
TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>chags</orth><sub>3</sub></headword><wrII><label>Past:</label>
 <orth>chags </orth> <ref>(Takeuchi 1995: 
49).</ref></wrII><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref> (Takeuchi 
1995: 49).</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Abs All.]<ref> 
(Takeuchi 1995: 49).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> A loan of 
(something abs.) was made to (someone all.) <ref>(Takeuchi 1995: 
49).</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Takeuchi appears to understand 
this verb as a specialization of the 
preceding.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>chags</orth><sub>4</sub></headword><wrII><label>Past:</label>
 <orth>chags </orth> <ref>(Takeuchi 1995: 
49).</ref></wrII><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref> (Takeuchi 1995: 
49).</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Erg. Abl. Abs.]<ref> 
(Takeuchi 1995: 49).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> (in Old 
Tibetan) To borrow (something abs.) from (someone abl.) <ref>(Takeuchi 1995: 
49).</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> As frequently occurs in Old 
Tibetan the allative can substitute for the ablative in this construction 
<ref>(Takeuchi 1995: 
49).</ref></note></entry><entry><headword><orth>chad</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>chad</orth> <ref>CD.</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To 
open, to separate, liberate, to give out. 2. To promise, bind one's self. 3. To 
be descended from; to be born of or with (generally with <orth>nas</orth> or 
<orth>las</orth>) 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>chug</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>chug</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>chugs</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label><orth>chug</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>chugs</orth><ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>(Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. 
Obl.] <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To come 
under; to be included <ref>DK.</ref> To allow <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref>To be 
able to distinguish, tell the difference <ref>(Hoshi 
2003).</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>chud</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>chud</orth> <ref>CD, DS, TC.</ref><orth>'chud</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>chud</orth> <ref>DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>'chud</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref><orth>chud</orth> <ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>chud</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To get into, 
to enter, to put into, insert <ref>CD.</ref> To get in; to be included, 
admitted <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To fit, hold inside. 2. To congregate in. 3. To be 
certain, confident in mind. 4. To finish preparations <ref>DS.</ref>1. To be 
included, to get into, to be inserted. 2. To understand. 3. To fit, to hold, to 
have room <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>'jud</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>chun</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>chun</orth> <ref>CD.</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To bunch 
or bundle together 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>chub</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>chub</orth> <ref>ND, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>chub</orth> <ref>[ND], [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>chub</orth> <ref>[ND], 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To understand, 
comprehend <ref>DS.</ref>To be perfected, to have perfect comprehension, to 
comprehend, to master 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>chum</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>chum</orth> <ref>CD (archaic), TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>chum</orth> <ref>[TC].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>chum</orth> <ref>[TC].</ref></wrIII><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be 
frightened, also to shrink <ref>CD.</ref> To shrink in fear, to cower 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>che</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>che</orth> <ref>CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>ches</orth> <ref>CD.</ref></wrII><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>(Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><trans><label>Meaning:</label> [To 
be great] <ref>CD.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label>Root che &lt; *thye 
&lt; *the <ref>(Beyer 1992: 
83).</ref></note></entry><entry><headword><orth>ches</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>ches</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>ches</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>ches</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label> 
<dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, 
(Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To believe (used with 
<orth>yid</orth>) 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>chog</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>chog</orth> <ref>CD, DK, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>chog</orth> <ref>DK, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>chog</orth> <ref>DK, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>chog</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To be 
permitted, to be allowable (in books generally with the instrumental particle). 
2. To suffice, to be sufficient <ref>CD.</ref> To be permissible; to be allowed 
<ref>DK.</ref> 1. To be sufficient, to suffice, to be enough. 2. To be 
suitable, to be fit for, to be ready, to be able, to be permitted, to be 
allowed 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>chog</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><auxillary><label>Auxiliary:</label>
 <orth>chog</orth> <ref>DS.</ref></auxillary><function><label>Meaning:</label> 
To be suitable, appropriate, acceptable 
<ref>DS.</ref></function></entry><entry><headword><orth>chod</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>chod</orth> <ref>CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>chod</orth> <ref>DK, [DS], TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>chod</orth> <ref>DK, [DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>chod</orth> <ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
  1. To be cut off. 2. To be decided, settled fixed. 3. To cover over, to put 
into shade <ref>CD.</ref> To cut off; to be decided <ref>DK.</ref> 1. (of an 
action) To be able to perform it. 2. To cut off <ref>DS.</ref>To be cut off, to 
be separated, to be broken off 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>chom</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>chom</orth> <ref>CD, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>chom</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>chom</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label> 
<dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref>
 TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be 
finished, accomplished (in West, J&auml;) <ref>CD.</ref> To be subdued, to be 
vanquished, to be overcome, to be beaten down 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>mchi</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>mchi</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>mchis</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>mchi</orth> <ref>LZ, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>mchi</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref><orth>mchis</orth><ref> DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>skyabs 'og sogs su</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> (elegant) To come, to go 
<ref>CD.</ref> To take refuge, shelter, to take asylum, to go for protection 
<ref>DK.</ref> To go or come <ref>DS.</ref> (archaic) To go 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>mchid</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>mchid</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>mchid</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>mchid</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>mchid</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></wrIV><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>'phros pa 'os rigs</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref></example><note><label>Note:</label> Possibly a variant of 
<orth>mched</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>mchis</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>mchis</orth> <ref>[CD],DK, TC.</ref><orth>mchi</orth><ref> 
DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>mchis</orth> <ref>DK, 
DS.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>mchis</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref><orth>mchi</orth><ref> DS.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>mchis</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Obl. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be; to 
have <ref>DK.</ref> To exist, posses, to stay <ref>DS.</ref> To be, to exist 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> As a copula verb stems should 
not be 
differentiated.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>mched</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>mched</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>mched</orth> <ref>LZ, [ND], DK, 
[ND], TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>mched</orth> <ref>LZ, 
[ND], DK, [ND], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>mched</orth> <ref>LZ, DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> [ND], 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>[ND], TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>me lce sogs</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To spread, gain ground, 
increase, multiply (seldom used except for fire,  plague &amp;c.) 
<ref>CD.</ref> To spread over, to increase <ref>DK.</ref> To rapidly grow 
greater, spread <ref>DS.</ref> To spread, to increase, to become widespread 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>mchog</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>mchog</orth> <ref>ND.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>mchog</orth> <ref>[ND].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>mchog</orth> <ref>[ND].</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label> 
<dash> <ref> [ND].</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>[ND].</ref></volition><note><label>Note:</label> Probably a verbal 
use of the adjective 'excellent, 
fine'.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>mchong</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>mchong</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>mchongs</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>mchong</orth> <ref>LZ, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>mchong</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref><orth>mchongs</orth><ref> DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> 
<orth>brag gyang sogs la</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To leap, jump. 2. To 
bathe in water <ref>CD.</ref> To jump; leap <ref>DK.</ref> To leap 
<ref>DS.</ref> To jump, to leap, to leap across 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>mchod</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>mchod</orth> <ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>mchod</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, LZ, [ND], DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>mchod</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, LZ, [ND], DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>mchod</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, LZ, DK, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, TC, (Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 137), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 137).</ref>[Erg. Obl.] <ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> <orth>lha 
sogs</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To honor, 
worship <ref>CD.</ref> To offer, to worship; to respect or praise; to eat 
<ref>DK.</ref> 1. To lay out food in remembrance of the dead. 2. To burn in a 
fire, or scatter to the sky, or spread on high food &amp;c. in a superstitious 
liturgical procedure thought to make offerings to gods and demons.  3. (in 
Buddhism) To religiously offer food &amp;c. <ref>DS.</ref>To offer, to worship, 
to make offerings. 2. (honorific) To eat, to drink, to wear 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>mchor</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>mchor</orth> <ref>LZ, ND.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>mchord</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref><orth>mchor</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>mchor</orth> <ref>LZ, 
[ND].</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>mchord</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref> <dash> <ref> [ND].</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>[ND].</ref></volition><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>gos rgyan sogs kyis</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be elegant, well 
appareled.</trans><note><label>Note:</label> A verbal use of the 
adjective.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>mchol</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>mchol</orth> <ref>ND.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>mchol</orth> <ref>ND.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>mchol</orth> <ref>[ND].</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label> 
<dash> <ref>[ND].</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>[ND].</ref></volition></entry><entry><headword><orth>'chag</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'chag</orth> <ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>chags</orth><ref> CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bcags</orth> <ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bcag</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>chogs</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, 
ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. 
Abs.] <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>zhabs kyis</orth><ref> TD, LZ, 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To tread, walk, move 
<ref>CD.</ref> 1. To walk, to visit. 2. To wash a new cloth <ref>DK.</ref> To 
step on, to walk <ref>DS.</ref>1. To walk on, to step on, to treat, to visit, 
to travel. 2. To reduce, to slow down. 3. (dialect) To beat gently, to pat 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'chag</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'chag</orth> <ref>CD, DK, DS.</ref><orth>'cheg</orth> 
<ref>CD.</ref><orth>chag</orth><ref> TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>chag</orth> <ref>CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>chags</orth><ref> 
CD.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>'chag</orth> <ref>DK, 
DS.</ref><orth>chag</orth><ref> TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>chag</orth> <ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative of: 
</label><orth>gcog</orth><ref>[CD], (Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To break, be broken. 
To cut in twain, cleave, split. 2. To abate, beat down from the price 
<ref>CD.</ref> To be broken <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To break apart, be broken. 2. To 
not do what was to be done at a certain time [i.e. to be interrupted]. 3. To 
decrease, become less <ref>DS.</ref> To break, to fragment, to be broken. 2. To 
be interrupted 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'chag</orth><sub>3</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'chag</orth> <ref>DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>'chags</orth> <ref>DS.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>'chag</orth> <ref>DS.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label> 
<dash> <ref>DS.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. For one 
thing to be on top of another thing 2. To cover or stick to the outside of 
something 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'chags</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>bshags</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref> <orth>'chags</orth> <ref>CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>'cheg</orth> <ref>CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bshags</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bshags</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref> <orth>bshag</orth> <ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>bshags</orth><ref> DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>bshags</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref> <orth>shogs</orth> <ref>(LZ).</ref> 
<orth>shog</orth> <ref>CD, DS.</ref><orth>'chags</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref><orth>bshogs</orth><ref> TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>CD, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>sdig pa sogs</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To explain, lay open. 
To confess, to acknowledge (J&auml;). 2. To be afraid of <ref>CD.</ref> To 
confess, to lay one's heart open and speak <ref>DK.</ref> 1. Having recognized 
and regretted past sins, to commit not to do them. 2. (of water &amp;c.) To 
move [splash?] <ref>DS.</ref> To confess, to admit 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'chang</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'chang</orth> <ref>TD, LZ, CD, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bcangs</orth> <ref>TD, LZ, CD, 
ND, DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bcang</orth> 
<ref>TD, LZ, CD, ND, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>chongs</orth> <ref>TD, LZ, CD, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>chong</orth><ref> CD.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TD, CD, ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>yid dang lus la</orth><ref> TC.</ref><orth>rang sems 
dang lus la</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>lag tu</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To hold, to take hold of, 
to keep, to bear. 2. To carry, wear. 3. To have, to assume (e.g. body of a 
goddess). 4. To bite, bark at <ref>CD.</ref> 1. To hold with the hand. 2.  To 
hold in mind without forgetting <ref>DS.</ref> To hold, to grasp to seize, to 
maintain, to assume. 2. To keep in mind, to retain 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'chad</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'chad</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>chad</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>chad</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref><orth>'chad</orth><ref> DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>chad</orth> <ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>[CD], 
DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative of: 
</label><orth>gcod</orth> <ref>[CD], (Gyurme 1992: 
259).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> 
<orth>srog dang thag pa sogs</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To cut into pieces, to 
decay, to break off, separate, to break asunder. 2. To cease, end, stop, die 
<ref>CD.</ref> To be broken off, be cut off; to discontinue; to be tired 
<ref>DK.</ref> 1. For a long thing to break into pieces. 2. To separate into 
many sections. 3. To be omitted, discarded. 4. To degenerate, decay, cease to 
exit <ref>DS.</ref> To be interrupted, to be broken, to be cut off.  2. To be 
incomplete, to be missing <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> 
Compare <ref>(Takeuchi 1995: 
223).</ref></note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'chad</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'chad</orth> <ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>shod</orth><ref> TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bshad</orth> <ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bshad</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>shod</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, 
KY<sub>N</sub>, CD, ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>chos dang gtam sogs</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>bon chos 
gtam</orth><ref> ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To explain 
<ref>CD.</ref> To speak, tell, mention <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To explain verbally. 
2. To give an commentary or exegesis. 3. To speak of good and evil 
<ref>DS.</ref> To discourse, to teach, to explain, to speak 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'chab</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'chab</orth> <ref>LZ, CD (archaic), ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bcabs</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bcab</orth> 
<ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>chobs</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref><orth>chob</orth><ref> 
CD.</ref><orth>'chobs</orth> <ref>ND, TC.</ref><orth>'chabs</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref><orth>chobs</orth> 
<ref>DS.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>CD, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> 
<orth>lhung ba sogs</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>nyes pa</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To conceal, to keep secret 
<ref>CD.</ref> To conceal, to hide <ref>DK.</ref> To keep a misdeed secret 
<ref>DS.</ref> To conceal, to hide, to keep secret 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'cham</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'cham</orth> <ref>CD, DK, DS.</ref><orth>'chams</orth><ref> 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bcam</orth> 
<ref>CD.</ref><orth>'chams</orth> <ref>DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>'cham</orth> <ref>DK, 
DS.</ref><orth>'chams</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'chams</orth> <ref>DK.</ref><orth>'choms</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.]<ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To dance <ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref> To dance; to take a walk 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'cham</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'cham</orth> <ref>CD.</ref><orth>'chams</orth><ref> 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bcam</orth> 
<ref>CD.</ref><orth>'chams</orth><ref> 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>'chams</orth><ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To accord, to 
agree <ref>CD.</ref> To get along with, to agree with, to be compatible 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Root given as 'cham &lt; 
*'thyam &lt; 'tham 'grasp, embrace, join' <ref>(Beyer 1992: 
84).</ref></note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'cha'</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'cha'</orth><ref>LZ, ND,
 CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label><orth>bcas</orth><ref> 
LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>'chas</orth> 
<ref>CD.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bca'</orth><ref> LZ, 
CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>chos</orth><ref> LZ, CD, ND, DS.</ref> <orth>'cha'</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref><orth>'chos</orth> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To draw 
up, prepare, construct, adjust. 2. (with <orth>dam</orth>) To make a vow, to 
promise, assert.  3. (with <orth>zhen pa</orth> or <orth>chags pa</orth>) To be 
attached to <ref>CD.</ref> 1. To make. 2. To vow, take an oath <ref>DK.</ref> 
1. To resolve, determine (rules &amp;c.) 2. To make a place for staying, 
supporting. 3. To promise, take an oath <ref>DS.</ref>1. To establish, to draw 
up, to construct, to invent, to prepare.  2. To uphold, to promise, to keep 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>'chos</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'cha'</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'cha'</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bcas</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>bca'</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label> 
<dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be settled 
down, to be established, to be set up, to be made 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'cha'</orth><sub>3</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'cha'</orth> <ref>CD, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>'chos</orth> <ref>DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>'cha'</orth> <ref>DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label> 
<orth>'cho</orth><ref> DS.</ref> <orth>'chos</orth> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>gnas sogs</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>gnas dang khrims 
dam gtor ma</orth><ref> ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
snap at, mangle, gnaw <ref>CD.</ref>To chew, to gnaw, to bite <ref>TC.</ref> To 
chew hard food with the teeth 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'char</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'char</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>shar</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>'char</orth> <ref>LZ, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>'char</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref><orth>shard</orth><ref> DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Tournadre 
&amp; Dorje 2003: 239), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs.] <ref>(Tournadre 
&amp; Dorje 2003: 239).</ref>[Abs. Obl.] <ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><denominative><label>Denominative of: 
</label><orth>shar</orth> 'east'.</denominative><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>nye zla sogs dang blo la</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To arise, to start up, become 
visible, shine <ref>CD.</ref> To rise, to start <ref>DK.</ref> 1. (for the 
light of sun, moon, or stars) To spread, come out from the East. 2. (for the 
flower of a fruit tree) To bloom. 3. (of a new era) To arrive. 4. To know or 
remember. 5. To reflect in a mirror &amp;c. <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To arise, to 
emerge, to occur, to dawn, to bloom. 2. To become. 3. To recollect. 4. To be 
calculated, to be given, to be left (made in an arithmetic calculation) 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'chal</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'chal</orth> <ref>CD, DS, TC.</ref><orth>'chald</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>chal</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref><orth>'chal</orth> <ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>'chal</orth> <ref>DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>chald</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To loose 
one's wits, to be confused, to be in disorder. 2. To hesitate, fluctuate in 
mind, be irresolute. 3. To fornicate, to commit adultery <ref>CD.</ref> To be 
out of order, to be disorderly or to be in a state of confusion 
<ref>DK.</ref>1. To deteriorate in good activity of body and speech. 2. To 
deteriorate in understanding. 3. To be slanted (of a wall face) <ref>DS.</ref>  
To lose control, to be or become deranged. 2. (dialect) To tilt, to be 
unstable. 3. To be promiscuous, to fornicate 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'chi</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'chi</orth> <ref>CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>shi</orth> <ref>CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>'chi</orth> <ref>DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>shi</orth> <ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To die, to 
expire, to go out (as light, fire) <ref>CD.</ref> To die, to end one's life 
<ref>DK.</ref> For a life to end <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To die, to perish. 2. To 
expire, to die out, to perish 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'ching</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'ching</orth> <ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>'chings</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bcings</orth> <ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bcing</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>chings</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>'chings</orth> 
<ref>CD.</ref><orth>'ching</orth> 
<ref>CD.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, 
TD, CD, ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>zhags pa sogs kyis</orth><ref> TD.</ref><orth>thag pa 
sogs kyis</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>dam du</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To bind, tie up, make fast, 
exorcise <ref>CD.</ref> To tie with a rope, bind <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To tie (a 
rope &amp;c.). 2. To be a rule, standard <ref>DS.</ref> To bind, to tie, to 
fasten 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'ching</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'ching</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>chings</orth> <ref>DK.</ref><orth>ching</orth><ref> 
(DK).</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>'ching</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>chings</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be tied, fasted; to be 
unruly 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'chib</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'chib</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>'chibs</orth> 
<ref>CD.</ref><orth>chibs</orth><ref> ND.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bcibs</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bcib</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, 
ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>chibs</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>CD, ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] <ref>(Byams 
pa rdo rje 1996).</ref>[Erg. Obl.] <ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><denominative><label>Denominative of: 
</label><orth>chibs</orth> 'horse' <ref>(Beyer 1992: 
111).</ref></denominative><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> 
<orth>rta sogs</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>rta sogs la</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> (respectful) To mount a horse 
or carriage <ref>CD.</ref> To ride a horse, &amp;c. <ref>DK.</ref> (honorific) 
to ride a horse <ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'chir</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>bcir</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'chir</orth> <ref>(CD), DK, 
TC.</ref><orth>cir</orth><ref> (CD).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bcird</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref> <orth>bcir</orth>
 <ref>(CD), DK, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bcir</orth> 
<ref>LZ, TC.</ref><orth>gcir</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>bcir</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref> <orth>'chird</orth> <ref>DK.</ref><orth>'chir</orth> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>rlan sogs kyis</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To press, squeeze 
<ref>CD.</ref> To squeeze, press, interrogate <ref>DK.</ref> To squeeze, to 
press, to wring out <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label>Root chir 
&lt; *tshyir &lt; *tshir <ref>(Beyer 1992: 
83).</ref></note><note><label>Note:</label> Compare <orth>gcir</orth> and 
<orth>'tshir</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'chir</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'chir</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>chir</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>'chir</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>chird</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
To go in between; to be pressed 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'chu</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'chu</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>bcu</orth> <ref>LZ, 
CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bcus</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bcu</orth> <ref>LZ, 
CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref> <orth>gcu</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>chus</orth> 
<ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>bcus</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>CD, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><denominative><label>Denominative of:</label> 
<orth>chu</orth>  'water' <ref>(Simon 1971: 474), (Beyer 1992: 
111).</ref></denominative><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> 
<orth>dbyibs kyis skyogs su</orth><ref> (<orth>'chu</orth>) LZ.</ref><orth>chu 
dang ja sogs</orth> <ref>(<orth>bcu</orth>) LZ.</ref><orth>chu sogs</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To scoop up, to ladle 
(water), to irrigate, to water <ref>(<orth>'chu</orth>) CD.</ref> 1. To draw 
out water, to irrigate. 2. To distill (Situ 75) <ref>(<orth>bcu</orth>) 
CD.</ref> To draw out water, to fetch water <ref>DK.</ref> To pick up sand, 
water &amp;c. with a ladle &amp;c. and pour it into a vessel <ref>DS.</ref>  1. 
To fetch with a vessel. 2. To loose appetite. 3. (archaic) To plunder 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Related to the noun 
<orth>bcud</orth> 'humor, elixir' <ref>(Stein 1942: 205).</ref> Related to the 
nouns <orth>chab</orth> 'water' and <orth>bca'</orth> 'drink' by ablaut 
<ref>(Simon 1971: 
474).</ref></note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'chu</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'chu</orth> <ref>CD, DK, DS.</ref><orth>'chus</orth><ref> 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>'chus</orth> <ref>CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>'chu</orth> <ref>DK, 
DS.</ref><orth>'chus</orth><ref>  TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'chus</orth> <ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be 
twisted, distorted <ref>CD.</ref> 1. To be crooked, to be distorted, twisted. 
2. To lose one's appetite <ref>DK.</ref>  1. To loose appetite. 2. To become 
crooked or in the shape of a twisted conch <ref>DS.</ref>To be or get twisted, 
to sprain, to be or get sprained 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'chug</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'chug</orth> <ref>ND, DK, DS, 
[TC].</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>'chugs</orth> <ref>ND, DK, 
DS.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>'chug</orth> <ref>ND, DK, 
DS.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label> <dash> <ref>ND, 
DS.</ref><orth>'chugs</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>ND, DS.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>don sogs</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be mistaken, to be in a 
wrong direction <ref>DK.</ref> To make a mistake, to be confused (similar to 
<orth>'phyug</orth>) <ref>DS.</ref> To make a mistake, blunder, go wrong 
(alternative orthography of <orth>'phyug</orth>) 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>'phyug</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'chugs</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'chugs</orth> 
<ref>[TC].</ref></wrI><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref> (Skorupski 
2001).</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> (archaic) To settle a 
dispute 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'chun</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'chun</orth> <ref>CD, DK, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>chun</orth> <ref>DK, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>'chun</orth> <ref>DK, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>chund</orth> <ref>DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive:</label><ref>
 TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Resultative of: 
</label><orth>'jun</orth> <ref>(Beyer 1992: 
112).</ref></causation><denominative><label>Denominative of:</label><orth>'chun 
pa</orth> 'under one's control' 
<ref>CD.</ref></denominative><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be tamed, 
subdued, made to yield <ref>CD.</ref> To be under control, to be subdued, to be 
able to contain <ref>DK.</ref> To become tamed, to become disciplined 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label><ref>CD</ref> suggests this 
verb is a denominal use of the adjective <orth>'chun pa</orth> 'under one's 
control'.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'chum</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'chum</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, TC.</ref><orth>'chums</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>'chums</orth> <ref>LZ, 
TC.</ref><orth>chum</orth><ref> DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>'chum</orth> <ref>LZ, DK, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'chums</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref><orth>chums</orth><ref> DK.</ref> 
<dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>rgyu nor sogs la</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To wish, to long for 
<ref>CD.</ref> 1. To be attached to. 2. To be frightened, to contract, to 
become small <ref>DK.</ref> To be attached to, to be fond of, to be addicted 
to. 2. To shrink, to shrivel 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'chums</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'chums</orth> <ref>DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>'chums</orth> <ref>[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>'chums</orth> <ref>[DS].</ref></wrIII><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To 
enforce a given command by force. 2. Having established authority to make 
someone listen 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'chur</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'chur</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrI><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>(Skorupski 
2001).</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> (archaic) To arrive 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'churd</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'churd</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>chur</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>'chur</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>churd</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
To be able to contain, to suffice in capacity 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>gcur</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'che</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'che</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>'ches</orth> <ref>LZ, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>bces</orth><ref> CD.</ref><orth>ches</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>'che</orth> <ref>LZ, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref><orth>bce</orth><ref> CD.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:
 </label><orth>'ches</orth> <ref>LZ, DS, TC.</ref><orth>ches</orth><ref> CD, 
DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Causative of:</label> 
<orth>'ches</orth> <ref>[DK].</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>dam bca' ba'i ched khas</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To attest, to promise 
<ref>CD.</ref> To promise <ref>DK, DS.</ref> To promise, to make a promise, to 
affirm 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'chel</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'chel</orth> <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>chel</orth> <ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>chel</orth> 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></wrIII><syntax><label>Syntax:</label>[Abs. 
Obl.]<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
fixate (on), to be fixated (on) <ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'chor</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'chor</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>shor</orth><ref> 
(DK).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>shord</orth> <ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref><orth>shor</orth><ref> CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>shor</orth> <ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref><orth>'chor</orth><ref> DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'chor</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'chord</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref><orth>shord</orth><ref> (DK).</ref> <dash> <ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Tournadre 
&amp; Dorje 2003: 265), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[(Erg.)Abs.] 
<ref>(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 265).</ref>[Abs. Obl.] <ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> <orth>la 
rgya dang sdom pa sogs</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To escape, flee, steal 
away. 2. To flow out <ref>CD.</ref> To be let loose (a dog, &amp;c.). 2. To 
lose, be stolen. 3. To escape, run away <ref>DK.</ref>1. To escape from 
bondage. 2. To deteriorate, become weak. 3. To be unable to protect, or block. 
4. To be unable to control the sense faculties <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To be robbed 
of, to be lost, to be deprived. 2. To make a slip 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'chor</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'chor</orth> <ref>CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bshor</orth> <ref>CD.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>gshor</orth> <ref>CD.</ref></wrIII><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
pursue, chase, go after 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'chol</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'chol</orth> <ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bcold</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, LZ, ND, DK.</ref><orth>bcol</orth><ref> CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bcol</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>'chold</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>N</sub>.</ref><orth>chold</orth><ref> LZ, ND, 
DK.</ref><orth>'chol</orth> <ref>DS.</ref><orth>chol</orth><ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, ND, 
DS, TC, (Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. 
Abs.] <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>'phrin las</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>lam 
sogs</orth><ref> ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To entrust, 
lay open, commit a thing to another's charge, to make, appoint <ref>CD.</ref> 
To entrust, rely upon <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To give something to another, and have 
him take care of it for some time. 2. To request another to attend to one's 
affairs in one's stead. 3. To have another attend to an affair having given 
something to another <ref>DS.</ref>  To entrust, to charge with, to leave in 
someone's charge, to deposit 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'chol</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'chold</orth> <ref>DK.</ref><orth>'chol</orth> <ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>chol</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref><orth>'chol</orth> <ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>'chol</orth> <ref>DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>chold</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be 
disorderly, to be in a state of confusion <ref>DK.</ref> Similar in meaning to 
<orth>'chal</orth><ref>DS.</ref> To be disorderly, to be mistaken, to be 
confused. 2. To totter, to stagger 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>'chal</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'chos</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'chos</orth> <ref>LZ, CD (archaic), ND, DK, (DS), 
TC.</ref><orth>bca'</orth><ref> DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bcos</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>'chos</orth> 
<ref>CD.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bco</orth> <ref>LZ, 
CD, ND, DK, DS.</ref><orth>bcos</orth><ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>chos</orth> <ref>LZ, 
CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>CD, 
ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. 
Abs.] <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>gtor ma sogs</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>bzo 
bos</orth><ref> ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To make, make 
ready, prepare, construct, build <ref>CD.</ref> To make, manufacture, build 
<ref>DK.</ref> To make, prepare, make ready <ref>DS.</ref> To make, create 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>'cha'</orth><sub>1</sub>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'chos</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'chos</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bcos</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>bca'</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>chos</orth><ref> LZ.</ref></wrIV><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>khrims sogs</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><note><label>Note:</label> Doubtless identical to the 
previous.</note></entry></div><div><head><orth>ja</orth></head><entry><headword><orth>mjal</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>mjol</orth> <ref>KY<sub>N</sub>.</ref> <orth>mjal</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, 
ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>mjald</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, LZ, ND, DK.</ref><orth>mjal</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>mjal</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, LZ, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>mjold</orth> <ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, LZ.</ref><orth>mjol</orth><ref> 
CD, DS, TC.</ref> <dash> <ref> ND.</ref><orth>mjald</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>ND, (Tournadre &amp; 
Dorje 2003: 117).</ref><label> Voluntary: </label><ref>CD, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref><label> Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Abs. Ass.] 
<ref>(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 368).</ref> [Obl. Abs.] <ref>(Tournadre &amp; 
Dorje 2003: 117).</ref> [Erg. Abs.] <ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> <orth>bla 
ma'i zhal sogs</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>bla ma</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> (honorific) To meet, 
interview, wait on, pay ones respects <ref>CD.</ref> To have interviews, meet 
<ref>DK.</ref> (honorific) To meet <ref>DS.</ref> (honorific) To meet, see, 
visit 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>mjed</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>mjed</orth> <ref>DK, DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>mjed</orth> <ref>DK, [DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>mjed</orth> <ref>DK, [DS].</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>mjed</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To cause to 
be intolerable, to be intolerable <ref>DK.</ref> To be irritating or unbearable 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'jag</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'jag</orth> <ref>CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>jags</orth> <ref>CD (Cs.).</ref></wrII><trans><label>Meaning:</label>
 (Sch.) To establish, settle, fix, found 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'jags</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'jags</orth> <ref>LZ, TC.</ref><orth>'jag</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>'jags</orth> <ref>LZ, DK, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>'jags</orth> <ref>LZ, 
TC.</ref><orth>'jag</orth><ref> DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'jags</orth> <ref>LZ, DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> 
<orth>gtam snyan sogs yid la</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be settled, become 
calm <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To remain in the mind, to remember. 2. (honorific) to be 
seated. 3. To settle, to calm down, to become still, to remain unchanged 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'jags</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'jags</orth> <ref>CD. ND, DK, DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bcags</orth> <ref>ND, DS.</ref><orth>gcags</orth><ref> [CD], 
DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>gcags</orth> <ref>ND, 
DS.</ref><orth>gcag</orth><ref> DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>chog</orth> <ref>ND.</ref><orth>'jags</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref><orth>chogs</orth><ref> 
DS.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, 
DS.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>yid la</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To remember, keep in mind 
<ref>(<orth>'jags</orth>) CD.</ref> (A. K. 1. 24) 1. 1o apprehend, to grasp 
(with the understanding); to impress (generally with <orth>yid la</orth> 'on 
the mind'). 2. relative to persons it may be synonymous with <orth>chags 
pa</orth> 'to love' <ref>(<orth>gcags</orth>) CD.</ref> To keep in mind, to 
memorize <ref>DK.</ref> To bear in mind, hold in mind 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'jags</orth><sub>3</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'jags</orth> <ref>CD.</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label> (in 
Central Tibet) To give, to make a present, to formally present (Georgi's 
Alphabetum Tibetanum ) <ref>CD.<footnote>I find no entry for <orth>'jags</orth> 
in the index of (Giorgi 
2001).</footnote>.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'jang</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'jang</orth> <ref>CD, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>'jang</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>'jang</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label> 
<dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To devour, 
swallow (Sch.) <ref>CD.</ref> To have diarrhea. 2. (archaic) To eat, to drink 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'jab</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'jab</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bzhabs</orth> <ref>LZ, CD 
(probably), DK, (TC archaic).</ref><orth>'jabs</orth> <ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bzhab</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, 
DK (DS).</ref><orth>gzhab</orth><ref> (DS), (TC 
archaic).</ref><orth>'jab</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>bzhob</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'jab</orth> <ref>(LZ).</ref><orth>'jabs</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref><orth>'jobs</orth><ref> DS, TC.</ref> <orth>bzhabs</orth> 
<ref>(DS).</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> 
<orth>nyams ma tshod bar</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To sneak, slink, creep 
privily. 2. To lie in wait, in ambush <ref>CD.</ref> To hide, conceal 
<ref>DK.</ref> To act as to not be noticed by another <ref>DS.</ref> To hide, 
ambush, lie in wait for 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'jam</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'jam</orth> <ref>ND, (Hoshi 2003).</ref><orth>gzham</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>'jam</orth> 
<ref>ND.</ref><orth>bzhams</orth><ref> CD, DK, [DS], 
[TC].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>gzhams</orth> 
<ref>[(CD)], [DS].</ref><orth>bzham</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label> <dash> 
<ref>ND.</ref><orth>gzhams</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>(Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><trans><label>Meaning: </label>To stroke, caress 
<ref>CD.</ref>  To advise on religious practice, to give advice at the time of 
admission into the higher order of Buddhist monk-hood. To contain, subsume 
<ref>[TC].</ref> 1. To be soft, smooth, quiet. 2. To cool down, become cold 
<ref>(Hoshi 2003).</ref></trans><note><label>Note: </label><ref>[DS] 
</ref>gives <orth>bzhams</orth>, and <orth>gzhams</orth> as archaic equivalents 
of <orth>'jam bo</orth> 'soft, tender'. <ref>CD</ref> gives no indication of 
which stem his forms are assigned 
to.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'ja'</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'ja'</orth> <ref>CD, DK, TC.</ref><orth>zha</orth> <ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>zha</orth> <ref>DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref><orth>'jas</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>'ja'</orth> <ref>DK. TC.</ref> <orth>zha</orth> <ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label> <orth>'ja'</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To bespeak, 
to concert, to confederate (Sch.) <ref>CD.</ref> To be maimed in feet or hands, 
to become lame, to be a cripple <ref>DK.</ref> To go lame <ref>DS,  
(<orth>zha</orth>) TC.</ref> To be lame, disabled, crippled, weak 
<ref>(<orth>'ja'</orth>) 
TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'jar</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'jar</orth> <ref>CD, DK, [DS], TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>'jard</orth> <ref>DK.</ref><orth>'jar</orth> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>'jar</orth> <ref>DK, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>'jard</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To stick 
together, to cohere <ref>CD.</ref> To go nearer, be nearer; to touch 
<ref>DK.</ref> (archaic) To patch, mend <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To hide. 2. To be 
close to, to associate with, to hand out with. 3. (archaic) To patch, to mend 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'jal</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'jal</orth> <ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bcal</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>bcald</orth><ref> 
KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, ND.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>gzhal</orth><ref> KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>'jol</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, CD, DS, TC.</ref><orth>'jold</orth> <ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, 
TD, LZ, ND.</ref><orth>'jald</orth><ref> DK.</ref>
<orth>chold</orth><ref>(Beckwith 1996)</ref>
 </wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, 
KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, CD, ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>tshad kyis</orth><ref> TD.</ref><orth>tshad dang bu lon 
sogs</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>blo yis</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To weigh, measure, 
appraise. 2. To tax. 3. To pay, pay back, repay. 4. To ponder.  <ref>CD.</ref> 
1. To repay, give in return. 2. To measure, estimate, ascertain <ref>DK.</ref> 
1. To account for whether a thing is heavy or light, long or short, many or few 
etc, with instruments. 2.  To analyze and understand. 3. To pay (e.g. taxes, a 
loan) <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To measure, weigh. 2. To appraise, examine. 3. To 
repay, to return <ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry>

<entry><headword><orth>'jig</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'jig</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>zhig</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, 
TC.</ref> <orth>bzhig</orth> <ref>CD.</ref> <orth>'jig</orth> 
<ref>[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>gzhig</orth><ref> 
[LZ].</ref><orth>'jig</orth><ref> DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>zhig</orth> 
<ref>[LZ].</ref><orth>zhigs</orth><ref> DK.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>CD, DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: 
</label>[Abs. Obl.] <ref>(Hackett
 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative of: 
</label><orth>'jig</orth><sub>2</sub><ref>(Gyurme 1992: 
261).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> 
<orth>bskal ba sogs</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be lost, undermined, to 
decay, perish <ref>CD.</ref> To ruin, decay, to be destroyed, perish 
<ref>DK.</ref> To deteriorate, become nonexistent <ref>DS.</ref> To perish, 
decay, disintegrate, come to ruin 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> See <ref>(Beckwith 1999)</ref> 
for further thoughts on this verb's conjugation. </note></entry>

<entry><headword><orth>'jig</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'jig</orth> <ref>TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>bshig</orth><ref> CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bshig</orth> <ref>TD, LZ, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>bshigs</orth><ref> 
CD.</ref><orth>bzhig</orth><ref> CD.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>gzhig</orth> <ref>TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS.</ref><orth>bshig</orth><ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>zhig</orth> <ref>TD, 
LZ.</ref><orth>shig</orth><ref> CD, ND, TC.</ref><orth>shigs</orth><ref> DK, 
DS.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>TD, CD, ND, DS, TC, 
(Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>CD, 
DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative of: 
</label><orth>'jig</orth><sub>1</sub><ref>(Gyurme 1992: 
261).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> 
<orth>rdza 'um sogs</orth><ref> TD.</ref><orth>mkhar dang brag sogs</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref><orth>brag sogs</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> (Rdo. 46) To destroy, to 
devastate, to devour, to abolish, to do away with, dissolve (an encampment) 
<ref>CD.</ref> To destroy, break into pieces <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To tear down. 2. 
To not adhere to, not support; to destroy, ruin, annihilate: 3. (dialect) To 
undo, untie <ref>DS.</ref> To destroy, exterminate, demolish 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label><ref>(Skorupski 2001) 
.</ref>amends <ref>TC.</ref>'s future to <orth>gzhig</orth>. Compare 
<orth>shig</orth><sub>1</sub>. See <ref>(Beckwith 1999)</ref> for further 
thoughts on this verb's conjugation. </note></entry>

<entry><headword><orth>'jigs</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label> 
<orth>'jigs</orth> <ref>CD, ND, DK, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>'jigs</orth> <ref>ND, DK, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>'jigs</orth> <ref>DK, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'jigs</orth> <ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> ND, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>ND, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. 
Instr.] (archaic) <ref>CD.</ref> [Abs. Obl.] <ref>CD, (Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To fear, be afraid, be 
terrified <ref>CD.</ref> To be terrified, to be afraid of <ref>DK.</ref> To be 
afraid, to fear, to be terrorized 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> the supine is <orth>'jigs 
su</orth> and not <orth>'jigs 
par</orth><ref>CD.</ref></note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'jib</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'jib</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>'jibs</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>'jib</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'jibs</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></wrIV><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>bcud sogs</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example></entry><entry><headword><orth>'jib</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'jib</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>'jibs</orth> 
<ref>CD.</ref><orth>'jig</orth> <ref>CD (Sch.) 
.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bzhibs</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, 
DS.</ref><orth>gzhibs</orth><ref> CD, TC.</ref> <orth>bzhib</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>gzhib</orth> <ref>LZ, 
CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>bzhib</orth><ref> 
CD.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>jibs</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'jibs</orth> <ref>DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> 
<orth>nu 'zho dang rkang sogs</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To suck. 2. To taste, 
relish <ref>CD.</ref> To such juice, to suck with lips <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To 
draw (water &amp;c.) inside with the mouth or nose. 2. To soak up 
<ref>DS.</ref> To suck 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'jil</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'jil</orth> <ref>TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bcild</orth> <ref>TD, LZ, 
ND.</ref><orth>bcil</orth><ref> CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>gzhil</orth> <ref>TD, LZ, 
CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>cild</orth> <ref>TD, LZ.</ref><orth>child</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref><orth>'jild</orth> <ref>DK.</ref><orth>cil</orth><ref> 
DS.</ref><orth>chil</orth><ref> TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TD, ND, DS, TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>nyon mongsogs</orth><ref> TD.</ref><orth>me dang nyon 
mong sogs</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>phyin la</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To expel, eject, remove, turn 
off <ref>CD.</ref> To take out, remove, give up <ref>DK.</ref> To put out (a 
fire) <ref>DS.</ref> To expel, to shed, to banish, to extract, to remove 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'jil</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'jil</orth> <ref>CD, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>'jil</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>'jil</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label> 
<dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref> TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To shed 
blood <ref>CD.</ref> To be damaged 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'ju</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'ju</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>'jus</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>'ju</orth> <ref>LZ, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>jus</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'jus</orth> <ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>lus sogs la</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> (used with <orth>la</orth> 
[Dag 8]) To seize, grasp, lay hold of <ref>CD.</ref> 1. To hold (with the 
hand). 2. (for a dog) To bite. 3. To save, spare <ref>DS.</ref> To hold, catch, 
grasp, seize 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'ju</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'ju</orth> <ref>DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>zhu</orth> <ref>DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>'ju</orth> <ref>DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label> 
<dash> <ref>DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>DS, 
TC, (Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
digest <ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'ju</orth><sub>3</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>zhu</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref> <orth>'ju</orth> <ref>CD, ND, DK, 
DS.</ref><orth>bzhu</orth><ref> TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bzhus</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>zhus</orth><ref> 
CD.</ref><orth>bzhur</orth><ref> TC (see 
note).</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bzhu</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, 
ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>zhu</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref><orth>zhus</orth><ref> LZ, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative of:</label> 
<orth>zhu</orth> <ref>(Gyurme 1992: 
261).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> 
<orth>mar sogs</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref> <orth>mar khu</orth> 
<ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To melt, digest <ref>CD, 
DK.</ref> To liquefy, melt down <ref>DS.</ref> To boil, liquefy, having set a 
fire <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label><ref>TC</ref> notices 
<orth>bzhur</orth> as an alternate from <i>Si tu sum rtag 'grel 
chen</i>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'jug</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'jug</orth> <ref>CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>zhugs</orth> <ref>CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label>
 <orth>zhug</orth> <ref>DK.</ref><orth>'jug</orth> <ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>zhugs</orth> <ref>CD, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>CD, DS, TC, 
(Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. 
Obl.] <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To 
go into, enter (generally used with terminative case, but sometimes occurs with 
<orth>la</orth>). 2. To begin, to set about (always coupled to participle by 
<orth>la</orth>) <ref>CD.</ref> 1. To enter or practice. 2. To follow or go 
<ref>DK.</ref> 1. To affix (a letter to a syllable). 2. To affix (a grammatical 
morpheme to a syllable). 3. To go, arrive <ref>DS.</ref> To enter, to join, to 
set out, to embark on 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'jug</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'jug</orth> <ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bcug</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>'jugs</orth> 
<ref>(CD).</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>gzhug</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>chugs</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, LZ, ND, DS.</ref><orth>chug</orth><ref> 
TD, CD, DK, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, CD, ND, DS, TC, (Tournadre 
&amp; Dorje 2003: 265), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 265), (Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative of: </label><orth>zhugs</orth> 
<ref>(Gyurme 1992: 259).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>nang du dang btan pal</orth><ref> TD.</ref><orth>tshogs 
dang nang du</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>nang du</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To put into, insert, 
infuse. inject. 2. To appoint, constitute, manifest, place out, settle. 3. To 
command, induce. 4. To permit, allow suffer (in sense 3 and 4 with the 
terminative case of root of verb [sic]) <ref>CD.</ref> 1. To put in, insert, to 
admit. 2. To cause to enter to make or to allow to do <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To make 
go inside from outside (e.g. sheep). 2. To put a thing in its container. 3. To 
be put in order, series (e.g. a student into a particular class). 4. An 
auxiliary verb indicating the double causative. 5  (when prefixed by 
<orth>kha</orth>) To speak <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To insert, to place in, to put in, 
to infuse, to inject. 2. To introduce, to induce, to admit into, to induct, 
cause to enter. 3. To engage in, to participate, to undertake. 4. To encourage, 
to let, to permit, to allow, to cause to 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Root given as jug &lt; *dzyug 
&lt; dzug  cf. 'dzugs <ref>(Beyer 1992: 84).</ref></note></entry>
<entry><headword><orth>'jud</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label> 
<orth>'jud</orth> <ref>CD (archaic), DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>(Skorupski 2001), 
(Goldstein 2001).</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> [To go 
into, enter]<ref>CD.</ref> (archaic) To enter, put inside <ref>DS.</ref> 
(archaic) To cause to enter, to insert, to induce 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>chud</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'jun</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'jun</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>'chun</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref><orth>gcun</orth><ref> CD, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bcund</orth> <ref>LZ, 
ND.</ref><orth>bcun</orth><ref> CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>gcun</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>gzhun</orth><ref> 
CD.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>cund</orth> <ref>LZ, 
ND.</ref><orth>gcund</orth><ref> DK.</ref><orth>chun</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Causative of: 
</label><orth>'chun</orth> <ref>(Beyer 1992: 
112).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> 
<orth>thags dang sngags dang thabs sogs</orth> <ref>(<orth>'jun</orth>) 
LZ.</ref><orth>g.yog 'khor sogs</orth> <ref>(<orth>'chun</orth>) 
LZ.</ref><orth>rtsad nas</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> (acc. Cs.) To subdue, make 
tame. To make confess. To make soft, soften. To punish (by words or blows). To 
convert <ref>CD.</ref> To subdue, control, subjugate, restrain <ref>DK.</ref> 
To make (someone or something) obey a command, using force <ref>DS.</ref>  1. 
To subdue, to take, to discipline, to shape. 2. (archaic) To keep in mind 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'jun</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'jun</orth> <ref>DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>'jun</orth> <ref>[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>'jun</orth> <ref>[DS].</ref></wrIII><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> After 
having made a promise, or done a fault, to deny 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'jum</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'jum</orth> <ref>CD, ND, DK, TC.</ref><orth>'jums</orth> <ref>DS, 
(TC).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bcums</orth> <ref>ND, 
DS.</ref> <orth>bcum</orth> <ref>CD, (ND), DK, TC.</ref><orth>'jum</orth><ref> 
CD (see note).</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>gzhum</orth> 
<ref>CD, TC.</ref> <orth>'jum</orth> <ref>ND.</ref> <orth>gcum</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref> <orth>bcum</orth> <ref>DS.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>chum</orth><ref> CD, TC.</ref><orth>chums</orth> <ref>ND, 
DS.</ref><orth>'jums</orth><ref> DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>CD, ND, TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>CD, TC.</ref><label> Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs. Obl.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>chud du</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> Properly to cause to shudder, 
but frequently as neutral verb to contract <ref>CD.</ref> To make smaller, 
contract <ref>DK.</ref> To become shorter <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To contract, to 
shrink. 2. (archaic) To reduce pride 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label><ref>CD</ref> gives 
<orth>'jum</orth> as the past in his main entry, but transliterates it as the 
impossible <orth>bjum</orth>, he lists <orth>bcum</orth> separately as the past 
of this verb, and perhaps that is what was meant to appear in the main entry as 
well.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'jur</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'jur</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>'chur</orth> 
<ref>[TC].</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bcurd</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref><orth>bcur</orth><ref> CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bcur</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref><orth>gcur</orth><ref> DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>curd</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'jurd</orth><ref> DK.</ref><orth>chur</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>'jur mig dang dka' gnas sogs la</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To draw tight. 2. (= 
<orth>'dzur</orth>) To evade, to shun, to go out of the way <ref>CD.</ref> To 
draw tightly, to channel, to discipline, control <ref>DK.</ref> To extrude, 
draw out (a metal wire) <ref>DS.</ref>  1. To interrogate, to discipline. 2. To 
draw through or into. 3. (archaic) to arrive 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>gcur</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'jur</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'jur</orth> <ref>DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>'jur</orth> <ref>[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>'jur</orth> <ref>[DS].</ref></wrIII><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> For a part 
of something to emerge or protrude outside from a hole 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'jur</orth><sub>3</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'jur</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bzhur</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>gzhur</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'jurd</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
To tame, subdue; to check, examine; to draw tightly 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'jebs</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label

<orth>'jeb</orth> <ref>ND.</ref><orth>'jebs</orth> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>'jeb</orth> 
<ref>ND.</ref><orth>'jebs</orth> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>'jebs</orth> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be 
pleasing, to be agreeable 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'jem</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'jem</orth> <ref>ND.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>'jem</orth> <ref>ND.</ref></wrII><note><label>Note:</label> Probably a 
verbal use of the adjective <orth>'jem pa</orth> 'skilled, 
capable'.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>'jo</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'jo</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>gzho</orth> 
<ref>(CD).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bzhos</orth> <ref>LZ, 
CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bzho</orth> 
<ref>LZ, CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>zhos</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, DK.</ref><orth>'jos</orth> <ref>CD, 
TC.</ref><orth>gzhos</orth><ref> DS.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>CD, ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><denominative><label>Denominative of: 
</label><orth>zho</orth> 'yoghurt' <ref>(Beyer 1992: 112 
n.11).</ref></denominative><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> 
<orth>'o ma sogs</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>'o ma</orth> 
<ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To milk <ref>CD, 
DK.</ref> To take milk from the breast of a milch animal <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To 
yield, extract, to milk. 2. To satisfy, to fulfill. 3. To captivate, to 
bewitch 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'jo</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'jo</orth> <ref>LZ, DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>'jos</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref><orth>'jo</orth> 
<ref>[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>'jo</orth> 
<ref>LZ, [DS].</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>'jo</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref></wrIV><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>'dod pa sogs</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To satisfy, fulfill. 2. 
To rain, or many desires to be fulfilled 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'jog</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'jog</orth> <ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bzhag</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>gzhag</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>zhogs</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>T</sub>.</ref><orth>zhog</orth><ref> TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, TD, 
CD, ND, DS, TC, (Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 159), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 159), (Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><denominative><label>Denominative of: 
</label><orth>zhags pa</orth> 'lasso'<ref>(Chang 1971: viii.3) 
.</ref></denominative><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> 
<orth>gnas su</orth><ref> TD, ND.</ref><orth>dam bca' dang gnas sogs 
su</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To put, 
place, make a place, settle, to assign. 2. To leave, leave behind 
<ref>CD.</ref> 1. To keep in place. 2. To leave, give up <ref>DK.</ref> 1. 
For a thing to remain in its own place. 2. To give an example. 3. To make a 
success 4. To add, augment (e.g. <orth>lud</orth>). 5. To go into retreat 
<ref>DS.</ref> 1. To fix, to settle, to keep, to place, to put down, to 
arrange. 2. To establish, to found, to make, to sign. 3. To leave or to have. 
4. To leave aside, to put aside, to neglect, to reject 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'jog</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>zhogs</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref> <orth>'jog</orth> <ref>CD, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>zhogs</orth> <ref>CD.</ref> 
<orth>bzhogs</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bzhog</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref> <orth>gzhog</orth> <ref>CD. 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>zhog</orth> 
<ref>CD.</ref><orth>zhogs</orth><ref> LZ, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><denominative><label>Denominative of: 
</label><orth>mar zhog</orth> 'a part cut off, one half of a mar ril (i.e. a 
globular piece of fresh butter)' <ref>(Chang 1971: 
viii.4).</ref></denominative><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> 
<orth>shing sogs</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To cut, hew, to square (a 
pen, timber &amp;c.); to carve, chip <ref>CD.</ref> To carve, plane, chip, 
strain 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'jog</orth><sub>3</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'jog</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>'jogs</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>'jog</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'jog</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></wrIV><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>them skas sogs la</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example></entry><entry><headword><orth>'jong</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'jong</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>'jangs</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>'jang</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>'jongs</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To gulp 
down 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'joms</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'joms</orth> <ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bcom</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>bcoms</orth><ref> 
CD.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>gzhom</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>zhom</orth><ref> ND.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>choms</orth> <ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, ND, 
DK, DS.</ref><orth>chom</orth><ref> CD, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, 
KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, CD, ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative of: 
</label><orth>zhom</orth>.</causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>bdud kyi dpung sogs</orth><ref> TD.</ref><orth>nyon 
mongs dang gyul sogs</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>'dud sogs</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To conquer, subdue, put 
down, suppress. 2. To oppress, tyrannize over, plunder <ref>CD.</ref> To 
destroy, to put an end to, to conquer, defeat, quell <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To 
destroy, to defeat. 2. To annihilate, remove, cure <ref>DS.</ref> To subdue, 
to quell, to plunder, to defeat, to suppress, to damage 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>'jol</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>'jol</orth> <ref>CD, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>'jol</orth> <ref>[DS], TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>'jol</orth> <ref>[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label> <dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To 
hang down. 2. (for <orth>'byol</orth>) To turn aside, to make way 
<ref>CD.</ref> To hang down, to dangle <ref>DS.</ref> To sag, to hand down, 
to drag down, to trail down, to dangle 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rjid</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>rjid</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>rjid</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>rjid</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>rjid</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
To become weak and thin, to decay, diminish 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>rjud</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>rjud</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>rjud</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label>
 <orth>rjud</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>rjud</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>rjud</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
To become weak and thin, to decay, diminish 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>rjid</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>rje</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>rje</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, DS, TC.</ref><orth>brje</orth><ref> CD, 
DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>brjes</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>brje</orth> 
<ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>rjes</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>brjes</orth><ref> 
CD.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>CD, ND, DS, TC, 
(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 258), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 258), (Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> 
<orth>dngos po sogs phan tshun</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>phan 
tshun</orth><ref> ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To change, 
barter, to give or take in exchange <ref>CD.</ref> To exchange, change 
<ref>DK.</ref> To exchange <ref>DS.</ref> To exchange, to change 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rjed</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>rjed</orth> <ref>CD (archaic), DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>brjed</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>brjed</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, 
TC.</ref><orth>rjed</orth><ref> DK, 
[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>brjed</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, 
TC.</ref><orth>rjed</orth><ref> DK, [DS].</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>rjed</orth> <ref>DK, TC.</ref><orth>brjed</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. 
Abs.] <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><denominative><label>Denominative of: 
</label><orth>rje</orth> 'master, lord' <ref>(Beyer 1992: 112 n. 
11).</ref></denominative><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label> 
<orth>bcol gtad sogs</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To honor, reverence 
<ref>CD.</ref> To offer, to respect <ref>DK.</ref> (archaic) To pay 
compliments, respect <ref>DS.</ref> To respect, to venerate, to revere, to 
honor 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rjod</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>rjod</orth> <ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>brjod</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>brjod</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>rjod</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>KY<sub>T</sub>, 
KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>ngag gis</orth><ref> TD.</ref><orth>ngag dnag tshig 
gis</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>tshig</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To say, recite, pronounce, 
utter, announce, promulgate, enumerate, set forth <ref>CD.</ref> To express; to 
say, speak <ref>DK.</ref> To say, speak <ref>DS.</ref> To say, to tell, to 
express, to pronounce, to utter, to recount 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rjod</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>rjod</orth> <ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>brjod</orth> <ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>brjod</orth> 
<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>rjod</orth> <ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></wrIV><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Obl. Abs.]<ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be expressed (by), to be 
called <ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>ljen</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>ljen</orth> <ref>CD.</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To enter, 
penetrate 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>brjid</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>brjid</orth> <ref>CD, DK, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>brjid</orth> <ref>DK, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>brjid</orth> <ref>DK, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>bjid</orth> <ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Obl. 
Abs.]<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
shine, glitter <ref>CD.</ref> To brighten, beautiful; to be glorious 
<ref>DK.</ref> To be majestic, to be mighty, to be splendid 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>brjed</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>brjed</orth> <ref>CD, DK, TC.</ref><orth>rjed</orth><ref> (CD), 
DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>brjed</orth> <ref>CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>brjed</orth> <ref>CD, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>brjed</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Obl. 
Abs.]<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
forget <ref>CD, DS, TC.</ref> To forget, to neglect 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans></entry></div><div><head><orth>nya</orth></head><entry><headword><orth>nya</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>nya</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>nya</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>nya</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> (of 
celestial bodies) To be full 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>nyan</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>nyan</orth> <ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>mnyan</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>mnyand</orth> <ref>(Thomas 1935-63.II: 97 and 157 qtd. in Coblin 
1976:50), KY<sub>N</sub>, LZ, ND, DK.</ref><orth>nyand</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref><orth>mnyan</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>mnyan</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, LZ, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>nyan</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>nyond</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>NCW</sub>, LZ, ND, DK.</ref><orth>nyon</orth><ref> KY<sub>NZ</sub>, 
CD, DS, TC.</ref> <orth>mnyand</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, 
CD, ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Erg. 
Abs.] <ref>(<orth>nyan</orth>) (Hackett 2003),</ref> [Obl. Abs.] 
<ref>(<orth>mnyan</orth>) (Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>chos 
sogs</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>bon chos gtam</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To hear, to give ear to, to 
listen <ref>CD.</ref> To listen, obey <ref>(<orth>nyan</orth>) DK.</ref> To 
listen to, to cause to listen <ref>(<orth>mnyan</orth>) DK.</ref> To hear 
<ref>DS.</ref> To be attentive to, to listen to 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>nyan</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label><orth>nyan</orth>
 <ref>CD, DK, TC.</ref></wrI><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label> <dash> 
<ref>CD.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>(Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be able <ref>CD.</ref> 
To be suitable, fitting, possible <ref>DS.</ref> To be fit for 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>nyan</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><auxillary><label>Auxiliary:
 </label><ref>[CD], DS.</ref></auxillary><function><label>Function:</label>Used 
as a formative, added to the root of a verb, signifying capability, possibility 
&amp;c. <ref>CD.</ref>1. (when following certain words such as 
<orth>bshad</orth> 'say') To willingly accomplish. 2. (when prefixed by 
<orth>kha</orth> this verb, added to another verb) To promise 
<ref>DS.</ref></function></entry><entry><headword><orth>nyams</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>nyams</orth> <ref>ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>nyams</orth>
 <ref>ND, DK, [DS], TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label>
 <orth>nyams</orth> <ref>DK, [DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>nyams</orth> <ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> [ND], 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>[ND], TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Abs. Obl.]<ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To deteriorate, to grow 
weak, to decline <ref>DK.</ref> To deteriorate, decline, perish, come to ruin 
<ref>DS.</ref> To degenerate, to decline, to deteriorate 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>nyar</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>nyar</orth> <ref>DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>nyard</orth> <ref>DK.</ref><orth>nyar</orth><ref> [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>nyar</orth> <ref>DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>nyard</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref><orth>nyor</orth><ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To keep, preserve 
<ref>DK.</ref> To keep, take care of, preserve, conserve <ref>DS.</ref> To keep 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>nyal</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>nyal</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>nyald</orth> <ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref><orth>nyal</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>nyal</orth> <ref>LZ, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>nyold</orth> 
<ref>LZ, DK.</ref><orth>nyol</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>mal sogs su</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To lie down, to sleep 
<ref>CD, DK.</ref> 1. (of men and cattle) To rest, lying on the side of the 
body. 2. To sleep. 3. (of twigs and chaff) to fall upon the surface of the 
ground <ref>DS.</ref> To lie down, to rest, to fall asleep, to go to sleep, to 
stop, to come to a halt <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Root 
given as nyal &lt; *nal <ref>(Beyer 1992: 84) .</ref>cf. <orth>mnal</orth> 'to 
sleep.'.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>nyil</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>nyil</orth> <ref>DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>gnyil</orth> <ref>CD, 
DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>nyild</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref><orth>nyil</orth><ref> [DS], TC.</ref> <orth>gnyil</orth> 
<ref>[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>nyil</orth> <ref>DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref> <orth>gnyil</orth> 
<ref>[DS].</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>nyild</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Resultative of:</label> 
<orth>snyil</orth> <ref>CD, (Gyurme 1992: 260), (Beyer 1992: 
116).</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be desiccated, to 
crumble away, to thaw <ref>CD.</ref> To fall apart, to become old, to be ruined 
<ref>DK.</ref> 1. To crumble, collapse. 2. To fall down as many droplets 
<ref>(<orth>nyil</orth>) DS.</ref> To become dull, less sharp 
<ref>(<orth>gnyil</orth>)DS.</ref> To collapse, to crumble, to pour or flow 
down, to erode 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>nyug</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>nyug</orth> <ref>LZ, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>nyugs</orth> <ref>LZ, DK, TC.</ref><orth>nyug</orth><ref> 
[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>nyug</orth> <ref>LZ, DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>nyugs</orth> 
<ref>LZ, DK, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Erg. 
Obl.]<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>rkang pa dang lag pa sogs kyis</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To anoint, apply oil or 
ointment <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To touch. 2. To apply, anoint <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To 
touch, to grope for, to stretch out. 2. To apply, to smear, to put on 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>nyung</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>nyung</orth> <ref>ND.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>nyung</orth> <ref>ND.</ref></wrII><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>(Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be 
few 
<ref>[ND].</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>nyul</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>nyul</orth> <ref>CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>gnyul</orth><ref> 
CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>nyuld</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref><orth>nyul</orth><ref> [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>nyul</orth> <ref>DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>nyuld</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref><orth>nyul</orth><ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
wander, rove about; to step gently, steal through, creep <ref>CD.</ref> To 
wander <ref>DK.</ref> To go without having a goal <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To roam, to 
wander, to search for. 2. (archaic) To delay, to linger, to loiter 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>gnyul</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>nye</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>nye</orth> <ref>CD, DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>nye</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>nye</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>nye</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> 
[Abs. Obl.]<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><denominative><label>Denominative 
of:</label><orth>nye</orth> 
'near'.</denominative><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be near, to approach 
<ref>CD.</ref> To go nearer, to be near; to become close friends 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>nyen</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>nyen</orth> <ref>CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>nyend</orth> <ref>DK.</ref><orth>nyen</orth><ref> [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>nyen</orth> <ref>DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>nyend</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be 
pained, pinched, pressed hard (e.g. by hunger); to labor, to drudge 
<ref>CD.</ref> To be in danger <ref>DK.</ref> To suffer <ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>nyes</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>nyes</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>nyes</orth> <ref>LZ, DK, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>nyes</orth> <ref>LZ, DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>nyes</orth> 
<ref>LZ, DK .</ref> <dash> <ref> TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Abs. 
Obl.]<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>gnod ba sogs kyis</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To commit an offence 
(commoner usage is with -<orth>byed</orth>) <ref>CD.</ref> To be spoilt, to 
become useless <ref>DK.</ref> To harm, damage &amp;c. <ref>DS.</ref> To be 
defective, to be flawed, to be wrong, to go wrong 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>nyo</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>nyo</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>nyos</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>nyo</orth> <ref>LZ, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>nyos</orth> 
<ref>LZ, CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>CD, DS, TC, (Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 137), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Erg. Abs.] 
<ref>(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 159). (Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>ja 
mar sogs</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To buy, 
obtain by payment <ref>CD.</ref> To purchase, buy <ref>DK.</ref> To exchange 
money for something <ref>DS.</ref> To buy, to purchase 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>nyog</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>nyog</orth> <ref>DK, DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>nyogs</orth> <ref>DK.</ref><orth>nyog</orth><ref> 
[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>nyog</orth> <ref>DK, 
[DS].</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>nyogs</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label>
 [Abs. Obl.]<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Resultative 
of:</label> <orth>rnyog</orth><ref> [CD].</ref><orth>snyog</orth><ref> (Gyurme 
1992: 260).</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To become muddy, 
to be unclean or obscure. 2. To feel dull <ref>DK.</ref> To be disorderly, 
disarrayed 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>nyob</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>nyob</orth> <ref>DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>nyob</orth> <ref>DK, [DS], TC.</ref><orth>nyobs</orth><ref> 
(DK).</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>nyob</orth> <ref>DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>nyob</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref> <orth>nyobs</orth><ref> (DK).</ref> <dash> <ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To become lazy, 
inactive. To be idle or disinterred <ref>DK.</ref> To be unable (in mental 
capacity, or mental and physical activity) <ref>DS.</ref> To be tired, to be 
run down, to be weary, to be exhausted 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>nyor</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>nyor</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>nyord</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>nyor</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>nyord</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary:</label><ref>(Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To fall down slowly, to 
collapse <ref>DK.</ref> To become overripe, squishy <ref>(Hoshi 
2003).</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gnyid</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>gnyid</orth> <ref>ND, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>gnyid</orth> <ref>ND, [DS], TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>gnyid</orth> <ref>[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative:</label> 
<dash> <ref>[ND], TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>[ND], TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To fall 
asleep <ref>DS.</ref> To sleep, to fall asleep 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gnyul</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>gnyuld</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref><orth>gnyul</orth><ref> CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>nyul</orth><ref> CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>gnyuld</orth> <ref>LZ, DK.</ref><orth>nyuld</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref><orth>gnyul</orth><ref> [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>gnyul</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, 
DK, [DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>gnyul</orth> 
<ref>LZ, TC.</ref><orth>nyuld</orth><ref> ND.</ref><orth>gnyuld</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>yul sogs su rtog dpyid kyis</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref><orth>rgyal khams sogs</orth> 
<ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To search, find, to spy, 
to wander <ref>DK.</ref> To look around, search about, to wander <ref>DS.</ref> 
To transverse, to wander, to roam, to travel 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>nyul</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>gnye</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>gnye</orth> <ref>CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>gnye</orth> <ref>CD.</ref></wrII><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To woo, 
court 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gnyeg</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>gnyeg</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>gnyags</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>gnyag</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>gnyegs</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
To press down 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gnyer</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>gnyer</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>gnyerd</orth> <ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref><orth>gnyer</orth><ref> [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>gnyer</orth> <ref>LZ, DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>gnyer</orth> 
<ref>LZ, TC.</ref><orth>gnyerd</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Erg. 
Abs.]<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>don sogs</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To tend, to take care of, to 
provide for; to seek for, to procure, to acquire <ref>CD.</ref> To keep, 
preserve; to get into, to seek <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To keep after (good qualities 
&amp;c.). 2. To become wrinkly <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To strive for, to work for, to 
provide for, to procure. 2. To look after, to manage, to supervise, to take 
care of. 3. To gnash the teeth, to frown. 4. (archaic) To summon 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gnyog</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>gnyog</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bnyags</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref><orth>gnyag</orth><ref> ND.</ref><orth>gnyags</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>gnyag</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>nyogs</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref><orth>gnyog</orth><ref> ND.</ref><orth>gnyogs</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Resultative of:</label> 
<orth>snyog</orth> <ref>[CD, 
J&auml;].</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>bza' btung gi phyir</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>mtho dang 
bza' phyir</orth><ref>ND<sub>A</sub>.</ref><orth>mtho dang zab 
phyir</orth><ref> ND<sub>B</sub>.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
To desire, wish earnestly (Cs.) <ref>CD.</ref> To chew <ref>DS.</ref> To chew, 
to masticate, to munch. 2. To whip, to strike, to beat, to pound 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>gnyog</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>gnyog</orth> <ref>DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>gnyog</orth> <ref>[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>gnyog</orth> <ref>[DS].</ref></wrIII><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To hit, 
strike, beat 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>mnyam</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>mnyam</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, DK, DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>mnyam</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, DK, 
[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>mnyam</orth> <ref>LZ, DK, 
[DS].</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>mnyam</orth> <ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>(Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Resultative of: 
</label><orth>snyom</orth> <ref>(Beyer 1992: 117 n. 
13).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>mtho 
dman sogs</orth><ref> LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be 
alike, to be equal <ref>DK.</ref> To be similar, to compare 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare <orth>bnyam</orth> in 
<ref>(Takeuchi 1995: 
314).</ref></note></entry><entry><headword><orth>mnyed</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>mnyed</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, (DS), TC.</ref><orth>nyed</orth><ref> 
(CD), DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>mnyes</orth> <ref>LZ, 
CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref> <orth>nyed</orth> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>mnye</orth> <ref>LZ, 
CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref> <orth>nyed</orth> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>mnyed</orth> 
<ref>LZ, DK.</ref><orth>mnyes</orth><ref> CD, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>mnyos</orth><ref> ND.</ref><orth>nyed</orth> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, 
DS, TC, (Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>lus sogs la rdzas kyis</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>ko 
lpags</orth><ref> ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To rub 
between the hands or feet (e.g. ears of corn). 2. To tan, curry, dress. 3. To 
coax (Cs.) <ref>CD.</ref> To rub; to tan; to tame; to crush, grind; to knead 
<ref>DK.</ref> To make a hard thing (e.g. leather, hide) supple by rubbing 
<ref>DS.</ref> To tan, to rub <ref>(<orth>mnyed</orth>) TC.</ref> To massage, 
to rub gently <ref>(<orth>nyed</orth>) 
TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>mnyen</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>mnyen</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>mnyend</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label>
 <orth>mnyen</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>mnyen</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref></wrIV><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>rtsa rgyus sogs</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><note><label>Note:</label> Likely a deverbal use of the 
adjective <orth>mnyen</orth> 'soft, flexible, 
mild.'.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>mnyel</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>mnyel</orth> <ref>LZ, CD (archaic), DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>gnyel</orth><ref> (CD), 
(DS).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>mnyeld</orth> <ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref><orth>mnyel</orth><ref> [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>mnyel</orth> <ref>LZ, DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>mnyel</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref><orth>mnyeld</orth><ref> DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>zhu don sogs</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be tired, fatigued; to get 
tired <ref>CD.</ref> To be tired <ref>DK.</ref> (honorific) To be tired 
<ref>DS.</ref> To be tired, to be exhausted 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>mnyes</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>mnyes</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>mnyes</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>mnyes</orth> <ref>LZ, 
DK, [DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>mnyes</orth> 
<ref>LZ, DK.</ref> <dash> <ref>  TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC, (Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 117), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abl. Obl.] 
<ref>(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 117), (Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>mchod 
yul sogs</orth><ref> LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
(honorific) To be glad, to take delight in <ref>CD, DS.</ref> To be fond of, to 
be happy, pleased <ref>DK.</ref> (honorific) To rejoice, to be glad, to 
delight, to be pleased 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rnya</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>rnya</orth> <ref>DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>brnyas</orth> <ref>DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>brnya</orth> <ref>DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>rnyos</orth> <ref>DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Erg. Abs.]<ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To borrow (&Ntilde;ag 
30). 2. To take on lease (&Ntilde;ag 30). 3. To seize (by force), to usurp 
(Sch.) <ref>CD.</ref> To lend, borrow <ref>DK.</ref> (archaic) To lend, borrow 
<ref>DS.</ref> To borrow, lend <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> 
Root given as rnya &lt; *r-&eng;ya &lt; *&eng;ya <ref>(Beyer 1992: 
83).</ref></note><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>rnyan</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>rnyang</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>rnyang</orth> <ref>CD, DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>brnyangs</orth> <ref>DS.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>brnyang</orth> <ref>DS.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>rnyongs</orth> <ref>DS.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To 
rinse. 2. (in West) To suffer from diarrhea <ref>CD.</ref> To have diarrhea 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rnyan</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>rnyan</orth> <ref>LZ, DK, TC.</ref><orth>rnyon</orth><ref> ND, 
DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>brnyand</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, 
DK.</ref><orth>brnyan</orth><ref> CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>brnyan</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>rnyond</orth> 
<ref>LZ, ND.</ref><orth>rnyand</orth><ref> DK.</ref><orth>rnyon</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive:</label><ref> 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>chos gos sogs gzhan las</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>gos 
sogs</orth> <ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To borrow 
<ref>CD.</ref> To lend, borrow <ref>DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>rnya</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>rnying</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>rnying</orth> <ref>CD, ND, DK, DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>brnyings</orth> <ref>CD, ND, DK.</ref><orth>rnyings</orth><ref> 
DS.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>brnying</orth> <ref>ND, 
DK.</ref><orth>rnying</orth><ref> DS.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>rnyings</orth> <ref>ND, DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> ND, 
DS.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>ND, DS, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref><label> Voluntary: 
</label><ref>ND.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>zad pa'i</orth> <ref>(<orth>rnyings</orth>) 
ND.</ref><orth>zas gos sogs</orth> <ref>(-) 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To age, wax old 
<ref>CD.</ref> To cause to become old, to cause to wear out <ref>DK.</ref> To 
wear out, show the passage of time 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rnyid</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>rnyid</orth> <ref>CD, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>brnyid</orth> <ref>CD.</ref> <orth>brnyis</orth> <ref>CD, (DS).</ref> 
<orth>rnyid</orth> <ref>[DS], TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>gnyid</orth> <ref>CD.</ref> <orth>brnyid</orth> 
<ref>(DS).</ref><orth>rnyid</orth> <ref>[DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>CD 
(Sch.), DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To 
whither, fade. 2. To grieve <ref>CD.</ref> To whither <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To 
wither, to shrivel. 2. To be discouraged, to be dispirited, to be fed up 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rnyil</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>rnyil</orth> <ref>ND.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>brnyild</orth> <ref>ND.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>brnyil</orth> <ref>ND.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>rnyild</orth> <ref>ND.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>ND.</ref></volition><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>so yi</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><note><label>Note:</label> Certainly derived from the noun 
<orth>rnyil</orth> 'gums', though of uncertain 
meaning.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>rnyis</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>rnyis</orth> <ref>?CD (archaic).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>rnyis</orth> <ref>?CD 
(archaic).</ref></wrII><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be warn out, become 
old, faded <ref>CD.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> The entry is 
unclear about what &quot;pf.&quot; refers 
to.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>rnyed</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>rnyed</orth> <ref>CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>brnyed</orth> <ref>CD.</ref><orth>brnyes</orth><ref> CD, 
DK.</ref><orth>rnyed</orth><ref> [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>brnyed</orth> <ref>CD, 
DK.</ref><orth>rnyed</orth><ref> [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>rnyes</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC, (Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 265), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
(Skorupski 2001).</ref><label> Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Obl. Abs.] 
<ref>(Tournadre &amp; Dorje 2003: 210).</ref>[Erg. Abs. ]<ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To find, discover, acquire, 
meet with, get <ref>CD.</ref> 1. Having searched, to acquire at hand. 2. To 
newly know an unknown meaning <ref>DS.</ref> To procure, to get, to find 
<ref>DK.</ref> To find, to discover, to obtain, to get 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rnyog</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>rnyog</orth> <ref>CD, DK, (DS).</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>brnyogs</orth> <ref>CD, DK, 
(DS).</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>brnyog</orth> <ref>CD, 
DK, (DS).</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>rnyog</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref><orth>rnyogs</orth><ref> 
(DS).</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary:
 </label><ref>(Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> 
[Abs. Obl.]<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative of: 
</label><orth>nyog</orth> 
<ref>[CD].</ref></causation><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To trouble, to stir 
up (Cs.) <ref>CD.</ref> To make dirty, to cause to get into bad habits 
<ref>DK.</ref> To make impure, unclear through the agitation of liquid 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>snyog</orth><sub>2</sub>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>rnyong</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>rnyong</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, 
DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>brnyongs</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, 
DK, DS.</ref><orth>brnyangs</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>brnyong</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, 
ND, DK, DS.</ref><orth>brnyang</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>rnyongs</orth> <ref>LZ, 
CD, DK, DS.</ref><orth>snyongs</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, CD, 
DS.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>rkang lag sogs</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>don gzhan dang 
mi 'khral tshe brnyang sogs rung ngo</orth><ref> LZ .</ref><orth>rkyong 
shad</orth><ref> ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To 
ensnare, to trap (Cs.). 2. To stretch out <ref>CD.</ref> To stretch one's legs, 
&amp;c. <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To understand, examine closely. 2. To stretch out 
(hand and feet) 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rnyong</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>rnyong</orth> <ref>DK, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>brnyangs</orth> <ref>DK, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>brnyang</orth> <ref>DK, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>rnyongs</orth> <ref>DK, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
discharge, loose motion, to loosen bowels <ref>DK.</ref> To stretch out, to 
set, to lay, to share 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>rnyob</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>rnyob</orth> <ref>ND, DK, TC.</ref><orth>rnyab</orth><ref> 
DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>brnyabs</orth> <ref>ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>brnyab</orth> <ref>ND, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>rnyobs</orth> 
<ref>ND, DK, DS.</ref> <dash> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>ND, DS.</ref><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>lag pas</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To reach out, to cause to 
touch <ref>DK.</ref>  To grasp with the hand <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To reach. 2. To 
take 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>snya</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>snya</orth> <ref>DS, TC.</ref></wrI><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>[DS], (Skorupski 
2001).</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> (for body or mind) To 
become dull, fatigued (an orthographic variant of <orth>rmya</orth>) 
<ref>DS.</ref> (archaic) To fall asleep, to faint 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>snyag</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>snyag</orth> <ref>CD, DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bsnyags</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>bsnyag</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>snyags</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> 
[Erg. Abs. ]<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
(colloquial for <orth>snyeg</orth>) To follow <ref>CD.</ref> To follow 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>snyad</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>bsnyad</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref> <orth>snyad</orth> <ref>CD, 
DS.</ref><orth>snyod</orth><ref> CD, ND, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bsnyad</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, 
DS, TC.</ref> <orth>brnyad</orth> 
<ref>[CD].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bsnyad</orth> 
<ref>LZ, CD, ND, DS, TC.</ref> <orth>brnyad</orth> 
<ref>[CD].</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>bsnyad</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref> <orth>snyod</orth> <ref>CD, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>CD, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Erg. Abs.]<ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>lo 
rgyus sogs</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>gtam sogs</orth> 
<ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To relate, to report, to 
tell, relate <ref>CD.</ref> (archaic) To explain, tell about <ref>DS.</ref> To 
tell narrate, describe relate 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>snyab</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>snyab</orth> <ref>CD.</ref></wrI><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To smack 
with the lips (Sch.) 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>snyam</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>snyam</orth> <ref>CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>snyam</orth> <ref>DK, [DS], TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>snyam</orth> <ref>DK, [DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>snyam</orth> <ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Abs. 
Obl.]<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
think, consider, imagine <ref>CD.</ref> To think, to suppose <ref>DK.</ref> 1. 
(when affixed to some verbs) To want to. 2. To have finished experiencing 
<ref>DS.</ref> To think, to wish, to want, to feel, to imagine, to wonder 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>snyal</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>snyald</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bsnyald</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>bsnyal</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>snyald</orth> <ref>DK.</ref></wrIV><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
To wash 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>snyig</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>snyig</orth> <ref>LZ, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bsnyigs</orth> <ref>LZ, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bsnyig</orth> <ref>LZ, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>snyigs</orth> 
<ref>LZ, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>lhung bzed sogs</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To pollute, to cause to be 
impure <ref>DK.</ref> To segregate to one side what is unclean within something 
<ref>DS.</ref> To discard, to set aside, to reject (as a sediment, scum or 
dregs) 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>snyigs</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>snyigs</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref> <orth>snyig</orth> 
<ref>DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>snyigs</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref> <orth>snyig</orth> 
<ref>[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>snyigs</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref> <orth>snyig</orth> 
<ref>[DS].</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>snyigs</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref></wrIV><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>dus dang sems can sogs</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To sink into deep water. 
2. To become bad, evil (e.g. the times). 3. To be left behind (e.g. a sheep) 
<ref>DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>snyil</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>snyil</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bsnyild</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, 
DK.</ref><orth>bsnyil</orth><ref> CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bsnyil</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, 
ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>snyild</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, DK.</ref><orth>snyil</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Causative of:</label> 
<orth>nyil</orth> <ref>(Gyurme 1992: 260), (Beyer 1992: 
116).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>tshogs pa'i nang nas phyir</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref><orth>phyir la</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To push, throw down, to 
break, destroy; to squander <ref>CD.</ref> To expel, to remove, take out by 
force, to tear, slash <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To overcome, destroy, bring down. 2. To 
drift down, to tumble
 down (e.g. snow). 3. To fall, cascade (e.g. rain, dirt) <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To 
destroy, to fragment, to crush. 2. To expel, to drive out 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>snyug</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>snyug</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bsnyugs</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bsnyug</orth> 
<ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>snyugs</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>mar sogs kyis</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>mar 
khu</orth><ref> ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To dip in, to 
immerse <ref>CD.</ref> To vomit, to anoint <ref>DK.</ref> (archaic) To apply 
oil, anoint <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To smear to apply. 2. To vomit. 3. To immerse, 
submerge, drop to the bottom <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> 
Compare 
<orth>smyug</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>snyung</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>snyung</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bsnyung</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bsnyung</orth> 
<ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>smyung</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><denominative><label>Denominative of: 
</label><orth>nyung</orth> 'few' <ref>(Gyurme 1992: 260), (Beyer 1992: 
116).</ref></denominative><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>yo byad sogs</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>yo byad snyung 
gnas</orth> <ref>ND<sub>A</sub>.</ref><orth>yo byad dang snyung 
gnas</orth><ref> ND<sub>B</sub>.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
To make less, reduce, to diminish, (acc. Sch.) to disparage <ref>CD.</ref> To 
cause to decrease, to reduce in number <ref>DK.</ref> (archaic) To reduce, make 
fewer <ref>DS.</ref> To reduce, to diminish 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>snyung</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>bsnyung</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref> <orth>snyung</orth> <ref>CD, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bsnyungs</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, 
ND, TC.</ref><orth>snyung</orth><ref> 
[DS].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bsnyung</orth> <ref>LZ, 
CD, ND, TC.</ref> <orth>snyung</orth><ref> 
[DS].</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>bsnyungs</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref><orth>snyungs</orth> <ref>[ND].</ref> <dash> <ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: </label><ref>TC, (Tournadre &amp; 
Dorje 2003: 300), (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax: </label>[Abs.] <ref>(Tournadre 
&amp; Dorje 2003: 300).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label> <orth>nad kyis sku sogs</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref> <orth>yo byad 
snyung gnas</orth> <ref>ND<sub>A</sub>.</ref><orth>yo byad dang snyung 
gnas</orth><ref> ND<sub>B</sub>.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 
To be ill, sick, indisposed <ref>CD.</ref> To be ill, sick <ref>DS.</ref> 
(honorific) To be ill <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Surely 
related to 
<orth>snyun</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>snyun</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>snyun</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bsnyund</orth> <ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref><orth>bsnyun</orth><ref> CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bsnyun</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>snyund</orth> 
<ref>LZ, DK.</ref><orth>snyun</orth><ref> DS.</ref> <dash> <ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>nad kyis</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be ill, to labor under a 
disease <ref>CD.</ref> To cause to become ill; to be ill <ref>DK.</ref> To be 
ill <ref>DS.</ref> (honorific) To be ill, to be sick, to be unwell 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Surely related to 
<orth>snyung</orth><sub>2</sub>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>snyul</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>snyul</orth> <ref>ND, DK.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bsnyuld</orth> <ref>ND, DK.</ref> <orth>bsnyul</orth> <ref>[CD 
archaic].</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bsnyul</orth> 
<ref>ND, DK.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>snyuld</orth> 
<ref>ND, DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>ND.</ref></volition><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>lag pa</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To be rubbed (&Ntilde;ag 
30). 2. To wash <ref>CD.</ref> 1. To cause to wander, to make to roam about. 2. 
To wash 
<ref>DK.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>snye</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>snye</orth> <ref>ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bsnyes</orth> <ref>ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bsnye</orth> <ref>ND, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>snyes</orth> 
<ref>ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, 
DS, TC, (Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>sngas la</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To lean on, lean against 
<ref>DK.</ref> To lean on, be supported by <ref>DS.</ref> To lean against, to 
rest against 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>snyeg</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>snyeg</orth> <ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bsnyegs</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bsnyeg</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>snyogs</orth> 
<ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, TD, LZ, CD, ND, DS.</ref><orth>snyegs</orth><ref> DK, 
(DS), TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>KY<sub>N</sub>, 
TD, CD, ND, DS, TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Erg. 
Abs. ]<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>gnas su</orth><ref> TD.</ref><orth>bu lon dang rjes 
sogs</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>rjes su</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. (with accusative) To 
hasten after, run after, pursue. 2. To overtake. 3. (with dative) To hasten (to 
some place). 4. To strive, struggle for, to aspire to <ref>CD.</ref> To follow 
<ref>DK.</ref> 1. To go somewhere with a specific goal. 2. To follow after. 3. 
To arrive at <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To pursue. 2. To reach, to scale. 3. To follow 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>snyeng</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>snyeng</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref><orth>snyengs</orth><ref> CD.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bsnyengs</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bsnyeng</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>snyeng</orth><ref> 
CD.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>snyengs</orth> <ref>LZ, 
ND, DK, DS.</ref> <dash> <ref> TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>ND, DS.</ref><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>sdug bsngal dang me mtshon sogs la</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref><orth>'jigs pa</orth> 
<ref>ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To fear, to be afraid of 
<ref>CD.</ref> To frighten, fear, cause to be afraid of <ref>DK.</ref> 
(archaic) To produce fear <ref>DS.</ref> To be afraid 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>snyeng</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>snyeng</orth> <ref>CD, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bsnyengs</orth> <ref>DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>bsnyeng</orth> <ref>DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>snyengs</orth> <ref>DS.</ref> <dash> <ref> 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To stretch 
<ref>CD.</ref> (archaic) To stretch <ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>snyen</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>bsnyen</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref> <orth>snyen</orth> <ref>CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bsnyend</orth> <ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref><orth>bsnyen</orth><ref> [CD[, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bsnyen</orth> <ref>LZ, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>bsnyend</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref><orth>snyend</orth> <ref>DK.</ref><orth>snyen</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary:
 </label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><denominative><label>Denominative of: 
</label><orth>nye</orth> 'near' <ref>(Gyurme 1992: 
260).</ref></denominative><example><label>Characteristic Example: 
</label><orth>nye ba dang lha sogs</orth> 
<ref>LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. (with dative) To 
come, go near, approach. 2. To gain, procure. 3. To propitiate, soothe, satisfy 
(e.g. a deity). 4. To accept, receive, admit <ref>CD.</ref> To cause to be 
close, near, to bring nearer <ref>DK.</ref> To bow in a place near to 
<ref>DS.</ref> To attend upon, to serve, to practice 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>snyems</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>snyems</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, TC.</ref><orth>snyem</orth><ref> ND, 
DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bsnyems</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bsnyem</orth> 
<ref>LZ, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>snyems</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, DK, DS.</ref> <dash> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, 
DS.</ref><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS.</ref><label>Intransitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>sgeg nyams kyi</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>don la mnga' 
nga rgyal</orth><ref>ND<sub>A</sub>.</ref><orth>don la mnga' dang brgyal</orth> 
<ref>ND<sub>B</sub>.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To be proud, 
arrogant, to boast <ref>CD.</ref> To cause to be haughty, self satisfied, to 
cause to be come proud <ref>DK.</ref> To demonstrate the characteristic of 
haughtiness, pride <ref>DS.</ref> To be proud, to be arrogant 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>snyer</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>snyer</orth> <ref>LZ, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bsnyerd</orth> <ref>LZ, DK.</ref><orth>bsnyer</orth><ref> [CD], DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bsnyer</orth> <ref>LZ, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>snyerd</orth> 
<ref>LZ, DK.</ref><orth>snyer</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><denominative><label>Denominative of: 
</label><orth>gnyer ma</orth> 
'wrinkle'.</denominative><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>khong khros pas ngo 'dzum</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To make grimaces, 
gesticulation <ref>CD.</ref> To cause to wrinkle, frown <ref>DK.</ref> To 
wrinkle <ref>DS.</ref> To frown, grimace, snarl 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>snyel</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>bsnyel</orth><ref> CD (archaic), TC.</ref><orth>snyel</orth> <ref>DK, 
DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bsnyeld</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref><orth>bsnyel</orth><ref> DS 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bsnyel</orth> <ref>DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>snyeld</orth> 
<ref>DK.</ref> <dash> <ref> DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Involuntary: 
</label><ref>DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> (honorific) To forget 
<ref>CD.</ref>To forget<ref> DK, 
DS.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>snyog</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>snyog</orth> <ref>DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bsnyags</orth> <ref>DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>bsnyag</orth> <ref>DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>snyogs</orth> <ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To collect payment 
<ref>DS.</ref> To pursue, to pester 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>snyog</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>snyog</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bsnyogs</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bsnyog</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>snyogs</orth> 
<ref>LZ, ND, DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, 
DS, TC, (Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Causative of: 
</label><orth>nyog</orth> <ref>(Gyurme 1992: 
260).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>zas 
sogs khar</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>kha</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To make impure, unclear 
through the agitation of liquid <ref>DS.</ref> To agitate, to stir, to churn, 
to disturb <ref>TC.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>rnyog</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>snyogs</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>snyogs</orth> <ref>CD.</ref></wrI><wrIII><label>Future:</label> 
<orth>bsnyog</orth> <ref>[CD].</ref></wrIII><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
wish earnestly, to crave for, to implore 
<ref>CD.</ref></trans><note><label>Note:</label> Compare 
<orth>brnyog</orth>.</note></entry><entry><headword><orth>snyod</orth><sub>1</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>snyod</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bsnyod</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, DK, 
DS, TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bsnyod</orth> <ref>LZ, 
ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>snyod</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>zas sogs</orth> <ref>LZ.</ref><orth>zas sogs 
khas</orth><ref> ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To feed, to 
give to eat and drink <ref>CD.</ref> To give food from mouth to mouth (as a 
mother feeds her baby); to give or feed <ref>DK.</ref> To give food to, feed 
(e.g. a young child) <ref>DS.</ref> To feed, to nourish, to spoon feed 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>snyod</orth><sub>2</sub></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>snyod</orth> <ref>CD, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bsnyod</orth> <ref>CD, TC.</ref><orth>bsnyos</orth><ref> 
CD.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bsnyod</orth> <ref>CD, 
TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>snyod</orth> 
<ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></transitivity><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To draw out 
and twist as in spinning (J&auml;) <ref>CD.</ref> To spin evenly, to twist 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>snyon</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>snyon</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bsnyond</orth> <ref>LZ, 
DK.</ref><orth>bsnyon</orth><ref> CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bsnyon</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>snyond</orth> 
<ref>LZ, DK.</ref><orth>snyon</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Erg. Abs.]<ref>(Hackett 
2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>tshig 
don sogs la</orth><ref> LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To 
deny, disavow (dishonestly) <ref>CD.</ref> To make a false charge, accuse 
without basis <ref>DK.</ref> To make (someone) obey a command, using force 
<ref>DS.</ref> To make a false statement, to dissimulate, to contradict 
deceitfully 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>snyob</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>snyob</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bsnyabs</orth> <ref>LZ, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref> <orth>bsnyobs</orth> 
<ref>CD.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bsnyab</orth> <ref>LZ, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>bsnyob</orth><ref> 
CD.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>snyobs</orth> <ref>LZ, 
CD, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>CD, DS, 
TC, (Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>me tog dang 'bu sogs</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To stretch forth. 2. To 
reach by stretching oneself out. 3. To arrive at <ref>CD.</ref> To reach out, 
to cause to touch <ref>DK.</ref> To take something with outstretched hand 
<ref>DS.</ref> To reach out for, to stretch out for 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>snyom</orth>(<orth>s</orth>)</headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>snyoms</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, DK.</ref><orth>snyom</orth><ref> ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bsnyams</orth>
 <ref>LZ, ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>bsnyoms</orth><ref> 
CD.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bsnyam</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref><orth>bsnyom</orth><ref> 
CD.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>snyoms</orth> <ref>LZ, 
ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, DS, 
TC, (Hoshi 2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Erg. 
Abs.]<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><causation><label>Causative of:</label> 
<orth>mnyam</orth> <ref>(Beyer 1992: 117 n. 
13).</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic Example:</label><orth>mtho 
dman sogs</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>che chung</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To make even, to level. 2. 
To equalize (different things), to arrange uniformly <ref>CD.</ref> To equalize 
<ref>DK.</ref> 1. To make what is uneven even, to plane. 2. To make of equal 
measure, equalize <ref>DS.</ref> To equalize, to regulate, to make even, to 
make level, to balance 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>snyor</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>snyor</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, DK, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>bsnyord</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, 
DK.</ref><orth>bsnyor</orth><ref> DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bsnyor</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, 
DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: </label><orth>snyor</orth> 
<ref>LZ, DS, TC.</ref><orth>snyord</orth><ref> ND, 
DK.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>gro nas sogs</orth><ref> LZ.</ref><orth>nas 
sogs</orth><ref> ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To knock 
down, destroy, pull down, beat <ref>DK.</ref> To take care of, protect, take 
charge of <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To hit, to strike. 2. To crush, to squeeze, to 
compress. 3. To care for, to tend, to nurse 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>snyol</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>snyol</orth> <ref>LZ. [CD], ND, DK, (DS). 
TC.</ref><orth>snyal</orth><ref> DS.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>bsnyald</orth> <ref>LZ, ND, DK.</ref><orth>bsnyal</orth><ref> CD, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>bsnyal</orth> <ref>LZ, CD, 
ND, DK, DS, TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>snyold</orth> <ref>LZ, DK.</ref><orth>snyald</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref><orth>snyol</orth><ref> LZ, ND, DS, 
TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: </label><ref>ND, DS, TC, (Hoshi 
2003).</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: </label><ref>DS, 
TC.</ref></transitivity><causation><label>Causative of: 
</label><orth>nyal</orth> 
<ref>[CD].</ref></causation><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>ru mtshon sogs</orth> <ref>(<orth>snyold</orth>) 
LZ.</ref><orth>lag pa sogs</orth> <ref>(<orth>snyald</orth>) 
LZ.</ref><orth>chanb phab sogs</orth> <ref>(<orth>snyol</orth>) 
LZ.</ref><orth>mal du</orth><ref> 
ND.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> 1. To lay anything down. 2. 
To bed a person, assign him to a couch, bed <ref>CD.</ref> 1. To put to bed. 2. 
To lay out for fermentation (e.g. to make beer, curd) <ref>DK.</ref> 1. To make 
sleep. 2. To process (meal, beer &amp;c) by adding a fermenting agent, and 
setting it in a warm place. 3. To bring down, throw down <ref>DS.</ref> 1. To 
ferment. 2. To lay down, to put to sleep. 3. To suppress, fell 
<ref>TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>brnyas</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>brnyas</orth> <ref>LZ, DS, TC.</ref><orth>rnya</orth><ref> DK, 
TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> <orth>brnyas</orth> <ref>LZ, DK, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>brnyas</orth> 
<ref>LZ, DK, [DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative: 
</label><orth>brnyas</orth> <ref>LZ. TC.</ref><orth>rnya</orth><ref> 
DK.</ref><orth>rnyos</orth> <ref>TC.</ref></wrIV><volition><label>Voluntary: 
</label><ref>TC.</ref></volition><transitivity><label>Transitive: 
</label><ref>DS, TC.</ref></transitivity><syntax><label>Syntax:</label> [Erg. 
Obl. ]<ref>(Hackett 2003).</ref></syntax><example><label>Characteristic 
Example:</label><orth>dman pa sogs la</orth><ref> 
LZ.</ref></example><trans><label>Meaning:</label> To insult, look down upon, 
disparage <ref>DK.</ref> To ridicule, belittle <ref>DS.</ref> To abuse, to 
harass, to mistreat <ref>(<orth>brnyas</orth>) TC.</ref> To bully 
<ref>(<orth>rnya</orth>) 
TC.</ref></trans></entry><entry><headword><orth>brnyes</orth></headword><wrI><label>Present:</label>
 <orth>brnyes</orth> <ref>LZ, DS, TC.</ref></wrI><wrII><label>Past:</label> 
<orth>brnyes</orth> <ref>LZ, [DS], 
TC.</ref></wrII><wrIII><label>Future:</label> <orth>brnyes</orth> <ref>LZ, 
[DS], TC.</ref></wrIII><wrIV><label>Imperative