## [bksvol-discuss] Fulcanelli Master Alchemist

• From: "E." <thoth93@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>
• To: bksvol-discuss@xxxxxxxxxxxxx
• Date: Thu, 31 Aug 2006 20:04:48 -0400

I forget who submitted this book. I forget who finally validated it. I know I did not in the end though I have a cleaned up copy here. First Gustavo kicked it back wanting copyright verified. Now its the name to be verified. Perhaps the submitter and validator may wish to speak.

```E.
At 03:33 AM 8/31/2006, you wrote:
```
`I googled and found the following:`

```http://www.isbn.org/standards/home/isbn/us/isbnqa.asp#Q5
Why do some ISBNs end in an "X"?
In the case of the check digit, the last digit of
the ISBN, the upper case X can appear. The method of
determining the check digit for the ISBN is the
modulus 11 with the weighting factors 10 to 1. The
Roman numeral X is used in lieu of 10 where ten would
occur as a check digit."```

```WWhat you may ask, is a check digit. (At least I
wanted to know.) I found a simple definition after a
while: The source below not only explains what a check
digit is, but discusses several different kinds
besides ISBN check digits.```

```http://www.augustana.ab.ca/~mohrj/algorithms/checkdigit.html
"Check Digit
A decimal (or alphanumeric) digit added to a
number for the purpose of detecting the sorts of
errors humans typically make on data entry.```

```When human beings use numbers - whether keying them
into computers, dialing them on telephones, or reading
them and telling them to others --- they tend to make
certain kinds of mistakes more often than others.
According to Richard Hamming (Coding and Information
Theory, 2e, Prentice-Hall, 1986, p. 27), the two most
common human errors are:```

```    * Interchanging adjacent digits of numbers:
67 becomes 76
* Doubling the wrong one of a triple of digits,
two adjacent ones of which are the same:
667 becomes 677"```

```A couple of sources explain how the ISBN  check digit
is arrived at. Jake and probably other mathematicians
would possibly understand it--it seems to have to do
with adding the digits in the ISBN number and dividing
by 11. Here's a URL if you want to read more about it.
(I'm more into words than numbers--I gave up quickly
on trying to solve even the easiest Siduko so I wona't
give the explanation here. You can look it up
yourself.) smile)

```or a fuller explanation of why and what the parts of
an ISBN number stand for, read this:```

```http://www.isbn.org/standards/home/isbn/us/isbnqa.asp
What is an ISBN?
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a
10-digit number that uniquely identifies books and
book-like products published internationally.```

```What is the purpose of an ISBN?
The purpose of the ISBN is to establish and
identify one title or edition of a title from one
specific publisher and is unique to that edition,
allowing for more efficient marketing of products by
booksellers, libraries, universities, wholesalers and
distributors.```

```What is the format of the ISBN?
Every ISBN consists of ten digits and whenever it
is printed it is preceded by the letters ISBN. The
ten-digit number is divided into four parts of
variable length, each part separated by a hyphen.```

```Does the ISBN have any meaning imbedded in the
numbers?
The four parts of an ISBN are as follows:
Group or country identifier which identifies a
national or geographic grouping of publishers;
Publisher identifier which identifies a particular
publisher within a group;
Title identifier which identifies a particular
title or edition of a title;
Check digit is the single digit at the end of the
ISBN which validates the ISBN."```

```"Does the ISBN have any meaning imbedded in the
numbers?
The four parts of an ISBN are as follows:
Group or country identifier which identifies a
national or geographic grouping of publishers;
Publisher identifier which identifies a particular
publisher within a group;
Title identifier which identifies a particular
title or edition of a title;
Check digit is the single digit at the end of the
ISBN which validates the ISBN."```

`--- Evan Reese <mentat1@xxxxxxxxxxxxxx> wrote:`

```> I have a book with an ISBN with an X at the end of
> it, such as:
> ISBN: 0-7564-0326-X
>
> I have encountered this before, but not often, and
> was wondering if anyone here knows what the X
> signifies.
>
>
> Thanks.
>```

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