[astronews] The IAAS Monthly Astronomy Newsletter

  • From: Burness Ansell <ki0ar@xxxxxxxxx>
  • To: Astronomy Newsletter <astronews@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>
  • Date: Sun, 29 May 2011 11:48:51 -0700 (PDT)

IAAS Monthly Astronomy Newsletter
June 2011

The International Association for Astronomical Studies provides this newsletter 
as a service for interested persons worldwide.

This newsletter is published on the World Wide Web at 
http://www.ki0ar.com/astro.html - The Home of KI0AR - and is received 
nationally and internationally. A PDF formatted downloadable version of the 
newsletter is at http://www.ki0ar.com/current_nl.pdf.

This newsletter is now available as an iTunes podcast. Visit 
http://www.apple.com, download and install iTunes (for either Mac or Windows). 
Search for "IAAS" and subscribe to the podcast. You may also go to 
http://www.ki0ar.com/astro.html and click on the Subscribe/RSS link. Update 
your iPod or mp3 player and listen to the newsletter at your leisure. Since 
this is a new feature, comments and constructive criticisms are greatly 

An Open Invitation - For amateur radio operators and scanner enthusiasts, when 
in the Denver metro area, please join the Colorado Astronomy Net on the Rocky 
Mountain Radio League's (http://rmrl.hamradios.com/) 146.94 MHz repeater on 
Tuesday nights at 7 P.M. local time.

Special Notice to Denver, CO area residents and visitors to the area: The 
Plains Conservation Center in Aurora hosts Full Moon Walks every month, weather 
permitting, on or near the night of the full Moon. Visit 
http://www.plainsconservationcenter.org for more information and directions.

Excerpts from JPL mission updates are provided as a public service as part of 
the JPL Solar System Ambassador / NASA Outreach program.

In This Newsletter...

* The Moon
* The Planets
* Astronomical Events
* Planetary/Lunar Exploration Missions
* Web Sites of Interest
* Acknowledgments and References
* Subscription Information

The Month At-A-Glance at http://www.ki0ar.com/ataglance.html
A calendar displaying the daily astronomical events.

The Moon

* New Moon occurs on the 1st.
* First Quarter Moon occurs on the 8th.
* Full Moon occurs on the 15th.
* Last Quarter Moon occurs on the 23rd.

* The Moon is at Perigee on the 11th, 228,161 miles from Earth.
* The Moon is at Apogee on the 24th, 251,203 miles from Earth.

Moon/Planet Pairs:
* The Moon passes 8° south of Saturn on the 10th.
* Venus passes 5° north of Aldebaran on the 18th.
* The Moon passes 6° north of Neptune on the 20th.
* The Moon passes 6° north of Uranus on the 23rd.
* The Moon passes 6° north of Jupiter on the 26th.
* The Moon passes 1.7° north of Mars on the 28th.
* Mercury passes 5° south of Pollux on the 28th.

For reference: The Full Moon subtends an angle of 0.5°.

The Planets & Dwarf Planets
Planetary Reports are generated by "TheSky" software. 
(http://www.ki0ar.com/planrpts.html) These reports provide predicted data for 
the planets on the first of each month for the current year. The rise and set 
times for the Sun and the Moon for each day of the month are also included in 
the reports. These reports have been optimized for the Denver, Colorado 
location, however, the times will be approximate for other locations on Earth.

(All times are local unless otherwise noted.)

* Planetary Highlights for June - This month is loaded with some special 
observing treats for the whole world. Saturn continues to provide excellent 
views for all observers in the evening sky. Neptune and Uranus appear in the 
early morning sky after midnight. Jupiter is next, rising a few hours before 
the Sun. Mars and Venus can be spotted in the early morning twilight just 
before sunrise. The Moon plays a dual role this month by first participating in 
a partial solar eclipse on the June 1st for parts of North America, Europe and 
Asia. Next, the Moon is eclipsed by Earth's shadow for a total lunar eclipse 
visible in Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia.

* Mercury - Is in superior conjunction on the 12th. Mercury returns to the 
evening sky late in the month. Mercury sets about 9:51 p.m. by the end of the 
month. Mercury moves from the constellation of Taurus into Cancer this month 
shining at magnitude -0.5.

* Venus - Rises at 4:33 a.m. on the 1st and about 4:41 a.m. by month's end. 
Venus shines brightly in the morning sky before sunrise. Venus moves from the 
constellation of Aries into Taurus this month shining at magnitude -3.8.

* Earth - The Summer Solstice occurs at 1:16 EDT on the 21st.

* Mars - Rises at 4:16 a.m. on the 1st and about 3:25 a.m. by month's end. 
Observers should have a better view of the red planet this month as it 
continues to rise earlier and is no longer lost in the morning twilight glow. 
Mars moves from the constellation of Aries into Taurus this month shining at 
magnitude 1.4.

* Jupiter - Rises at 3:35 a.m. on the 1st and about 1:52 a.m. by month's end. 
Jupiter dominates the early morning sky as it is the brightest object in the 
sky at this time. Jupiter moves from the constellation of Pisces into Aries 
this month shining at magnitude -2.2.

* Saturn - Is stationary on the 14th. Saturn rises at 3:05 p.m. on the 1st and 
about 1:08 p.m. by month's end. By the time the Sun sets, Saturn is quite 
prominent in the southwest. Saturn is in the constellation of Virgo shining at 
magnitude 0.8.

* Uranus - Rises at 2:31 a.m. on the 1st and about 12:31 a.m. by month's end. 
Uranus is in the constellation of Pisces shining at magnitude 5.9.

* Neptune - Is stationary on the 3rd. Neptune rises at 1:11 a.m. on the 1st and 
about 11:08 p.m. by month's end. Neptune is in the constellation of Aquarius 
shining at magnitude 7.9.

Dwarf Planets  
* Ceres - Rises at 2:50 a.m. on the 1st and about 1:14 a.m. by month's end. 
Ceres is in the constellation of Aquarius this month shining at magnitude 9.2.

* Pluto - Is at opposition (rising as the Sun sets) on the 28th. Pluto rises at 
9:49 p.m. on the 1st and about 7:48 p.m. by month's end. Pluto is in the 
constellation of Sagittarius shining at magnitude 14.0.

As always, good luck at spotting these two, a large telescope and dark skies 
will be needed.

Astronomical Events

Meteor Showers
* The Arietids Meteor Shower - This is the strongest daylight meteor shower of 
the year. The duration extends from May 22 to July 2, with maximum activity 
occurring on June 8. The hourly rate is near 60 at maximum.

* The June Lyrids - This shower is active during June 10 to 21, producing 
predominantly blue and white meteors at a maximum hourly rate of 8 per hour on 
June 15. The average magnitude of this shower is near 3, while 32% of the 
meteors leave trains.

* The Zeta Perseids - This daylight shower occurs during May 20 to July 5. 
Maximum occurs on June 13. Radar surveys have revealed the activity of this 
shower to be near 40 per hour.

* The June Boötids - This shower is currently active during June 27 to July 5 
and possesses a maximum of activity that falls on the 28th... The shower is 
notable in that its meteors are primarily faint, with an average magnitude near 
5; however, bright meteors do occur regularly.

* For more information about Meteor Showers, visit Gary Kronk's Meteor Showers 
Online web page at http://meteorshowersonline.com/.

* Comet C/2009 P1 Garradd continues to brighten as it makes its way to the 
north. Comet Garradd passes between Aquarius and Pisces heading northward 
shining at 9th magnitude this month. A 6 inch or larger telescope should be to 
resolve this fuzzy object in the early morning sky after midnight.

* For information, orbital elements and ephemerides on observable comets visit 
the Observable Comets page from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics 

* For more information about Comets, visit Gary Kronk's Cometography.com web 
page at http://cometography.com/.

* A partial solar eclipse occurs on the 1st. For observers in the far northern 
hemisphere, 20% to 60% of the Sun's surface will be covered by the Moon. 
Observers in Alaska, northern and eastern Canada, and Russia's northern coast 
should get a good view of this partial eclipse. Check out the path and times 
for this eclipse at 
http://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/OH/OH2011.html#SE2011Jun01P. ;

* A total lunar eclipse occurs on the 15th. Totality begins at 1922 Universal 
time. Those in Australia, most of Europe and eastern South America will see at 
least part of this eclipse. Totality lasts for about 100 minutes. Check out the 
path and times for this eclipse at 

Observational Opportunities
* The two eclipses this month a partial solar eclipse on the 1st and a lunar 
eclipse on the 15th, are always treats to observe, but may be difficult for a 
lot of observers to get to, so the best bet is to check out the internet.
* The early morning hour before sunrise during the first week of June will be a 
great time to get out and see Mars, Venus and Jupiter. With a good pair of 
binoculars, you can add Uranus and Neptune to the list.
* Saturn continues to provide excellent viewing opportunities in the evening 
sky after sunset.

Asteroids (From west to east)
* Hygiea is in the constellation of Libra.
* Ariadne is at opposition on the 27th in the constellation of Sagittarius.
* Luticia is in the constellation of Sagittarius.
* Vesta is in the constellation of Capricornus.
* Eunomia is in the constellation of Pisces.

* Information about the Minor Planets can be found at 
http://www.minorplanetobserver.com the Minor Planet Observer web site.

* Information on various occultations can be found at 
http://lunar-occultations.com/iota/iotandx.htm , the International Occultation 
Timing Association's (IOTA) web site.
Planetary/Lunar Exploration Missions
(Excerpts from recent mission updates)

* Cassini - May 19, 2011
Cassini and Telescope See Violent Saturn Storm

"PASADENA, Calif. -- NASA's Cassini spacecraft and a European Southern 
Observatory ground-based telescope tracked the growth of a giant early-spring 
storm in Saturn's northern hemisphere that is so powerful it stretches around 
the entire planet. The rare storm has been wreaking havoc for months and 
shooting plumes of gas high into the planet's atmosphere.

Cassini's radio and plasma wave science instrument first detected the large 
disturbance, and amateur astronomers tracked its emergence in December 2010. As 
it rapidly expanded, its core developed into a giant, powerful thunderstorm. 
The storm produced a 3,000-mile-wide (5,000-kilometer-wide) dark vortex, 
possibly similar to Jupiter's Great Red Spot, within the turbulent atmosphere.

The dramatic effects of the deep plumes disturbed areas high up in Saturn's 
usually stable stratosphere, generating regions of warm air that shone like 
bright "beacons" in the infrared. Details are published in this week's edition 
of Science Magazine.

"Nothing on Earth comes close to this powerful storm," says Leigh Fletcher, the 
study's lead author and a Cassini team scientist at the University of Oxford in 
the United Kingdom. "A storm like this is rare. This is only the sixth one to 
be recorded since 1876, and the last was way back in 1990."

This is the first major storm on Saturn observed by an orbiting spacecraft and 
studied at thermal infrared wavelengths, where Saturn's heat energy reveals 
atmospheric temperatures, winds and composition within the disturbance."

Cassini Imaging Team's website - http://ciclops.org.

For the latest mission status reports, visit 
http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/home/index.cfm. The speed and location of the 
spacecraft can be viewed on the "Present Position" web page.

* New Horizons - No new news since April 20, 2011
Wanted: Kuiper Belt Targets
New Horizons team launches search for post-Pluto flyby prospects

"The New Horizons team, working with astronomers using some of the largest 
telescopes on Earth, will begin searching this month for distant Kuiper Belt 
objects that the New Horizons spacecraft hopes to reconnoiter after completing 
its observations of the Pluto system in mid-2015. 

No spacecraft has ever visited the Kuiper Belt, a distant, donut-shaped region 
of the solar system filled with small planets and comets that formed early in 
the solar system's history.

Diagram of the Kuiper Belt, beyond the orbit of Neptune, more than 3 billion 
miles from the Sun. Pluto's orbit in the Kuiper Belt is shown in yellow; the 
trajectory of the New Horizons spacecraft is shown in red.

While the main target for NASA's New Horizons mission is Pluto and its three 
moons, New Horizons was built with post-Pluto Kuiper Belt object (KBO) flybys 
in mind."

New Horizons gallery http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/gallery/sciencePhotos/.

For more information on the New Horizons mission - the first mission to the 
ninth planet - visit the New Horizons home page: http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/.

* Dawn - May 10, 2011
NASA's Dawn Captures First Image of Nearing Asteroid

"PASADENA, Calif. -- NASA's Dawn spacecraft has obtained its first image of the 
giant asteroid Vesta, which will help fine-tune navigation during its approach. 
Dawn is expected to achieve orbit around Vesta on July 16, when the asteroid is 
about 188 million kilometers (117 million miles) from Earth.

The image from Dawn's framing cameras was taken on May 3 when the spacecraft 
began its approach and was approximately 1.21 million kilometers (752,000 
miles) from Vesta. The asteroid appears as a small, bright pearl against a 
background of stars. Vesta is also known as a protoplanet, because it is a 
large body that almost formed into a planet.

"After plying the seas of space for more than a billion miles, the Dawn team 
finally spotted its target," said Carol Raymond, Dawn's deputy principal 
investigator at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. "This 
first image hints of detailed portraits to come from Dawn's upcoming visit."

Vesta is 530 kilometers (330 miles) in diameter and the second most massive 
object in the asteroid belt. Ground- and space-based telescopes obtained images 
of the bright orb for about two centuries, but with little surface detail."

The layered structure of Vesta (core, mantle and crust) is the key trait that 
makes Vesta more like planets such as Earth, Venus and Mars than the other 
asteroids, McCord said. Like the planets, Vesta had sufficient radioactive 
material inside when it coalesced, releasing heat that melted rock and enabled 
lighter layers to float to the outside. Scientists call this process 

For more information on the Dawn mission, visit the Dawn home page: 

* MESSENGER - May 06, 2011
100 Orbits and Counting

"Later today [May 06, 2011], MESSENGER will begin its 100th orbit around 
Mercury. Since its insertion into orbit about the innermost planet on March 17, 
the spacecraft has executed nearly 2 million commands. 

The data gathered so far include more than 70 million magnetic field 
measurements, 300,000 visible and infrared spectra of the surface, 16,000 
images, and 12,000 X-ray and 9,000 gamma-ray spectra probing the elemental 
composition of Mercury’s uppermost crust.

“As the primary orbital phase of the MESSENGER mission unfolds, we are building 
up the first comprehensive view of the innermost planet,” states MESSENGER 
Principal Investigator Sean Solomon, of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. 
“The surface is unraveling before our eyes in great detail, and the planet’s 
topography and gravity and magnetic fields are being steadily filled in. As the 
Sun becomes increasingly active, Mercury’s extraordinarily dynamic exosphere 
and magnetosphere continue to display novel phenomena.”

MESSENGER continues its science-mapping phase in orbit around Mercury. All 
spacecraft systems remain safe and healthy, and all science instruments are on 
and continue to collect data according to the baseline observation plan."

For more information on the MESSENGER mission, visit the MESSENGER home page: 

* Pack Your Backpack
Calling all explorers! Tour JPL with our new Virtual Field Trip site. Stops 
include Mission Control and the Rover Lab. Your guided tour starts when you 
select a "face" that will be yours throughout the visit. Cool space images and 
souvenirs are all included in your visit.
+ http://virtualfieldtrip.jpl.nasa.gov/ ;
* Past, Present, Future and Proposed JPL Missions - 

* For special JPL programs and presentations in your area visit the JPL Solar 
System Ambassador web site at http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/ambassador/index.html.

Mars Missions

* Mars Odyssey Orbiter - No new news since December 15, 2010
NASA's Odyssey Spacecraft Sets Exploration Record on Mars

"PASADENA, Calif., -- NASA's Mars Odyssey, which launched in 2001, will break 
the record Wednesday for longest-serving spacecraft at the Red Planet. The 
probe begins its 3,340th day in Martian orbit at 5:55 p.m. PST (8:55 p.m. EST) 
on Wednesday to break the record set by NASA's Mars Global Surveyor, which 
orbited Mars from 1997 to 2006.

Odyssey's longevity enables continued science, including the monitoring of 
seasonal changes on Mars from year to year and the most detailed maps ever made 
of most of the planet. In 2002, the spacecraft detected hydrogen just below the 
surface throughout Mars' high-latitude regions. The deduction that the hydrogen 
is in frozen water prompted NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander mission, which confirmed 
the theory in 2008. Odyssey also carried the first experiment sent to Mars 
specifically to prepare for human missions, and found radiation levels around 
the planet from solar flares and cosmic rays are two to three times higher than 
around Earth."

Global Martian Map: http://www.mars.asu.edu/maps/?layer=thm_dayir_100m_v11.

"A simulated fly-through using the newly assembled imagery is available online 
at http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/mars/missions/odyssey/20060313.html.

The fly-through plus tools for wandering across and zooming into the large 
image are at http://themis.asu.edu/.";

Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) web site: 

The Odyssey data are available through a new online access system established 
by the Planetary Data System at: http://starbrite.jpl.nasa.gov/pds/ ;

Visit the Mars Odyssey Mission page at 

* Mars Exploration Rover Mission (Spirit and Opportunity) - May 25, 2011

SPIRIT UPDATE: Spirit Remains Silent at Troy - sols 2621-2627, May 18-24, 2011:

"No communication has been received from Spirit since Sol 2210 (March 22, 2010).

More than 1,300 commands were radiated to Spirit as part of the recovery effort 
in an attempt to elicit a response from the rover. No communication has been 
received from Spirit since Sol 2210 (March 22, 2010). The project concluded the 
Spirit recovery efforts on May 25, 2011. The remaining, pre-sequenced 
ultra-high frequency (UHF) relay passes scheduled for Spirit on board the 
Odyssey orbiter will complete on June 8, 2011.

Total odometry is unchanged at 7,730.50 meters (4.80 miles)."

OPPORTUNITY UPDATE: Opportunity Spies Outcrop Ahead - sols 2601-2607, May 
19-25, 2011:

"Opportunity continues the trek towards Endeavour crater with less than 3.5 
kilometers (2.17 miles) before the first landfall. The rover drove on three of 
the last seven sols.

Opportunity started with a challenge. On Sol 2601 (May 19, 2011), a long drive 
was cut short by a cosmic ray-induced single event upset (SEU) in the 
electronics of one of the motor control boards. The rover safely stopped after 
only 29 meters (95 feet) when the event occurred. The rover is okay and the 
electronics are fine. These events happen from time to time.

Opportunity picked up again on Sol 2603 (May 21, 2011), with a drive of nearly 
129 meters (423 feet) to the east/southeast. The science team has spied an 
outcrop ahead to perform some brief in situ (contact) science. Opportunity 
moved a modest 41 meters (135 feet) to the east/southeast as the approach to 
this outcrop. The plan is to briefly examine this outcrop before moving on.

As of Sol 2607 (May 25, 2011), solar array energy production was 408 watt-hours 
with an atmospheric opacity (Tau) of 0.827 and a solar array dust factor of 

Total odometry is 29,908.20 meters (29.91 kilometers, or 18.58 miles)."

Landing sites link - http://marsoweb.nas.nasa.gov/landingsites/ ;

Visit the Mars Exploration Rover page at

* Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission - No new news since April 21, 2011
NASA Orbiter Reveals Big Changes in Mars' Atmosphere

"PASADENA, Calif. -- NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has discovered the 
total amount of atmosphere on Mars changes dramatically as the tilt of the 
planet's axis varies. This process can affect the stability of liquid water, if 
it exists on the Martian surface, and increase the frequency and severity of 
Martian dust storms.

Researchers using the orbiter's ground-penetrating radar identified a large, 
buried deposit of frozen carbon dioxide, or dry ice, at the Red Planet's south 
pole. The scientists suspect that much of this carbon dioxide enters the 
planet's atmosphere and swells the atmosphere's mass when Mars' tilt increases. 
The findings are published in this week's issue of the journal Science.

The newly found deposit has a volume similar to Lake Superior's nearly 3,000 
cubic miles (about 12,000 cubic kilometers). The deposit holds up to 80 percent 
as much carbon dioxide as today's Martian atmosphere. Collapse pits caused by 
dry ice sublimation and other clues suggest the deposit is in a dissipating 
phase, adding gas to the atmosphere each year. Mars' atmosphere is about 95 
percent carbon dioxide, in contrast to Earth's much thicker atmosphere, which 
is less than .04 percent carbon dioxide."


All of the HiRISE images are archived here:

More information about the MRO mission is available online at 

* Mars Missions Status - New Mars missions are being planned to include several 
new rover and sample collection missions. Check out the Mars Missions web page: 
http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/missions/ and the Mars Exploration page: 

Links and Other Space News
(If you have a link you would like to recommend to our readers, please feel 
free to submit it.)

* Astronomy A-Go-Go - http://astronomy.libsyn.com/
In the car, at work or under the night time sky astronomy goes where you go! 
(This page has not been updated since September 2010)

* "TheSky" Software - http://www.bisque.com ;

* A Short Guide to Celestial Navigation - http://www.celnav.de/ ;

* Astrogirl Homepage - http://www.astrogirl.org ;

* Astronomical Lexicon - http://www.ki0ar.com/astrolex.html ;
Many of the astronomical terms used in this newsletter are defined here.

* Astronomy Picture of the Day - http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/astropix.html ;

* Black Hole Encyclopedia - http://blackholes.stardate.org/ Excellent site from 
StarDate - University of Texas McDonald Observatory 

* Celestron Telescopes - http://www.celestron.com/c2/index.php - New beta 

* Cloudbait Observatory, Guffey Colorado - http://www.cloudbait.com - Submit 
your fireball reports here. Interesting, knowledgeable site.

* The Constellations and Their Stars - 
http://www.astro.wisc.edu/~dolan/constellations/constellations.html ;
Good site for finding out more about the 88 constellations and their associated 

* Denver Astronomical Society - http://www.denverastrosociety.org ;

* Distant Suns - http://www.distantsuns.com/ ;
Desktop Astronomy package for PCs.

* Eric's Black Sun Eclipse website -
http://www.ericsblacksuneclipse.com ;

* Green Laser - http://www.greenlaser.com
If you're looking for a reasonably priced laser pointer that is great for 
astronomy work, visit this site.

* Groovy Adventures - http://www.groovyadventures.com ;
Unique adventures and vacations including astronomy related vacations.

* The International Dark-Sky Association - http://www.darksky.org
To preserve and protect the nighttime environment and our heritage of dark 

* JPL Solar System Ambassador Program -

* JPL Solar System - http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/solar_system/ ;

* Meade Advanced Products Users Group - http://www.mapug-astronomy.net/ - 
Mapug-Astronomy Topical Archive & information resource, containing a massive 
335 page archive of discussions about Meade equipment, and much more: 
observatories, observing lists, permanent piers, equatorial wedges, remote 
operations, software, eyepieces, etc.

* My Stars Live - http://www.mystarslive.com/ ;
Interactive Star Chart

* NASA Science News - http://science.nasa.gov/ ;

* Northern Colorado Astronomical Society - http://ncastro.org/ ;

* Sangre Stargazers - http://sangrestargazers.skymtn.com/ - New astronomy club 
in the Wet Mountain Valley of Custer County (about 45 miles due west of Pueblo, 

* Sky and Space - http://www.skyandspace.com.au/public/home.ehtml ;
Astronomy from Down Under - The Southern Hemisphere's first astronomy and space 

* Skymaps.com - http://www.skymaps.com/

* Skywatch Sightings from NASA - 
http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/realdata/sightings/ ;
This site gives you the best times to watch the ISS pass over or near your 

* Southern Colorado Astronomical Society - http://www.scasastronomy.info/

* Space.com - http://space.com ;
Interesting space and astronomy articles.

* Space.com - Sky Watch Calendar -
http://www.space.com/spacewatch/sky_calendar.html ;

* Spaceflight Now - http://spaceflightnow.com/ ;

* "SpaceRef.com" - http://www.spaceref.com/ - SpaceRef's 21 news and reference 
web sites are designed to allow both the novice and specialist alike to explore 
outer space and Earth observation.
This site includes links to planetary updates such as Mercury Today, Venus 
Today, Earth Today, Moon Today, Mars Today, Jupiter Today, Saturn Today, Pluto 
Today, etc.

* Stellarium - http://www.stellarium.org
Free, downloadable planetarium/astronomy software.

* Universe Today - http://www.universetoday.com

* Wikisky - http://www.wikisky.org
WIKISKY is a non-commercial project. The main purpose of WIKISKY is to 
consolidate astronomical, astrophysical and other information about different 
space objects and astrophysical facts.

Acknowledgments and References

Much of the information in this newsletter is from "Astronomy Magazine" 
(Kalmbach Publishing), JPL mission status reports, "Meteor Showers - A 
Descriptive Catalog" by Gary W. Kronk and other astronomical sources that I 
have stashed on my book shelves.

The author will accept any suggestions, constructive criticisms, and 
corrections. Please feel free to send me any new links or articles to share as 
well. I will try to accommodate any reasonable requests. Please feel free to 
send questions, comments, criticisms, or donations to the email address listed 
below. Enjoy!
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Keep looking UP!
73 from KI0AR

Created by Burness F. Ansell, III

COO, Director of Aerospace Technologies, IAAS
JPL Solar System Ambassador, Colorado
Last modified: May 29, 2011

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