Hi, The new braille code separates "by" from all other words, also "to" is separated. Since they are also separated in print, I don't think you should correct that. On my braille display, which is translating print text into grade two contracted braille, "to" and "by" are always separated from the following word. Did I understand your question right? - Jackie McCraw ----- Original Message ----- From: Jill O'Connell To: bksvol-discuss@xxxxxxxxxxxxx Sent: Monday, July 05, 2004 10:39 PM Subject: [bksvol-discuss] braille contractions I am validating a book in text format on the BrailleNote but reading in grade 2. What should I do when I see such words as "by" or "to" not attached to the following word? If I can't do anything to correct that now, won't it also show up in the final version (something I have seen quite often). Suggestions anyone?