[astronews] IAAS Monthly Astronomy Newsletter

  • From: Burness Ansell <ki0ar@xxxxxxxxx>
  • To: Astronomy Newsletter <astronews@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>
  • Date: Sun, 30 Nov 2008 15:30:26 -0800 (PST)

IAAS Monthly Astronomy Newsletter
December 2008


The International Association for Astronomical Studies provides this newsletter 
as a service for interested persons in the Denver Metro area. The astronomical 
data presented here is not only useful in Colorado but in other parts of the 
world as well.


This newsletter is published on the World Wide Web at 
http://www.ki0ar.com/astro.html - The Home of KI0AR - and is received 
nationally and internationally. An MS Word formatted downloadable version of 
the newsletter is at http://www.ki0ar.com/current_nl.doc.


An Open Invitation - For amateur radio and scanner enthusiasts, when in the 
Denver metro area, please join the Colorado Astronomy Net on the Rocky Mountain 
Radio League (http://rmrl.hamradios.com/ ) repeater on a frequency of 146.94 
MHz on Tuesday nights at 7 P.M. local time.


Special Notice to Denver, CO area residents and visitors to the area: The 
Plains Conservation Center in Aurora hosts Full Moon Walks every month weather 
permitting on or near the night of the full Moon. Visit 
http://www.plainsconservationcenter.org for more information and directions.


Excerpts from JPL mission updates are provided as a public service as part of 
the JPL Solar System Ambassador / NASA Outreach program.


In This Newsletter...

* The Moon
* The Planets
* Astronomical Events
* Planetary/Lunar Exploration Missions
* Web Sites of Interest
* Acknowledgments and References
* Subscription Information


The Month At-A-Glance at http://www.ki0ar.com/ataglance.html
A calendar displaying the daily astronomical events.


The Moon

* New Moon on the 27th.
* First Quarter Moon on the 5th.
* Full Moon on the 12th.
* Last Quarter Moon on the 19th.

* Perigee on the 12th, 221,560 mi. from Earth.
* Apogee on the 26th, 252,650 mi. from Earth.

Moon/Planet Pairs:
* The Moon passes 1.3 deg. south of Jupiter on the 1st.
* The Moon passes 0.8 deg. north of Venus on the 1st.
* The Moon passes 1.4 deg. north of Neptune on the 3rd.
* The Moon passes 4 deg. north of Uranus on the 6th.
* The Moon passes 6 deg. south of Saturn on the 18th.
* The Moon passes 0.09 deg. north of Antares on the 25th.
* Venus passes 1.5 deg. south of Neptune on the 26th.
* The Moon passes 0.7 deg. north of Mercury on the 28th.
* The Moon passes 0.6 deg. south of Jupiter on the 29th.
* Venus passes 2 deg. south of Jupiter on the 30th.
* Mercury passes 1.3 deg. south of Jupiter on the 31st.
* The Moon passes 1.7 deg. north of Neptune on the 31st.
* The Moon passes 3 deg. north of Venus on the 31st.


The Planets & Dwarf Planets
Planetary Reports generated by "TheSky" software. 
(http://www.ki0ar.com/planrpts.html ) These reports provide predicted data for 
the planets for the first of each month for the current year. The rise and set 
times for the Sun and the Moon for each day of the month are also included in 
the reports.
(All times are local unless otherwise noted.)

* Planetary Highlights for December - This month opens up with Jupiter, Venus 
and the Moon meeting in a magnificent conjunction on the 1st. Look southwest 
right after sunset. Venus meets Neptune on the 26th of the month and December 
closes with Jupiter in conjunction with Mercury on the 29th.

* Mercury - Returns to the evening sky late in the month. Look for Mercury 
after mid-month low in the west after sunset. Mercury sets about 6:13 p.m. by 
month's end shining at magnitude -0.7.

* Venus - Can be found low in the southwest soon after sunset. Venus be far is 
the brightest object in the evening sky. Venus sets at 6:51 p.m. on the 1st and 
about 7:33 p.m. by month's end. Venus moves through the constellation of 
Sagittarius into Capricornus this month. Venus shines at magnitude -4.3.

* Earth - Winter solstice occurs on the 19th at 7:04 a.m. EST.

* Mars - Is in conjunction with the Sun on the 5th. Mars is not visible this 
month. Mars will return to the morning sky sometime in January 2009.

* Jupiter - Can be found in the southwestern sky soon after sunset. Jupiter 
sets at 7:36 p.m. on the 1st and about 6:08 p.m. by month's end. Jupiter is in 
the constellation of Sagittarius shining at magnitude -2.0.

* Saturn - Rises at 12:26 a.m. on the 1st and about 10:24 p.m. by month's end. 
Saturn is in the constellation of Virgo shining at magnitude 1.0.

* Uranus - Sets at 12:23 a.m. on the 1st and about 10:20 p.m. by month's end. 
Uranus is in the constellation of Aquarius shining at magnitude 5.9.

* Neptune - Sets at 10:04 p.m. on the 1st and about 8:06 p.m. by month's end. 
Neptune is in the constellation of Capricornus shining at magnitude 7.9.

Dwarf Planets
* Ceres – Rises at 11:05 p.m. on the 1st and about 9:26 p.m. by month’s end. 
Ceres is in the constellation of Leo shining at magnitude 7.9.

* Pluto - Is in conjunction with the Sun on the 22nd. Pluto is not visible this 
month. Pluto will return to the morning sky in January.


Astronomical Events

Meteor Showers
* The Geminids - This shower is active during the period December 6 to December 
19. Upon reaching maximum activity during December 13 to 14, hourly rates are 
typically near 80. The meteors are described as rapid and yellowish, with about 
4% displaying persistent trains. They possess an average magnitude of 2.4.

* The Ursids - Occurring primarily between December 17 and 24, this meteor 
shower reaches maximum on December 22… The maximum hourly rate is usually 
between 10 and 15… Meteors belonging to this stream are typically faint.

* For more information about Meteor Showers, visit Gary Kronk's Meteor Showers 
Online web page at http://meteorshowersonline.com/.

* Comet 85P/Boethin peaks at 7th magnitude as it passes through the 
constellations of Aquarius and Pisces this month. A 4 inch telescope may be 
needed to spot this one. Larger aperture scopes may be needed to spot the other 

* Two evening comets can be spotted very soon after sunset low on the western 
horizon. Comet C/2008 A1 is just above Ophiuchus heading toward Cygnus. Comet 
P/2003 K2 passes into the constellation of Capricornus just south of Venus.

* Two early morning comets also make appearances this month. Comet 17P/Holmes 
can be spotted after midnight between the constellations of Cancer and Leo. 
Just before sunrise, Comet C/2007 N3 can be spotted east of Libra.

* For information, orbital elements and ephemerides on observable comets visit 
the Observable Comets page from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics 
(http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/iau/Ephemerides/Comets/index.html ).

* For more information about Comets, visit Gary Kronk's Cometography.com web 
page at http://cometography.com/.

* No eclipse activity this month.

* Information on various occultations can be found at 
http://lunar-occultations.com/iota/iotandx.htm , the International Occultation 
Timing Association's (IOTA) web site.

Asteroids (From west to east)
* Vesta is in the constellation of Pisces.
* Metis is in the constellation of Cetus.
* Harmonia is in the constellation of Gemini.
* Euterpe is in the constellation of Leo.

* Information about the Minor Planets can be found at 
http://www.minorplanetobserver.com the Minor Planet Observer web site.


Planetary/Lunar Exploration Missions
(Excerpts from recent mission updates)

* Cassini - November 26, 2008
Enceladus Jets -- Are They Wet or Just Wild?

"Scientists continue to search for the cause of the geysers on Saturn's moon 
Enceladus. The geysers are visible as a large plume of water vapor and ice 
particles escaping the moon. Inside the plume are jets of dust and gas. What 
causes and controls the jets is a mystery. The Cassini spacecraft continues to 
collect new data to look for clues.

At the heart of the search is the question of whether the jets originate from 
an underground source of liquid water. Some theories offer models where the 
jets could be caused by mechanisms that do not require liquid water. 
Painstaking detective work by Cassini scientists is testing the possibilities 
to get closer to an answer.

What generates Enceladus' jets is a burning question in planetary science, 
because if liquid water is involved, Enceladus would be shown to have 
everything it needs, in theory, to provide a habitable environment."

Cassini Imaging Team's website - http://ciclops.org.

For the latest mission status reports, visit 
http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/home/index.cfm. The speed and location of the 
spacecraft can be viewed on the "Present Position" web page.
(http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/operations/present-position.cfm )

* New Horizons - November 7, 2008
SETI Radio Telescopes Track New Horizons

"The New Horizons spacecraft has a new 'audience' for the electronic signals it 
beams back to Earth.

In a successful September demonstration of its growing capabilities, the Allen 
Telescope Array (ATA) detected transmissions from New Horizons while the 
spacecraft was more than a billion miles from home. The ATA is a radio 
interferometer used for astronomical research and searches for signals of 
intelligent, extraterrestrial origin. A joint effort of the SETI Institute and 
the Radio Astronomy Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley, it's 
being constructed at the Hat Creek Radio Observatory in Northern California.

The SETI Institute routinely observes spacecraft such as New Horizons, which 
serve as an excellent test signal for confirming the correct functioning and 
effectiveness of the SETI signal-detection systems."

New Horizons gallery http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/gallery/sciencePhotos/.

For more information on the New Horizons mission - the first mission to the 
ninth planet - visit the New Horizons home page: http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/.

* Dawn - November 20, 2008
Dawn Glides Into New Year

"NASA's Dawn spacecraft shut down its ion propulsion system today as scheduled. 
The spacecraft is now gliding toward a Mars flyby in February of next year. 

"Dawn has completed the thrusting it needs to use Mars for a gravity assist to 
help get us to Vesta," said Marc Rayman, Dawn's chief engineer, of NASA's Jet 
Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. "Dawn will now coast in its orbit 
around the sun for the next half a year before we again fire up the ion 
propulsion system to continue our journey to the asteroid belt." 

Dawn's ion engines may get a short workout next January to provide any final 
orbital adjustments prior to its encounter with the Red Planet. Ions are also 
scheduled to fly out of the propulsion system during some systems testing in 
spring. But mostly, Dawn's three ion engines will remain silent until June, 
when they will again speed Dawn toward its first appointment, with asteroid 

For more information on the Dawn mission, visit the Dawn home page: 

* MESSENGER - November 26, 2008
Second Group of Mercury Craters Named

"The International Astronomical Union (IAU) recently approved a proposal from 
the MESSENGER Science Team to name 15 craters on Mercury. All of the newly 
named craters were imaged during the mission’s first flyby of the solar 
system’s innermost planet in January 2008.

The IAU has been the arbiter of planetary and satellite nomenclature since its 
inception in 1919. In keeping with the established naming theme for craters on 
Mercury, all of the craters are named after famous deceased artists, musicians, 
or authors.

'We're pleased that the IAU has again acted promptly to approve this new set of 
names for prominent craters on Mercury,' says MESSENGER Principal Investigator 
Sean Solomon of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. 'These latest names 
honor a diverse suite of some of the most accomplished contributors to 
mankind’s higher aspirations. They also make it much easier for planetary 
scientists to refer to major features on Mercury in talks and publications.'"

For more information on the MESSENGER mission, visit the MESSENGER home page: 

* Pack Your Backpack
Calling all explorers! Tour JPL with our new Virtual Field Trip site. Stops 
include Mission Control and the Rover Lab. Your guided tour starts when you 
select a "face" that will be yours throughout the visit. Cool space images and 
souvenirs are all included in your visit.
+ http://virtualfieldtrip.jpl.nasa.gov/ 
* Past, Present, Future and Proposed JPL Missions - 

* For special JPL programs and presentations in your area visit the JPL Solar 
System Ambassador web site at http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/ambassador/index.html.

Mars Missions

* Mars Odyssey Orbiter - November 17, 2008
Gamma-Ray Evidence Suggests Ancient Mars Had Oceans

"An international team of scientists who analyzed data from the Gamma Ray 
Spectrometer onboard NASA's Mars Odyssey reports new evidence for the 
controversial idea that oceans once covered about a third of ancient Mars.

"We compared Gamma Ray Spectrometer data on potassium, thorium and iron above 
and below a shoreline believed to mark an ancient ocean that covered a third of 
Mars' surface, and an inner shoreline believed to mark a younger, smaller 
ocean," said University of Arizona planetary geologist James M. Dohm, who led 
the international investigation.

"Our investigation posed the question, Might we see a greater concentration of 
these elements within the ancient shorelines because water and rock containing 
the elements moved from the highlands to the lowlands, where they eventually 
ponded as large water bodies?" Dohm said."

"A simulated fly-through using the newly assembled imagery is available online 
at http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/mars/missions/odyssey/20060313.html.

The fly-through plus tools for wandering across and zooming into the large 
image are at http://themis.asu.edu/.";

Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) web site: (http://themis.asu.edu/ )

November 3-7, 2008

* Dunes and Channel (Released 03 November 2008)

* Crater Dunes (Released 04 November 2008)

* Crater Dunes (Released 05 November 2008)

* Delta (Released 06 November 2008)

* Dust Devil Tracks (Released 07 November 2008)

All of the THEMIS images are archived here:

The Odyssey data are available through a new online access system established 
by the Planetary Data System at: http://starbrite.jpl.nasa.gov/pds/ 

Visit the Mars Odyssey Mission page at 

* Mars Exploration Rover Mission (Spirit and Opportunity) -
November 20, 2008

Spirit Status: Serious but Stable - sol 1730-1736, November 14 - November 20, 

"Spirit's condition has improved during the past week, though skies remain 
fairly dusty after the recent Martian dust storm. Since sol 1730 (Nov. 14, 
2008), solar-array energy has averaged 169 watt-hours (100 watt-hours is the 
amount of energy needed to light a 100-watt bulb for 1 hour). The latest 
measurement of atmospheric darkness caused by dust, known as Tau, is 0.858. The 
dust factor, representing the portion of sunlight penetrating the coating of 
dust on the solar panels, is 0.2912.

Spirit performed a cursory check of the health of the miniature thermal 
emission spectrometer. After three nights with the spectrometer's heaters 
disabled, the instrument appeared to be undamaged as of sol 1730. Power is not 
yet sufficient to re-enable those heaters, though Spirit will continue to 
monitor the spectrometer while waiting for power to improve. For the most part, 
Spirit is limiting activities to those necessary for maintaining engineering 
health and safety.

Spirit endured another challenge when new commands from Earth for sol 1734 
(Nov. 18, 2008) did not arrive. At that point, Spirit began to execute a backup 
set of activities known as a runout plan. On Earth, engineers created a new 
sequence of commands for sol 1736 (Nov. 20, 2008) to manage communications and 
preserve power. Meanwhile, they are investigating why Spirit did not receive 
their previous commands.

According to the latest Martian weather report for Nov. 15 (sol 1731), skies 
are expected to continue to clear during the next couple of weeks. No other 
storms have been identified within a couple of thousand kilometers of Spirit's 

Spirit is preparing for solar conjunction, where the Sun is between Earth and 
Mars, preventing communications. This period begins Nov. 29th. Before and 
during solar conjunction, Spirit's activities will remain conservative as the 
rover waits for the skies to clear and for the power situation to improve."

Opportunity Status: Opportunity Prepares for Two Weeks of Independent Study - 
sol 1709-1715, November 13-19, 2008

"Opportunity is getting ready for solar conjunction, the time when the Sun is 
in the line of sight between Earth and Mars. During this two-week period, from 
Nov. 30, 2008 to Dec. 13, 2008, the mission team will not send new commands to 
the rover. The science team plans to position Opportunity on a rock outcrop, 
possibly near a cobble the rover can study with the Moessbauer spectrometer, 
during this time interval.

Opportunity began the week with a 93-meter (310-foot) drive on Sol 1709 (Nov. 
13, 2008). The drive allowed the rover to reach a large expanse of bare 
outcrop. Another drive on Sol 1710 (Nov. 14, 2008), covering 17 meters (56 
feet), placed the rover near potential targets of scientific interest. A 
candidate target, a cobble about 8 meters (30 feet) away, became the objective 
of the drive on Sol 1713 (Nov. 17, 2008). The 8-meter drive positioned the 
cobble, now nicknamed "Santorini", within the work volume of the science 
instruments on Opportunity's robotic arm.

The challenge for the team was the placement of the science instruments on 
Santorini using only 4 degrees of freedom of the robotic arm instead of the 
usual 6. The rover is not able to change the azimuth of the shoulder joint, 
that is, move it from side to side, because the shoulder azimuth joint (Joint 
1) is disabled due to degraded performance.

On Sol 1714 (Nov. 18, 2008), Opportunity successfully placed the Moessbauer 
spectrometer on a faceted surface of the cobble. The contact switches on the 
instrument confirmed that the spectrometer had touched the surface. An analysis 
by the spectrometer is now under way. Rover operators plan to have Opportunity 
integrate Moessbauer measurements of Santorini for the two-week period of solar 

Opportunity is acquiring a panorama of images using multiple filters of the 
panoramic camera and making daily observations of atmospheric dust as well as 
measuring atmospheric argon using the alpha-particle X-ray spectrometer APXS. 
The rover is creating occasional, time-lapse movies of clouds with the 
navigation camera.

This coming weekend, engineers plan another attempt to remove dust from the 
miniature thermal emission spectrometer mirror by shaking it.

As of Sol 1715 (Nov. 19, 2008), the solar array energy was 565 watt-hours (100 
watt-hours is the amount of energy needed to light a 100-watt bulb for one 
hour). The atmospheric opacity (tau) was 0.747 and the dust factor (a measure 
of sunlight-blocking dust on the solar arrays) was 0.694."

Landing sites link - http://marsoweb.nas.nasa.gov/landingsites/ 
Visit the Mars Exploration Rover page at

* Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission - November 20, 2008
NASA Spacecraft Detects Buried Glaciers on Mars

"PASADENA, Calif. - NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has revealed vast 
Martian glaciers of water ice under protective blankets of rocky debris at much 
lower latitudes than any ice previously identified on the Red Planet. 

Scientists analyzed data from the spacecraft's ground-penetrating radar and 
report in the Nov. 21 issue of the journal Science that buried glaciers extend 
for dozens of miles from edges of mountains or cliffs. A layer of rocky debris 
blanketing the ice may have preserved the underground glaciers as remnants from 
an ice sheet that covered middle latitudes during a past ice age. This 
discovery is similar to massive ice glaciers that have been detected under 
rocky coverings in Antarctica. 

"Altogether, these glaciers almost certainly represent the largest reservoir of 
water ice on Mars that is not in the polar caps," said John W. Holt of the 
University of Texas at Austin, who is lead author of the report. 'Just one of 
the features we examined is three times larger than the city of Los Angeles and 
up to one-half-mile thick. And there are many more. In addition to their 
scientific value, they could be a source of water to support future exploration 
of Mars.'"

November 5, 2008

* Impact Crater amid the Deuteronilus Mensae

* Confluence of Valley and Crater 

* Ancient Layered Rocks in Nili Fossae 

* Inverted Channel and Yardangs in Aeolis Mensae

All of the HiRISE images are archived here:

More information about the MRO mission is available online at 

* Phoenix Mars Lander Mission - November 13, 2008
NASA Mars Lander Receives Award From Magazine

"PASADENA, Calif. -- NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander has won recognition from 
Popular Science magazine as an innovation worthy of the publication's "Best of 
What's New" Grand Award in the aviation and space category. 

The lander finished its work on Mars this month, and its team of scientists 
continues to analyze information that Phoenix sent home during more than five 
months of operating at a landing site in the Martian arctic. It landed on May 
25, 2008. 

The lander's robotic arm delivered soil samples to onboard laboratory 
instruments that analyzed the composition and examined particles 

"For 21 years, Popular Science's Best of What's New awards honor the 
innovations that make a positive impact on life today and change our views of 
the future," said Mark Jannot, editor-in-chief of the magazine."

Visit the Phoenix Mars Lander Mission pages at 

* Mars Missions Status - New Mars missions are being planned to include several 
new rover and sample collection missions. Check out the Mars Missions web page: 
http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/missions/ and the Mars Exploration page: 


Links and Other Space News
(If you have a link you would like to recommend to our readers, please feel 
free to submit it.)


* "TheSky" Software - http://www.bisque.com 

* A Short Guide to Celestial Navigation - http://www.celnav.de/ 

* Astrogirl Homepage - http://www.astrogirl.org 

* Astronomical Lexicon - http://www.ki0ar.com/astrolex.html 
Many of the astronomical terms used in this newsletter are defined here.

* Astronomy Picture of the Day - http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/astropix.html 

* Celestron Telescopes - http://www.celestron.com/c2/index.php - New beta 

* Cloudbait Observatory, Guffey Colorado - http://www.cloudbait.com - Submit 
your fireball reports here. Interesting, knowledgeable site.

* The Constellations and Their Stars - 
Good site for finding out more about the 88 constellations and their associated 

* Denver Astronomical Society - http://www.denverastrosociety.org 

* Distant Suns - http://www.distantsuns.com/ 
Desktop Astronomy package for PCs.

* Eric's Black Sun Eclipse website -

* Groovy Adventures - http://www.groovyadventures.com 
Unique adventures and vacations including astronomy related vacations.

* JPL Solar System Ambassador Program -

* JPL Solar System - http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/solar_system/ 

* Meade Advanced Products Users Group - http://www.mapug-astronomy.net/ - 
Mapug-Astronomy Topical Archive & information resource, containing a massive 
335 page archive of discussions about Meade equipment, and much more: 
observatories, observing lists, permanent piers, equatorial wedges, remote 
operations, software, eyepieces, etc.

* My Stars Live - http://www.mystarslive.com/ 
Interactive Star Chart

* NASA Science News - http://science.nasa.gov/ 

* Northern Colorado Astronomical Society - http://ncastro.org/ 

* Sangre Stargazers - http://sangrestargazers.skymtn.com/ - New astronomy club 
in the Wet Mountain Valley of Custer County (about 45 miles due west of Pueblo, 

* Sky and Space - http://www.skyandspace.com.au/public/home.ehtml 
Astronomy from Down Under - The Southern Hemisphere's first astronomy and space 

* Skywatch Sightings from NASA - 
This site gives you the best times to watch the ISS pass over or near your 

* Southern Colorado Astronomical Society - http://www.scasastronomy.info/

* Space.com - http://space.com 
Interesting space and astronomy articles.

* Space.com - Sky Watch Calendar -

* Spaceflight Now - http://spaceflightnow.com/ 

* "SpaceRef.com" - http://www.spaceref.com/ - SpaceRef's 21 news and reference 
web sites are designed to allow both the novice and specialist alike to explore 
outer space and Earth observation.
This site includes links to planetary updates such as Mercury Today, Venus 
Today, Earth Today, Moon Today, Mars Today, Jupiter Today, Saturn Today, Pluto 
Today, etc.

* Universe Today - http://www.universetoday.com 


Acknowledgments and References

Much of the information in this newsletter is from "Astronomy Magazine" 
(Kalmbach Publishing), JPL mission status reports, the Internet, "Meteor 
Showers - A Descriptive Catalog" by Gary W. Kronk, Sky & Telescope web pages 
(S&T), and other astronomical sources that I have stashed on my book shelves.

The author will accept any suggestions, constructive criticisms, and 
corrections. Please feel free to send me any new links or articles to share as 
well. I will try to accommodate any reasonable requests. Please feel free to 
send questions, comments, criticisms, or donations to the email address listed 
below. Enjoy!


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Keep looking UP!
73 from KI0AR

Created by Burness F. Ansell, III

COO, Director of Aerospace Technologies, IAAS
JPL Solar System Ambassador, Colorado
Last modified: November 30, 2008

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