[astronews] IAAS Monthly Astronomy Newsletter

  • From: Burness Ansell <ki0ar@xxxxxxxxx>
  • To: Astronomy Newsletter <astronews@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>
  • Date: Mon, 29 Jun 2009 19:34:10 -0700 (PDT)

IAAS Monthly Astronomy Newsletter
July 2009


The International Association for Astronomical Studies provides this newsletter 
as a service for interested persons worldwide.


This newsletter is published on the World Wide Web at 
http://www.ki0ar.com/astro.html - The Home of KI0AR - and is received 
nationally and internationally. An MS Word formatted downloadable version of 
the newsletter is at http://www.ki0ar.com/current_nl.doc.

This newsletter is now available as an iTunes podcast. Visit 
http://www.apple.com, download and install iTunes (for either Mac or Windows). 
Search for "IAAS" and subscribe to the podcast. You may also go to 
http://www.ki0ar.com/astro.html and click on the RSS link. Update your iPod or 
mp3 player and listen to the newsletter at your leisure. Since this is a new 
feature, comments and constructive criticisms are greatly appreciated.


An Open Invitation - For amateur radio operators and scanner enthusiasts, when 
in the Denver metro area, please join the Colorado Astronomy Net on the Rocky 
Mountain Radio League's (http://rmrl.hamradios.com/) 146.94 MHz repeater on 
Tuesday nights at 7 P.M. local time.


Special Notice to Denver, CO area residents and visitors to the area: The 
Plains Conservation Center in Aurora hosts Full Moon Walks every month, weather 
permitting, on or near the night of the full Moon. Visit 
http://www.plainsconservationcenter.org for more information and directions.


Excerpts from JPL mission updates are provided as a public service as part of 
the JPL Solar System Ambassador / NASA Outreach program.


In This Newsletter...

* The Moon
* The Planets
* Astronomical Events
* Planetary/Lunar Exploration Missions
* Web Sites of Interest
* Acknowledgments and References
* Subscription Information


The Month At-A-Glance at http://www.ki0ar.com/ataglance.html
A calendar displaying the daily astronomical events.


The Moon

* New Moon on the 21st.
* First Quarter Moon on the 28th.
* Full Moon on the 7th.
* Last Quarter Moon on the 15th.

* Apogee on the 7th, 252,421 miles from Earth.
* Perigee on the 21st, 222,117 miles from Earth.

Moon/Planet Pairs:
* The Moon passes 0.5° north of Antares on the 4th.
* The Moon passes 4° north of Jupiter on the 10th.
* The Moon passes 3° north of Neptune on the 10th.
* The Moon passes 6° north of Uranus on the 13th.
* Jupiter passes 0.6° south of Neptune on the 13th.
* Venus passes 2° north of Aldebaran on the 14th.
* The Moon passes 5° north of Mars on the 18th.
* The Moon passes 6° north of Venus on the 19th.
* The Moon passes 7° south of Saturn on the 25th.
* Mars passes 5° north of Aldebaran on the 27th.
* The Moon passes 0.5° north of Antares on the 31st.


The Planets & Dwarf Planets
Planetary Reports are generated by "TheSky" software. 
(http://www.ki0ar.com/planrpts.html) These reports provide predicted data for 
the planets on the first of each month for the current year. The rise and set 
times for the Sun and the Moon for each day of the month are also included in 
the reports. These reports have been optimized for the Denver, Colorado 
location, however, the times will be approximate for other locations on Earth.

(All times are local unless otherwise noted.)

* Planetary Highlights for June - Mercury makes a brief appearance in the 
morning sky early in the month and then disappears. For the early risers, there 
are five planets to observe in the early morning hours before sunrise (In order 
of appearance): Jupiter, Neptune, Uranus, Mars and Venus (Jupiter and Neptune 
rise before midnight but are best seen in the morning). For evening viewers, 
Saturn and Ceres are low in the southwest soon after the Sun sets. A penumbral 
lunar eclipse occurs on the 7th and a total solar eclipse occurs over eastern 
Asia on the 22nd.

* Mercury - Is in superior conjunction with the Sun on the 13th. Look for 
Mercury during the first few days of July low in the southeast rising about a 
half hour before before sunrise. Mercury will not be visible for the rest of 
this month and will return to the evening sky in August. Mercury shines at 
magnitude -1.0.

* Venus - Rises at 2:57 a.m. on the 1st and about 2:59 a.m. by month's end. 
Venus is in the constellation of Taurus this month shining at magnitude -4.1.

* Earth - Is at aphelion (94.5 million miles from the Sun) on the 3rd.

* Mars - Rises at 2:37 a.m. on the 1st and about 1:47 a.m. by month's end. Look 
for Mars in the southeast before sunrise. Mars is in the constellation of 
Taurus this month shining at magnitude 1.1.

* Jupiter - Rises at 10:58 p.m. on the 1st and about 8:49 p.m. by month's end. 
Jupiter has returned to the evening sky this month. Jupiter is best viewed 
around midnight or afterwards once the planet has climbed well above the 
eastern horizon. Jupiter is in the constellation of Capricornus shining at 
magnitude -2.8.

* Saturn - Sets at 11:59 p.m. on the 1st and about 10:03 p.m. by month's end. 
Saturn is well positioned for evening viewing by the time the Sun sets. Saturn 
is visible in the early evening this month. Look for Saturn in the west soon 
after sunset. Saturn is in the constellation of Leo shining at magnitude 1.1.

* Uranus - Is stationary on the 1st. Uranus rises at 12:11 a.m. on the 1st and 
about 10:03 a.m. by month's end. Uranus has returned to the evening sky this 
month but is still best viewed after midnight. Uranus is in the constellation 
of Pisces shining at magnitude 5.8.

* Neptune - Rises at 10:54 p.m. on the 1st and about 8:50 p.m. by month's end. 
Like Jupiter, Neptune is best observed in the early morning hours before 
sunrise. Neptune is in the constellation of Capricornus shining at magnitude 

Dwarf Planets  
* Ceres - Sets at 11:36 p.m. on the 1st and about 9:55 p.m. by month’s end. 
Ceres moves from the constellation of Leo into Virgo this month shining at 
magnitude 8.8. 

* Pluto - Sets at 5:29 a.m. on the 1st and about 3:24 a.m. by month's end. 
Pluto is visible almost all evening long. Pluto is in the constellation of 
Sagittarius shining at magnitude 13.9.

Good luck at spotting these two, a large telescope and dark skies will be 


Astronomical Events

Meteor Showers
* The Southern Delta Aquarids - This meteor shower has a duration of July 14 - 
August 18. Maximum hourly rates of 15-20 occur on July 27.

* The Northern Delta Aquarids extends from July 16 to September 10. Maximum 
occurs on August 13. The hourly rates reach a high of 10.

* For more information about Meteor Showers, visit Gary Kronk's Meteor Showers 
Online web page at http://meteorshowersonline.com/.

* Comet 22P/Kopff is in the constellation of Aquarius this month. Comet Kopff 
shines at magnitude 8. Comet Kopff lies relatively near Jupiter and is best 
viewed after midnight.

* Comet C/2006 W3 (Christensen) may also be visible this month in the 
southeastern part of the constellation of Cygnus if solar radiation increases 
enough to cause the nucleus to glow.

* For information, orbital elements and ephemerides on observable comets visit 
the Observable Comets page from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics 

* For more information about Comets, visit Gary Kronk's Cometography.com web 
page at http://cometography.com/.

* A penumbral lunar eclipse occurs on the morning of the 7th during the full 
Moon; however, the slight dimming may be imperceptible.

* "The longest total solar eclipse of the century occurs July 22. The eclipse 
begins at sunrise in India, and from there the Moon's shadow zips across 
eastern Asia. The track crosses China for much of the morning before leaving 
the mainland near Shanghai.

Observers just south of this city will experience nearly 6 minutes of totality. 
The track then moves out over the Pacific Ocean. Maximum eclipse occurs about 
195 miles east of Iwo Jima, where observers will see the Sun disappear for 6 
minutes and 39 seconds. For more details, see "Get ready for the great Asian 
eclipse" on page 56." Astronomy Magazine, July 2009, p. 43.

* Information on various occultations can be found at 
http://lunar-occultations.com/iota/iotandx.htm , the International Occultation 
Timing Association's (IOTA) web site.

Asteroids (From west to east)
* Iris is at opposition on the 4th in the constellation of Sagittarius.
* Psyche is in the constellation of Capricornus.
* Juno is in the constellation of Pisces.
* Melpomene is in the constellation of Pisces.

* Information about the Minor Planets can be found at 
http://www.minorplanetobserver.com the Minor Planet Observer web site.


Planetary/Lunar Exploration Missions
(Excerpts from recent mission updates)

* Cassini - June 24, 2009
Salt Finding From NASA's Cassini Hints at Ocean Within Saturn Moon

"PASADENA, Calif. -- For the first time, scientists working on NASA's Cassini 
mission have detected sodium salts in ice grains of Saturn's outermost ring. 
Detecting salty ice indicates that Saturn's moon Enceladus, which primarily 
replenishes the ring with material from discharging jets, could harbor a 
reservoir of liquid water -- perhaps an ocean -- beneath its surface.

Cassini discovered the water-ice jets in 2005 on Enceladus. These jets expel 
tiny ice grains and vapor, some of which escape the moon's gravity and form 
Saturn's outermost ring. Cassini's cosmic dust analyzer has examined the 
composition of those grains and found salt within them.

"We believe that the salty minerals deep inside Enceladus washed out from rock 
at the bottom of a liquid layer," said Frank Postberg, Cassini scientist for 
the cosmic dust analyzer at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in 
Heidelberg, Germany. Postberg is lead author of a study that appears in the 
June 25 issue of the journal Nature."

Cassini Imaging Team's website - http://ciclops.org.

For the latest mission status reports, visit 
http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/home/index.cfm. The speed and location of the 
spacecraft can be viewed on the "Present Position" web page.

* New Horizons - No new news since May 20, 2009
The PI’s Perspective: Ever Plan Ahead? How About Six Years Ahead?

"Things are going well out in the cold space between Saturn and Uranus where 
New Horizons is now. We're deep in planning for our spacecraft's annual 
checkout this summer, which begins on July 7. But that's not what I want to 
write about today: instead, it's something called EPDR.

Despite still being more than six years and just over 18 astronomical units 
from the Pluto system, the New Horizons project team is conducting the second 
and final portion of our Pluto Encounter Preliminary Design Review (EPDR) today 
and tomorrow (May 20-21) at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics 
Laboratory (APL) in Laurel, Md.

We conducted the first portion of the EPDR on January 7-8. EPDR part two is 
another two-day confab, in which the New Horizons technical and management 
teams will present the detailed, minute-by-minute timeline of our planned 2015 
Pluto encounter to a review team of expert planetary planners from across the 
nation. EPDR represents the culmination of almost two years of intense 
encounter planning involving the entire New Horizons science and mission team, 
and the stakes are high - this is the main technical review of what will take 
place when we conduct the first exploration of Pluto and its satellites."

New Horizons gallery http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/gallery/sciencePhotos/.

For more information on the New Horizons mission - the first mission to the 
ninth planet - visit the New Horizons home page: http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/.

* Dawn - June 08, 2009
Dawn Re-Lights the Ionic Fire

"Mission controllers at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., 
have received a transmission from the Dawn spacecraft confirming it has 
re-ignited its ion propulsion system. For those of you scoring at home, 
Thruster # 1 received the honors. Over the course of its eight-year mission, 
first to asteroid Vesta and then off to dwarf planet Ceres, Dawn's three ion 
engines will accumulate 2,000 days of operation."

For more information on the Dawn mission, visit the Dawn home page: 

* MESSENGER - June 26, 2009
Three New Co-Investigators Added to MESSENGER Team

"Brian Anderson, Louise Prockter, and Thomas Zurbuchen have been appointed 
MESSENGER Co-Investigators by NASA Science Mission Directorate Associate 
Administrator Edward Weiler.

“Each of these individuals has served admirably as MESSENGER Instrument 
Scientists, and each has led an important aspect of the analysis and 
interpretation of MESSENGER observations from the first two Mercury flybys,” 
notes MESSENGER Principal Investigator Sean Solomon.

As a MESSENGER Deputy Project Scientist, Anderson, of the Johns Hopkins 
University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), oversees the orbital operations 
planning to ensure that observations from all of the instruments are 
coordinated to meet the mission objectives. He formerly served as the 
Magnotometer Instrument Scientist. In his additional role as Co-Investigator, 
Anderson will provide scientific direction to the operation of the Magnetometer 
instrument in orbit, including in-flight calibration, data validation, science 
product generation, and coordination with the operation of and data returned 
from other instruments closely related to investigation of Mercury's magnetic 
field. In addition, he will lead aspects of the science analysis of data from 
the Magnetometer and other instruments in understanding Mercury's internal 
magnetic field and magnetosphere, particularly efforts to identify and quantify 
the magnetospheric contributions to the observations so
 as to recover the structure of Mercury's internal magnetic field to the 
highest fidelity possible.

Prockter, also of APL, serves as the Instrument Scientist for the Mercury Dual 
Imaging System (MDIS). In her new role as Co-Investigator, she will provide 
scientific direction to the operation of MDIS in Mercury orbit, including 
instrument calibration, data validation, science product generation, and 
coordination with the operation of and data returned from other instruments 
related to observations of Mercury's surface. In addition, she will lead 
aspects of the science analysis of MDIS observations to improve our 
understanding of the geological evolution of Mercury, particularly the study of 
impact melting during the formation of large craters and basins on Mercury and 
the contribution of impact melts to smooth plains deposits.

Zurbuchen, of the University of Michigan, is the Instrument Scientist for the 
Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer. As a Co-Investigator, he will 
provide scientific direction to the operation of the Fast Imaging Plasma 
Spectrometer (FIPS) sensor in orbit, including calibration, data validation, 
science product generation, and coordination with the operation of and data 
returned from other instruments sensitive to the exosphere and magnetosphere. 
He will also lead aspects of the science analysis of data from FIPS and other 
instruments in understanding Mercury's charged particle environment, 
particularly the analysis of the distribution of plasma ions in Mercury's 
vicinity and the implications of their energies and compositions for 
magnetosphere-solar wind interaction at Mercury."

For more information on the MESSENGER mission, visit the MESSENGER home page: 

* Pack Your Backpack
Calling all explorers! Tour JPL with our new Virtual Field Trip site. Stops 
include Mission Control and the Rover Lab. Your guided tour starts when you 
select a "face" that will be yours throughout the visit. Cool space images and 
souvenirs are all included in your visit.
+ http://virtualfieldtrip.jpl.nasa.gov/ ;
* Past, Present, Future and Proposed JPL Missions - 

* For special JPL programs and presentations in your area visit the JPL Solar 
System Ambassador web site at http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/ambassador/index.html.

Mars Missions

* Mars Odyssey Orbiter - June 22, 2009
NASA'S Mars Odyssey Alters Orbit to Study Warmer Ground

"PASADENA, Calif. - NASA's long-lived Mars Odyssey spacecraft has completed an 
eight-month adjustment of its orbit, positioning itself to look down at the day 
side of the planet in mid-afternoon instead of late afternoon. 

This change gains sensitivity for infrared mapping of Martian minerals by the 
orbiter's Thermal Emission Imaging System camera. Orbit design for Odyssey's 
first seven years of observing Mars used a compromise between what worked best 
for the infrared mapping and for another onboard instrument.

"The orbiter is now overhead at about 3:45 in the afternoon instead of 5 p.m., 
so the ground is warmer and there is more thermal energy for the camera's 
infrared sensors to detect," said Jeffrey Plaut of NASA's Jet Propulsion 
Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., project scientist for Mars Odyssey."

"A simulated fly-through using the newly assembled imagery is available online 
at http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/mars/missions/odyssey/20060313.html.

The fly-through plus tools for wandering across and zooming into the large 
image are at http://themis.asu.edu/.";

Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) web site: 

The Odyssey data are available through a new online access system established 
by the Planetary Data System at: http://starbrite.jpl.nasa.gov/pds/ ;

Visit the Mars Odyssey Mission page at 

* Mars Exploration Rover Mission (Spirit and Opportunity) - June 24, 2009

SPIRIT UPDATE: Studying Troy - sols 1941-1947, June 18-24, 2009:

"Spirit is continuing her ambitious remote sensing and in-situ (contact) 
science observations at the location called "Troy" on the west side of Home 

Using the rover robotic arm (instrument deployment device, IDD), the rover has 
been exploring a set of surface targets that hold clues to the past geologic 
history at this location.
On Sol 1941 (June 18, 2009), a Microscopic Imager (MI) stack of images was 
collected on target Penina3, then the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) 
was placed for an overnight integration. On the next sol, the Mössbauer 
Spectrometer (MB) was placed on a different target for a multi-sol integration. 
The next few sols included some late-day activities where the rover imaged the 
Earth and Venus in the night sky.
On Sols 1945 and 1946 (June 22 and 23, 2009), Spirit investigated another set 
of surface targets, again with MI stacks and APXS overnight integrations. On 
Sol 1946 (June 23, 2009), another solar array dust cleaning event occurred, 
increasing the available energy each sol even more.
At JPL, a special test form has been installed for ground testing with the 
surface system testbed (SSTB) rover to guide the eventual extraction activities 
on Mars for Spirit. The materials for the soil simulant to be used in the test 
form have been delivered and are in the process of being formulated and mixed. 
As of Sol 1947 (June 24, 2009), solar array energy production increased to 945 
watt-hours with atmospheric opacity (tau) of 0.480 and an improved dust factor 
of 0.834. Total odometry remains at 7,729.93 meters (4.80 miles)."

OPPORTUNITY UPDATE: Moving to Outcrop - sols 1920-1926, June 18-24, 2009:

"Opportunity has been moving toward a candidate patch of rock outcrop in 
preparation for a rest of the mobility system over the coming holiday. There 
continues to be concern with the elevated motor currents seen in the right 
front wheel.

On Sol 1920 (June 18, 2009), Opportunity drove backwards about 63 meters (207 
feet) south. The right front wheel currents were elevated but were not 
divergently increasing. After a few sols, Opportunity drove another 7 meters 
(23 feet) to a nearby outcrop.
Robotic arm activities on surface targets with the microscopic image (MI) and 
the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) were performed on Sols 1924 and 
1925 (June 22 and 23, 2009).
Further drives are planned to reach a large region of rock outcrop. Also, the 
week saw further implementation of the miniature thermal emission spectrometer 
(Mini-TES) mirror dust mitigation. The Mini-TES shroud is left open overnight 
to see if the environment will clean the elevation mirror.
As of Sol 1924 (June 22, 2009), the solar array energy production was 450 
watt-hours with an atmospheric opacity (tau) of 0.480 and a dust factor of 
0.530, indicating that 53 percent of sunlight hitting the solar array 
penetrates the layer of accumulated dust on the array. As of Sol 1926 (June 24, 
2009), Opportunity's total odometry remains at 16,639.71 meters (10.3 miles)."

Landing sites link - http://marsoweb.nas.nasa.gov/landingsites/ ;

Visit the Mars Exploration Rover page at

* Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission - June 04, 2009
Mars Orbiter Resumes Science Observations

Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission Status Report 

"PASADENA, Calif. -- NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is examining Mars again 
with its scientific instruments after successfully transitioning out of a 
precautionary standby mode triggered by an unexpected June 3 rebooting of its 

Engineers brought the spacecraft out of the standby mode on June 6. Cameras and 
other scientific instruments resumed operation June 9. 

The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter reached Mars in 2006 and has returned more data 
about the planet than all other Mars missions combined. 

The June 3 rebooting resembled a Feb. 23 event on the spacecraft. Engineers are 
re-investigating possible root causes for both events. The new investigation 
includes reconsidering the likelihood of erroneous voltage readings resulting 
from cosmic rays or solar particles hitting an electronic component."


All of the HiRISE images are archived here:

More information about the MRO mission is available online at 

* Mars Missions Status - New Mars missions are being planned to include several 
new rover and sample collection missions. Check out the Mars Missions web page: 
http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/missions/ and the Mars Exploration page: 


Links and Other Space News
(If you have a link you would like to recommend to our readers, please feel 
free to submit it.)

* "TheSky" Software - http://www.bisque.com ;

* A Short Guide to Celestial Navigation - http://www.celnav.de/ ;

* Astrogirl Homepage - http://www.astrogirl.org ;

* Astronomical Lexicon - http://www.ki0ar.com/astrolex.html ;
Many of the astronomical terms used in this newsletter are defined here.

* Astronomy Picture of the Day - http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/astropix.html ;

* Celestron Telescopes - http://www.celestron.com/c2/index.php - New beta 

* Cloudbait Observatory, Guffey Colorado - http://www.cloudbait.com - Submit 
your fireball reports here. Interesting, knowledgeable site.

* The Constellations and Their Stars - 
http://www.astro.wisc.edu/~dolan/constellations/constellations.html ;
Good site for finding out more about the 88 constellations and their associated 

* Denver Astronomical Society - http://www.denverastrosociety.org ;

* Distant Suns - http://www.distantsuns.com/ ;
Desktop Astronomy package for PCs.

* Eric's Black Sun Eclipse website -
http://www.ericsblacksuneclipse.com ;

* Groovy Adventures - http://www.groovyadventures.com ;
Unique adventures and vacations including astronomy related vacations.

* The International Dark-Sky Association - http://www.darksky.org
To preserve and protect the nighttime environment and our heritage of dark 

* JPL Solar System Ambassador Program -

* JPL Solar System - http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/solar_system/ ;

* Meade Advanced Products Users Group - http://www.mapug-astronomy.net/ - 
Mapug-Astronomy Topical Archive & information resource, containing a massive 
335 page archive of discussions about Meade equipment, and much more: 
observatories, observing lists, permanent piers, equatorial wedges, remote 
operations, software, eyepieces, etc.

* My Stars Live - http://www.mystarslive.com/ ;
Interactive Star Chart

* NASA Science News - http://science.nasa.gov/ ;

* Northern Colorado Astronomical Society - http://ncastro.org/ ;

* Sangre Stargazers - http://sangrestargazers.skymtn.com/ - New astronomy club 
in the Wet Mountain Valley of Custer County (about 45 miles due west of Pueblo, 

* Sky and Space - http://www.skyandspace.com.au/public/home.ehtml ;
Astronomy from Down Under - The Southern Hemisphere's first astronomy and space 

* Skywatch Sightings from NASA - 
http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/realdata/sightings/ ;
This site gives you the best times to watch the ISS pass over or near your 

* Southern Colorado Astronomical Society - http://www.scasastronomy.info/

* Space.com - http://space.com ;
Interesting space and astronomy articles.

* Space.com - Sky Watch Calendar -
http://www.space.com/spacewatch/sky_calendar.html ;

* Spaceflight Now - http://spaceflightnow.com/ ;

* "SpaceRef.com" - http://www.spaceref.com/ - SpaceRef's 21 news and reference 
web sites are designed to allow both the novice and specialist alike to explore 
outer space and Earth observation.
This site includes links to planetary updates such as Mercury Today, Venus 
Today, Earth Today, Moon Today, Mars Today, Jupiter Today, Saturn Today, Pluto 
Today, etc.

* Stellarium - http://www.stellarium.org
Free, downloadable planetarium/astronomy software.

* Universe Today - http://www.universetoday.com

* Wikisky - http://www.wikisky.org
WIKISKY is a non-commercial project. The main purpose of WIKISKY is to 
consolidate astronomical, astrophysical and other information about different 
space objects and astrophysical facts.


Acknowledgments and References

Much of the information in this newsletter is from "Astronomy Magazine" 
(Kalmbach Publishing), JPL mission status reports,  "Meteor Showers - A 
Descriptive Catalog" by Gary W. Kronk and other astronomical sources that I 
have stashed on my book shelves.

The author will accept any suggestions, constructive criticisms, and 
corrections. Please feel free to send me any new links or articles to share as 
well. I will try to accommodate any reasonable requests. Please feel free to 
send questions, comments, criticisms, or donations to the email address listed 
below. Enjoy!


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Keep looking UP!
73 from KI0AR

Created by Burness F. Ansell, III

COO, Director of Aerospace Technologies, IAAS
JPL Solar System Ambassador, Colorado
Last modified: June 28, 2009


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