On Saturday, July 19, 2014 11:24 PM, National Security Archive <archive@xxxxxxx> wrote: Soldiers, Spies and the Moon: Secret U.S. and Soviet Plans from the 1950s and 1960s Declassified Documents Reflect the Covert Side of Lunar Programs Posting Marks 45th Anniversary of First Human on the Moon National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 479 Posted July 20, 2014 Edited by Jeffrey T. Richelson For more information contact: 202/994-7000 or nsarchiv@xxxxxxx Washington, D.C., July 20, 2014 -- Forty-five years ago, astronaut Neil Armstrong took his "one small step" for mankind, becoming the first person to set foot on the moon. The program that resulted in that historic event -- managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) -- had been a very public one ever since its announcement by President John F. Kennedy in 1961. Even the Soviet government had publicized aspects of its own effort. But there were also highly secret elements to the U.S. and Soviet schemes, which are the subject of today's National Security Archive posting of previously classified records. The documents focus on three topics -- early U.S. military plans, including the possibility of conducting nuclear tests in space, the use of the moon to reflect signals for military or intelligence purposes, and U.S. intelligence analyses and estimates of Soviet missions and their intentions to land a man on the lunar surface. The posting includes: * Army and Air Force studies from 1959 - 1961 on the creation of a military lunar base, with possible uses as a surveillance platform (for targets on earth and space) and the Lunar Based Earth Bombardment System. * A study on the detonation of a nuclear device on or in the vicinity of the moon. * The use of the lunar surface to relay signals from Washington to Hawaii and from U.S. spy ships. * Collection of Soviet radar signals after they bounced off the moon -- a technique known as Moon Bounce ELINT. * The U.S. theft and return of a Soviet space capsule during an exhibition tour. * A 1965 estimate of Soviet intentions with regard to a manned moon landing. * Several analyses of Soviet Luna missions, including Luna 9 -- the first mission to result in a soft landing on the moon. Check out today's posting at the National Security Archive's website - http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB479/ Find us on Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/NSArchive Unredacted, the Archive blog - http://nsarchive.wordpress.com/ ________________________________________________________ THE NATIONAL SECURITY ARCHIVE is an independent non-governmental research institute and library located at The George Washington University in Washington, D.C. The Archive collects and publishes declassified documents acquired through the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). A tax-exempt public charity, the Archive receives no U.S. government funding; its budget is supported by publication royalties and donations from foundations and individuals. _________________________________________________________ PRIVACY NOTICE The National Security Archive does not and will never share the names or e-mail addresses of its subscribers with any other organization. Once a year, we will write you and ask for your financial support. We may also ask you for your ideas for Freedom of Information requests, documentation projects, or other issues that the Archive should take on. We would welcome your input, and any information you care to share with us about your special interests. But we do not sell or rent any information about subscribers to any other party.