[abcomputers] ABC~All 'Bout Computers, Vol.11: Password Protecting Documents and MORE

  • From: Linda Johnson <linda@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
  • To: ABCfreelists <abcomputers@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>
  • Date: Fri, 03 May 2002 22:06:21 -0400

ABC ~ All 'Bout Computers
Volume 11; April, 2002 - mailed to 1877 subscribers


If you would prefer to read the online Web-azine, which=20
includes pictures and screenshots and is, basically, more=20
user-friendly, follow either of these links:=20
http://personal-computer-tutor.com/ABC.htm (frames)=20
http://personal-computer-tutor.com/vol11.htm (no frames)

or, scroll down to the Contents where you can click on over=20
to any individual article=20

For definitions of any terms you do not understand, visit=20
the GeekSpeak Translator:=20
This is not spam. You are receiving this newsletter because=20
you (or someone using your email address) subscribed to it=20
voluntarily. If you would like to remove yourself from ABC,=20
please see SUBSCRIPTION MANAGEMENT at the bottom=20
of this newsletter. Using the "Reply" function will not=20
unsubscribe you!
My subscriber list is NOT made available to other companies=20
or individuals. I value every subscriber and respect your privacy.
These will have to be copied and pasted into your web=20
browser's Address Bar as one line in order for you to=20
access them.
To view this text newsletter best, maximize your email=20
window to FULL screen.
(all links below these items take you to the non-frames Online versions)

(items with *** behind them include pictures and are viewed better
1. Important How-To Message From Linda=20
2. Linda's Thought of the Month
(and animated GIF) ***=20
4. What's New at Linda's Computer Stop ~=20
5. Subscribers' Exclusive Tip ~ Firewalls, by Fred Arshoff
6. GeekSpeak Translation from the Cap'n=20
Fred's Safety Belt
8. Vic's Registry RoundUp & DOS Den ~=20
10. James's Database ~ UNION QUERIES ***
11 Chas' Word World ~ SETTING DEFAULT FONT ***
12. Tina's FrontPage News ~=20
Part II: Navigation Structure ***
13. Chad's Macro Mania ~ DATES IN EXCEL
14. Corey's Network Corner ~=20
15. NightSneak's Snoop Scoop ~=20
16. Creepy-Crawlies in Your Machines ~=20
by Guest Author, Kathy Jacobs
17. New Meta Tag Driving Targeted Traffic to Websites ~=20
by Guest Author, Shelley Lowery
18. The BLOONATIC Approach -=20
Get the Traffic your Web Site Deserves
~ by Guest Author, Markus Hoevener=20
19. Subscription Management
20. Contact Information
*** includes pictures in the online version
******************STATION BREAK***********************
If you find this newsletter and/or my website at all helpful and=20
would like to give me a hand here, I am now accepting donations=20
through PayPal. To make a donation, go to the online version of this=20
web-azine and click on the PayPal button.=20
Thanks in advance to any who do this!!
(NOTE: no one receiving this should feel obligated in any way to=20
do this .....this is a FREE newsletter!)=20
Linda, editor
If you decide to go to the Online "Web-azine" version, go here first=20
for navigation instructions:
If you are reading this plain text issue, maximize your email window=20
for best viewing and WATCH FOR ANY LINKS THAT WRAP TO=20
MORE THAN ONE LINE! These will have to be copied and pasted=20
into your web browser's Address Bar as one line in order for you to=20
access them.

If you can't laugh at yourself, you might as well be dead.

a LOL for sure!!!
From my buddy, Frank G.:
(just rightclick on the gif and choose "Save Picture As...")
~~Linda F. Johnson, Editor

Well, my online friends, this is a topic that hits close to my=20
heart.  My family and friends are always worrying about me=20
because more and more of my life exists within this box. =20
They keep telling me I should get out more.  They say I=20
need a life.  I tell them I HAVE a life, it's just different=20
from what they have.

What do they have that I don't?  Well, let's explore that.

They have lots of people in and out of their homes.  But not=20
as many as me.  Right now, as I write this, I'm talking to over=20
1800 people.  (Difference is I don't have to clean my house=20
when you "visit".)

They have relationships that require a LOT of maintenance. =20
Not me.  I have many more friends than they do, but mine=20
don't interrupt me when I'm talking. Mine don't care what=20
I look like.  Mine don't judge me by anything other than how=20
I treat them.  And, mine don't chastise me if I'm late.

They have obligations that keep them running frantically=20
in circles....this appointment, that date, that interview, that=20
meeting.  Not me.  I just saunter up to my computer with=20
a hot cup of java and relax, reading the thoughts of others. =20

So, ok.  I agree we might need SOME kind of human=20
interaction and can't do all of our communicating through=20
a keyboard.  So, I DO have a job that requires that I get=20
out of the house and interact in the "real" world.  But, is=20
this the most fulfilling part of my life?  Not hardly.  Most=20
of my best experiences of late have been with people I=20
know via the Internet. =20

Take the Fleet for example.  Most of these people I've=20
never even seen, however, they feel like true friends to me. =20
Friends that live all over the world.  Friends that I never=20
would have met had it not been for the Internet.  Friends=20
that come through for me when I need help.  Granted, I=20
would love to meet them in real life.  The thought of listening=20
to Hal Cardona play the tuba or sharing girltalk with Tina=20
Clarke or letting Corey Seaton show me the wilds of Australia=20
or listening to Cap'n Patt's tales of the sea are indeed intriguing=20
ideas.  And, I believe someday I might actually do this.  But,=20
even if I don't, these people remain very real and dear to me. =20
Because I do KNOW them.  I certainly know them better than=20
the guy who lives next door to me and with whom I have=20
nothing in common.

Perfect example:  Recently I had the pleasure of meeting=20
Vic Ferri in real life and he is about the coolest guy I've=20
ever met.  And because we have learned so much about=20
each other in this box, it was like meeting someone I had=20
known forever.  Actually, I WAS meeting someone I=20
already knew really well.  Another example is Hal Cardona: =20
I came to trust him so much through the Internet, that I=20
paid him to build my newest computer.  My family thought=20
I was nuts. "You don't even know him!"  Yeah right.  They=20
are all eating those words now that they've seen the=20
computer I have, compared to the one they bought at=20
Gateway from a "real" person.

So, my answer to the question "Are Internet relationships=20
real?" is a resounding YES, YES, YES.  And don't let your=20
families and "real" friends convince you differently.  Just=20
because you can't "see" someone, doesn't mean you can't=20
care for them.  The Internet allows you the opportunity to=20
know someone for who they are and not for how they look=20
or how they dress.  In some ways, the people you know on=20
the Internet are more real than the ones you pass on the=20

Happy Computing, my Internet friends!
Linda Johnson is a college instructor of all of the Microsoft Office=20
Programs, as well as Adobe PhotoShop and Windows. She also=20
teaches online distance learning classes in Excel, Outlook,=20
PowerPoint, Publisher, and Word at Eclectic Academy.=20
She has worked helpdesk and teaches and lectures at many
local businesses and tech schools in her area. Support
this newsletter by checking out Linda's website=20
and her ebook series, MS Word MAGIC!
Part I: Fonts, Fun & Formats=20
Part II: Table Wizardry=20
AND, How To Get Started As a Software Trainer:
If you have been interested in taking any of Linda's Online=20
Classes but don't want to wait six weeks to complete all the=20
lessons or don't have the desire to be part of an online=20
classroom, why not=20
Check out the eBook .exe versions of all of Linda's classes here:

Only $15 each!!  Where else can you master a software=20
Program for that price? =20

Separate eBook tutorials on Excel, Outlook, PowerPoint,=20
Publisher, and Word.  Terrific value!!

******************STATION BREAK************************
LINDA JOHNSON has published another eBook and
this one is called HOW TO GET STARTED AS A
That's just how Linda started out and this book she tells you=20
exactly how she did it and how YOU CAN DO IT TOO.
No need for a college education!
No need for professional certifications!
No need for expensive classes!
By Richard S. Harris=20
Or if you have ANY DREAM JOB in mind, check out
All eBooks are written by been-there/done-that authors
and sell for only $12.95, with a full money back guarantee.
******************STATION BREAK************************
Free Tutorials, Free eBooks, Free Courses, Free Guestbooks, Free=20
Autoresponders, Free Newsletter, Free Affiliate program and=20
FREE MEMBERSHIP. Wow! Did I mention it was Free? Newbies=20
and Oldbies alike are buzzing about the NEW Newbie Club.=20
It's the most exciting Newbie Site ever to hit the Web.
Join now - it's FREE!
editor's recommendation:
They also have an online PC Clinic now where you can receive=20
Computer and Internet Technical problem solving advice 24/7=20
for only $29.80 a year! I tested the service for them with=20
some pretty tough questions and they found the answers=20
every time.....some took 3 or 4 emails back and forth, but=20
they DID solve it and they DID respond to each of my mails=20
within 6 hours.  I recommend this one!
(4.) WHAT'S NEW at Linda's Computer Stop=20

The biggest addition to my website this month is=20
SIDE BY SIDE PUBLICATIONS.  I've partnered up with=20
Vic Ferri and we've produced a series of EBooks.  You all=20
know I've been teaching online classes at Eclectic Academy. =20
Well, Vic took all my class lessons and compiled them into=20
easy-to-use eBooks in .exe format.  Just download them=20
and double click to start learning.  No need to wait six=20
weeks to get all six lessons anymore.  Now you can have=20
them all at once and walkthrough the step-by-step=20
instructions at your own pace.  Want to learn Excel,=20
Outlook, PowerPoint, Publisher, or Word?  These eBooks=20
are the answer for you!!

Go here to see full outlines of what's included in each. =20
If you like what you see, you can use PayPal to order=20
them and have them on your desktop in no time!

And, stay tuned for new books from Side by Side Publications. =20
I'm trying my best to convince Vic to compile some of=20
those great Windows and Registry tips of his!

(Of course, if you prefer the one-on-one attention you get=20
when you are part of a class, I am still teaching the classes=20
at Eclectic Academy and welcome you to join the next set=20
of courses which begin on May 5th.)

Another new feature at my website is a signup page for=20
those of you who have written computer articles and need=20
a way to get them out there to the public.  Go here and=20
let me know what you have and I will try to include it in=20
either this newsletter or on my website, with full credit=20
for you and your website.

I really need writers for these topics:
Web Design
Desktop Publishing (Quark, Pagemaker, & Publisher)

but if what you know best is not on this list, don't let that=20
stop you.  I'm sure I can use whatever you have to offer.

And, once again, I want to remind you that ABC has an online=20
forum where you can help each other with your computer problems. =20
This is not a place where I will answer your questions, but a place=20
where you can help each other.  Please visit the forum and see if=20
there are any problems posted there that you can solve. =20
Or, post a question or problem of your own.

That's about all I've had time to add this month.  I hope=20
you continue to visit my site and let me know if there's=20
anything special you would like to see me add.

******************STATION BREAK************************
It's the latest rage and it's called Distance Learning. Most=20
colleges now offer Distance Learning classes because they=20
know some people work hard and just can't fit a classroom=20
into their busy lives. But, sometimes you don't want to enroll=20
in a full program; you just want to take one class.
Eclectic Academy offers a large range of classes to suit
many needs. Go there now and check out their curriculum=20
and roster. Classes are only $20 for 6 weeks.=20

Here's a sampling of what they offer:
*Art Courses, both digital and traditional
*Business Courses, including all of the MS Office Programs
(many taught by none other than Linda Johnson herself)=20
*Graphics Courses - Flash, PhotoShop, Paint Shop Pro & more=20
*Website Development Courses - FrontPage, Dreamweaver,
ASP, DHTML, Website Promotion, and on and on and on=20
*Eclectic Classes - Computer Maintenance, Writing Workshops,
Feng Shui, Eating Safely - just about anything you can think of

Go to Eclectic Academy now and sign up to be notified when=20
classes are added or ENROLL NOW in the class of your=20
choice. Go there now to enroll in the next set of classes=20
beginning on May 5th. ONLY $20 FOR A SIX-WEEK CLASS!=20
(5.) Subscribers' Exclusive Tip of the Month:
by Fred Arshoff

FIREWALLS, first of all, are not made out of wood,=20
but are actually a software security program that protects=20
your computer from being broken into by anyone.

When you=92re using a FIREWALL, you will get notified if=20
someone is trying to get into your computer, or if your=20
computer is trying to =93phone home=94 because of some=20
spyware you downloaded.

There are commercial FIREWALLS available, some shareware=20
ones that you can try before you purchase them, and some=20
very good free ones. Before purchasing any, look at the=20
features each contains and make sure it meets your needs.=20
Also, some may be too advanced for newer computer users.

I would like to quote two people here who are more=20
knowledgeable in firewalls than me. Here are their=20
feelings about firewalls.

This is from Dennis Donahue, a system administrator:=20
=93For a dialup connection, I recommend using a software=20
solution called BlackIce Defender or my favorite, Zone=20
Alarm. For DSL or cable connections, use a device like the=20
Linksys Cable/DSL Router. It=92s a dream and gives complete=20
protection for up to 5 computers on a switched=20
100 Switch/Router.=94

This is from Glenn Williams, a security specialist for the=20
Canadian Military:
=93If you keep your anti-virus software up to date, you will be=20
protected against Trojans/virus/worms. If, by chance, you=20
are using a cable connection and modem, I highly recommend=20
a firewall to protect your own machine from the outside.=20
The problem is, with broadband 24/7 connections, there are=20
usually at least a dozen machines trying to connect to your=20
home-based machine on a daily basis. The only protection for=20
this is a firewall. There are many out there. Some are=20
Intrusion Detection Systems and some are firewalls. I will=20
say, if you=92re planning to conduct business or spend personal=20
time on the Internet, a firewall is your first stage of protection.=94

Links to download FREE firewalls:

Zone Alarm
Kerio (formerly Tiny Personal Firewall)

(6.)  Cap'n Patt's
Visit the Cap'n's Official GeekSpeak Database at=20
If the word you need defined is not there, just write to me at=20
ABComputers-owner@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx and I will pass it on=20
to the Cap'n.
******************STATION BREAK***********************
Hands down, I think the one I use is the very best (Hal=20
Cardona's been using them for over 3 years and he turned=20
me onto them over a year ago).
*My site has NEVER been down for more than 3 minutes!
(except once late on a Saturday nite when it was being
worked on and they warned we well in advance).
*Their tech support are the greatest and I have never had
to wait more than an hour for a good answer to any question
or problem I had!
*If you use FrontPage for your webcrafting, they are=20
excellent with those pesky FP extensions!
*And, the email server is non-failing!
Obviously, I am a big fan of theirs.
Their name is HOSTWAY and I believe if you try them,=20
you will never regret it.=20
And, if you sign up, tell them you were referred by=20
That will help fund this newsletter because they give me a=20
free month of service for everyone I send to them :-)
****************THIS MONTH'S FEATURE******************
~~ Fred Arshoff

There are different reasons you may wish to password protect=20
a document you made. The information may be private or you=20
don=92t want anything to be modified.=20

In most applications you can password protect a document=20
two ways: for opening or modifying. Before proceeding to=20
tell you how to password protect and the difference between=20
the two types, I want you to  remember that like all=20
Windows based passwords they are case sensitive, thus=20
if you used a capital letter and tried to use a lower case=20
letter to open the document, it won=92t open.


1. Password to open a document.   With this type of=20
password, if not entered correctly, you won=92t get the=20
document to open. As with all other passwords, it is case=20
sensitive. To set this option in your document, you click=20
on save and click on options. Then, you will be given a choice=20
of things. Go to PASSWORD TO OPEN, or something that=20
has the same meaning, as each application may be worded=20
slightly differently.=20

2. Password to modify a document.  With this option, a=20
person can open the document, but not be able to edit it.=20
Thus, they can=92t change anything you wrote, but can read=20
the entire document. This password, like all others, is case=20
sensitive. To use this type of password, click on SAVE AS=20
OPTIONS, and go to the box TO MODIFY, or something=20
that has the same meaning. Again, each application may be=20
worded slightly differently.=20

3. Some programs offer ways to password protect only=20
certain parts of a document so some parts can be edited=20
and others can=92t.  An example of a program that can do=20
this is Microsoft Excel.  In Office XP (2002) you can also=20
encrypt and have a digital signature to protect your=20
document. We haven=92t found out if the same applies to=20
WP 2002.=20


Starting with WordPerfect 7 there is enhanced password=20
protection.  This allows your passwords to be case sensitive,=20
thus offering you more security. The drawback to this is,=20
if a person is using any version earlier then WordPerfect=20
7 they won=92t be able to open the document.


A password will not protect you from getting a virus on=20
your computer or important document. Also, if a document=20
is password protected, people still can copy the document=20
to a floppy disk and try at their leisure to crack the=20
password and read your document.

In conclusion, a password does give you some protection,=20
but not ultimate protection. So, if your house door was left=20
open, someone very easily can still steal your computer and=20
have as long as they need to crack the password. Also, a=20
password-protected document still can be carried away on=20
a floppy disk; the same document can still get a virus. =20
Passwords only offer so much protection. You have to=20
use as much security as possible to protect your computer=20
and data from others.


The PASSWORD SHOULD NOT be your name.

The PASSWORD SHOULD NOT be your social security=20

The PASSWORD SHOULD NOT be your birthday.

The PASSWORD SHOULD NOT be your drivers license=20

The PASSWORD SHOULD NOT spell a word.

The PASSWORD SHOULD NOT be written on paper and=20
left somewhere where it can be found.

The PASSWORD SHOULD contain at least 1 special=20
character (example: =93!=94).

The PASSWORD SHOULD contain at least 1 capital letter.

THE PASSWORD SHOULD be changed at least every 3=20

The PASSWORD SHOULD contain at least 6 to 8=20

Make SURE the password makes sense to no one=20
(your best friend today can be your enemy tomorrow).

Fred Arshoff is self employed in the computer industry where=20
his favorite thing is troubleshooting security and virus issues.=20
He runs two Yahoo groups:=20
Fred's Findings=20
and Fred's Virus Info.=20
~~ Vic Ferri, Windows Tips & Tricks

Removing Items

A lot of programs you install will add themselves to the=20
right-click menu of your files and/or folders. And most=20
times, you have no choice in the matter and, as a result,=20
your right-click menu can get very long with added items=20
you don't even use. The last person I was helping with this=20
had a right context menu so long that the Rename option=20
was no longer visible!

Fortunately, you can easily remove those unwanted menu=20
items, if you know the registry values to edit. And it's not=20
at all difficult once you know the keys responsible for the=20

For Files, the secret lies in the "context menu handlers"=20
under the shellex subkey for "All Files" which, in the=20
registry, is nothing but an asterisk - like a dos wildcard,=20
which means the values entered apply to all files. It is at=20
the very top of the Root key, right here:


Click the the + sign next to the ContextMenuHandlers key,=20
to expand it.

Now you will see some of the programs that have added=20
items to your right-click menu. Simply delete the program=20
keys you don't want.=20

Yup! It's that simple. If deleting makes you uneasy, just=20
export the key before deleting it. Or, instead of deleting=20
the values, disable them. Simply double click the default=20
value for the program on the right hand pane and rename=20
the clsid value by placing a period or dash in front of it.

ie;    - {b5eedee0-c06e-11cf-8c56-444553540000}

Then exit the registry, refresh, and right click a file to see=20
if the item was removed from the menu.

Some programs - like WinZip or WinRar - will add several=20
items to your right click menu but all of them will be removed=20
by deleting or disabling their one context menu handler.=20

Note that the above key only applies to the right click menu=20
of files.  To remove entries from the right click context=20
menu of folders, you need to navigate to the Folder and=20
Drive keys:


All you have to do is follow the same procedure as for Files=20
- either disable or delete items you wish to remove.

Adding Items

Adding Items to the right click menu of Files and Folders=20
is also fairly simple using the Registry. It just involves the=20
creation of a few new keys for each item you wish to add.=20
You edit the same keys used for removing items. Let's use=20
Notepad as an example of an item you'd like to add to the=20
right-click menu of all your files or folders.

For folders, go to this key:


Click the + sign next to Folder and expand it so that the=20
Shell key is visible. Right click the Shell key and choose=20
New>Key and name the key Notepad or whatever else you'd=20
prefer (whatever the key is named is what will appear in the=20
right-click menu).  Now right click the new key you made and=20
create another key named Command. Then, in the right hand=20
pane, double click "Default" and enter Notepad.exe as the=20

Exit the registry, refresh, and right click any folder.=20
Notepad should now be on the context menu.

For files, go here again:


Expand the * key and see if a Shell key exists. If it does=20
exist, follow the same procedure as for folders. If it does=20
not exist, you'll have to create a new Shell first. Just right=20
click the * key and choose New>Key and name it Shell.=20
Then right click the Shell key and continue on the same way=20
you did for adding items to the right click menu of folders.

Once done, Notepad should appear as an option in the=20
right-click menu of all your files.
Vic Ferri owns the very popular WinTips and Tricks email group=20
and his website which accompanies it.=20
He is also in charge of the Printing Tips page at
Linda's Computer Stop.
ans also the Registry Tips page.=20
******************STATION BREAK********************
Are you into Video Computing?
VIDEOMAKER is the world's most popular monthly consumer=20
video production publication and covers the use of digital video=20
editing, camcorders, cameras, and desktop video and audio=20
production for novice and expert enthusiasts alike. Its articles=20
teach production techniques, survey and review the latest=20
equipment, and explain the newest technological advances.
Published monthly, and is available on select newsstands and=20
to subscribers.  In addition, you receive a password giving you=20
full access to Club VId, Videomaker's vast online resource of=20
information about making video.
And the best part is, it's CHEAP! Only $14.97 for 13 issues!
EDITOR'S NOTE: It is recommended that you read the online=20
version of the following article which includes pictures which=20
might make this clearer for you.=20
~~Parker Renaud, IT Manager, Colliers Keenan, Inc.

One of the most convenient features of Outlook is the=20
ability to create personal distribution lists. Personal=20
distribution lists are personalized lists of contacts which=20
provide an easy way to send messages to groups of people.=20

For example, if you frequently send messages to the=20
sales staff, you can create a distribution list called Sales=20
Staff that contains the names of all members of the sales=20
staff. A message sent to this distribution list goes to all=20
recipients listed in the distribution list.

You can do the same thing with your family, a club, a team,=20
etc. The recipients can be on AOL, Hotmail, or a corporate=20
e-mail system. They can use Outlook, Outlook Express,=20
Eudora, or a proprietary e-mail system. It does not matter=20
what they use. Once you set them up in a distribution list,=20
you can send an e-mail to all of them with a mouse click=20
or two.

You can use distribution lists in messages, task requests,=20
meeting requests, and other personal distribution lists.=20
You can easily add and delete names from a distribution list,=20
send the list to others, or print it.

For the first time this month I will give different instructions=20
for those with either of the  commonly used versions of=20
Microsoft Outlook: Outlook 97 or Outlook 2000, since the=20
procedures are so totally different in the two versions.

Outlook 97

To create a personal distribution list you must first=20
create a personal address book.=20

To create a personal address book:

1. Open Outlook, click on Tools; Services; Add; Personal=20
Address Book.=20
2. Close Outlook and re-start.=20
3. Once re-started, click on Tools; Address Book; File;=20
New Entry.=20
4. In the New Entry dialog box, select Personal Distribution=20
5. Give the list a meaningful name, such as Sales Staff,=20
and click on Add/Remove Members. You can now add members=20
from any address list in Outlook. When you have added all of=20
the members, click OK, OK again, then File; Close.=20

To send a message to your new distribution list:

1. Open a new message window and click =93To=94 like you would=20
for any message.=20
2. Scroll down through the choice of lists in the Show Names=20
From box. Click on Personal Address Book and the distribution=20
list(s) will show up in the left window. Highlight the name=20
of the distribution list and send as you normally would.=20

To add or remove names from the list:

1. Click on Tools; Address Book.=20
2. In the Show Names from box, scroll down until you find=20
Personal Address Book. Any distribution lists available will=20
appear in the large window.=20
3. Double click on a distribution list and the Properties dialog=20
box will open. You can then add and delete names in the same=20
manner as you did when you created the list.=20

Outlook 2000

To create a personal distribution list:

1. Open Outlook, click File; New; Distribution List; and the=20
Distribution List dialog box opens.=20
2. Give the list a meaningful name, such as =93Sales Staff=94,=20
and click Select Members.=20
3. You can now add members from any address list in Outlook.=20
(If the person you wish to add is not in one of your address l
ists, you can simply type their address into the blank.) When=20
you have added all of the members, click OK, then click=20
Save and Close.=20

Outlook 2000 stores the distribution list(s) alphabetically=20
in your Contacts folder.=20

To send a message to your new distribution list:

1. Open a new message window and click =93To=94 like you would=20
for any message.=20
2. Scroll down through the choice of lists in the =93Show names=20
from=94 box.=20
3. Click on Contacts, and the distribution list(s) will show up=20
alphabetically with all your other contacts. Highlight the name=20
of the distribution list and send as you normally would.=20

To add or remove names from the list:

1. Open Contacts and double click on the name of the list.=20
2. Then use the Add New and Remove buttons to add or=20
remove names. When finished, click Save and Close.=20

As with many other features and procedures, this is much=20
easier to accomplish in Outlook 2000 than in Outlook 97.=20
If you have not updated your Office suite yet, maybe this=20
will make you at least think about it!
Parker Renaud is the one-man IT department at Colliers Keenan=20
where he manages 90 PCs on 5 servers.
EDITOR'S NOTE: It is recommended that you read the online=20
version of the following article which includes pictures which=20
might make this clearer for you.=20
~~James La Borde

Have you ever wanted to combine similar data from more=20
than one table into one report? You have several options=20
available to you. You could use the Make Table Query and=20
then subsequent Append Table queries to get the desired=20
data. While this does get the job done, it is not very efficient=20
and it tends to bulk up your database unless you are able=20
to compact it frequently. The second alternative is to look=20
into using a Union Query. A Union query takes data from=20
two or more queries and combines them into one result set.=20
It is much more dynamic than the first option since, once it=20
is created and saved, it will give you results on your current=20
data without having to go back and recreate it.=20

We will walk through a scenario where you want to create=20
a Union Query and then go through the process of creating=20
one. =20

You have been asked to create a mailing list that includes all=20
of your customers and all of your suppliers. You could use=20
a Make Table query and follow it up with an append query.=20
However, you were also told that this list would be used=20
somewhat frequently. The best way to accomplish your list=20
is to create a Union Query.=20

The first step will be to create your first query. Let=92s start=20
with the Customers table. Open up the Northwinds database=20
and click on the query tab. Click New and bring in the=20
Customers table. Bring in the ContactName, Address, City,=20
Region, PostalCode, and Country. Minimize this query for=20
later reference and do the same for the Suppliers in a new=20
query. Minimize this new query and bring back the first query=20
you created. Before we continue, save this query as MailingList.=20

***** Important Note *****
A Union query will only work if all of the fields in both=20
queries are the same.=20
***** Important Note *****

Now that we have our queries created, we are ready to=20
delve into the finer points of a Union Query. =20

From your MailingList query, Select View and then change=20
the view to SQL view. You will see the SQL representation=20
of your query. Highlight the entire section of code and copy=20
it (Ctrl + C).=20

Next click on Query and go to SQL Specific and you will=20
see Union (See Below) on the resulting drop down menu.=20
Select it and you will have a new blank window pop up.  =20

In your new window, paste the data you copied from your=20
initial query and delete the semicolon at the end of the string.=20
Next press <Enter> and type the word =93Union=94 and press=20
<Enter> again. Bring your second query back up and view it=20
in SQL view as well. Copy the SQL string from it and paste=20
it in the new line of your MailingList query.

Save your query and execute it. You should see all 91 of=20
your customers and all 29 of your suppliers in one large table.=20

You have now run your own Union Query!=20

Remember, a Union query is not updateable as a select=20
query is, but it is dynamic in that it will change as you=20
change your original data. It also has the advantage of=20
not bulking up your database as repeated use of temporary=20
tables can do. There are limitations of course, as all fields=20
in all of the queries involved must be the same. If you have=20
the need to use data in this manner, this is an ideal way=20
to do so. =20

I hope you have enjoyed this month=92s walk through Union=20
Queries and I look forward to hearing from you about=20
what you would like to see in the future!
James La Borde works in the computer department at a Credit Union,=20
where he uses Access, SQL Server, VBA, and ODBC daily.
EDITOR'S NOTE: It is recommended that you read the online=20
version of the following article which includes pictures which=20
might make this clearer for you.=20
(11.) Chas' Word World
~~Charles Kyle Kenyon, J.D.

How can I change the default font from Times New Roman=20
10pt to something else?=20

Here we'll discuss two methods.=20

1) Open a new document. =20

Call up the Font dialog box:  Format > Font=20

Set your preferred font and click on the "Default" button=20
(lower left of dialog box). =20

This is easiest method but is not complete. It is the method=20
recommended by Microsoft in their Knowledge Base at:
http://support.microsoft.com/support/kb/articles/Q211/6/68.ASP =20

2) To complete your change you could change not only the=20
default font but also the default style. To do this, open the=20
Normal.dot template either from within Word or if in Windows,=20
right-click on Normal.dot and select "Open."=20

Open the Style dialog box - Format > Styles...

Choose the Body Text style.

Click on the Modify button.

Where it says "Based On" Normal scroll up to the top of=20
the list where it says (no style).=20

Change the Font to what you want=20

(Format (button) > Font)=20

Change the language back from (no proofing) to English=20
(or whatever your language)=20

(Format (button) > Language).

Set up your default paragraph formatting (space before,=20
indents, tab settings, etc.)=20

(Format (button) > Paragraph).

Click on the OK button. Click on the OK button (different=20
OK button).

Click on the Apply button.=20

Type the letter "a" or any character and then press=20
backspace (forcing Word to recognize that you have=20
changed Normal.dot).=20

Save and close Normal.dot.

The first method is quick and easy. The second method will=20
make it much more likely that if you give your documents to=20
someone else that they will see what you sent them.=20

For more about styles, see Understanding Styles. =20

For more about the Normal.dot template (and other=20
templates) see Template Basics.=20

Keyboard Shortcuts of the Month for Word
Formatting and Styles=20
Chas Kenyon is a trial lawyer concentrating in criminal defense=20
with a long interest (obsession?) with making word processing=20
work well in the law office. His websites are:=20
******************STATION BREAK***********************
Discover How To Create Stunning Letters, Presentations,=20
Greetings Cards, Promotional Materials, Memos, Reports And=20
More - Just Like The Professionals!
Imagine using the Famous Newbie Club Easy Learning
System to create Newbie-Speak Tutorials of the World's
No. 1 Favorite Word Processing Program. What do you get?
eBooklet Series
by Linda F. Johnson
Book I teaches all about the formatting of text, words,=20
and paragraphs.
Book II is all about Tables and how to use them to get the=20
most out of your Word documents.
And both ebooklets come with the famous Newbie Club=20
unconditional guarantee:
"If, within 12 months of purchase and for any reason=20
whatsoever, you decide that MS Word MAGIC! is not for=20
you, simply let us know and we'll refund your purchase price=20
immediately. No Questions Asked! No ifs, buts or maybes.=20
No hidden clauses and no small print. With us, unconditional=20
means unconditional!"
So...what have you got to lose? Check out this series:
Book 1: Fonts, Formats and Fun=20
Book 2: Table Wizardry=20
EDITOR'S NOTE: It is recommended that you read the online=20
version of the following article which includes pictures which=20
might make this clearer for you.=20
~~Tina Clarke, AccessFP Resource Centre
Adding Functionality To Your Website with FrontPage 2002
Part II=20

(EDITOR'S NOTE:  To see the first part of this series, click here:
http://www.personal-computer-tutor.com/tina9.htm )

The bigger the website, the more important it is that your=20
visitors should be able to navigate through your site. There=20
are a number of ways to accomplish this and one of the most=20
effective tools is the navigation bar, which is actually a=20
collection of hyperlinks used to guide visitors through a=20
website. The hyperlinks usually lead to primary pages, such=20
as a contact page or the site=92s home page. Link bars can be=20
placed on every page of your web site, so visitors can easily=20
navigate without losing their way, the bars can have buttons=20
or text hyperlinks. =20

There are three types of link bars.=20

You can import web pages from your site or external sites.

This utilizes your navigation system to track the last page=20
that a visitor has read as well as the next page in the web site.

This uses the Navigation View structure to determine which=20
hyperlinks to include on its bar and what to call them.=20

NOTE: Link bars can only be generated when you=92re working=20
within a web site and not on separate pages. Also you can add=20
and view any type of link bar when you publish to a disk-based=20
web site. However, when you publish to a Web server, in order=20
to be able to add a custom link bar or a link bar with back=20
and next links, your Web server must have Microsoft=20
FrontPage Server Extensions 2002 or SharePoint Team=20
Services from Microsoft installed. =20

Add a Custom Link Bar:

Position the cursor where you want your link bar.  Choose=20
Insert | navigation and the =91Insert Web Component=92 Dialog=20
box opens.  In the right pane, click =91Bar With Custom Links=92.=20
Click Next and the dialog moves on to open up with a selection=20
of link bar styles.  Select the style you want, click Next=20
and the Dialog box then asks you to select an orientation=20
for the link bar.

NOTE: If you don=92t make a link bar style selection, another=20
dialog box will appear, asking you to select a link bar style.=20

When you have selected your orientation click Finish and=20
=91Link Bar Properties=92 Dialog box opens. Click =91Create New=92=20
and type a name for your new link bar, click OK.  Click=20
=91Add link=92 and find the page you want to be on your custom=20
link bar, select it by clicking it. Or, type its URL in the=20
=91Address=92 box.=20

In the =91Text to display=92 box; type the text you want to show=20
on the link bar.=20

Click OK. Repeat these steps for each link you want to add=20
to the link bar. The page appears with  +Add Link as a=20

Creating Back and Next Links:

A simpler method of navigation is to use the back and next links.

When you add a page to a link bar with back and next links,=20
Microsoft FrontPage determines the order of how the pages=20
will be linked (using the back and next buttons) from how=20
the pages are ordered in the folder structure.=20

In addition to these choices for a link bar, you can also=20
include hyperlinks to the web site's home page and/or to=20
the parent of the current page, and you can also link to=20
external web pages. =20

In Page view | Insert | Navigation | Right pane click =91Bar=20
with Back and next links=92.  Click Next and select the link=20
bar, or, if your page uses a theme, click =91Use Page's Theme=92. =20

NOTE: If a theme has been applied to your web site, button=20
link bars will use fonts, colours, and other style elements=20
from the theme. If you click Use Page's Theme and your=20
page does not use a theme, the link bar will use the default=20
text of the page. =20

Click Next.  Choose orientation.  Click Finish and the =91Link=20
Bar Properties=92 Dialog box opens with the same settings=20
from the previous selection.

If you want a different look, click =91Create New=92 and type=20
a name for your new link bar and modify the style of the=20
back and next links, then click the style tab and make a=20
selection. You can also choose =91Use Active Graphics=92 and=20
=91Use Vivid colours=92.

NOTE:  If you select an external page to add, you will be=20
able to link to it (using Back or Next on the link bar, depending=20
on where it is in the list) but not from it (as you cannot add=20
the same link bar to a page outside this web site).  Also if you=20
view the Back and Next link bar from the index.htm page=20
there is no back page because you can only move forward=20
through the site from the home page.=20

Click OK. =20

Save all the pages and preview in the browser. The Back=20
and Next links now follow in the same order as the link bar,=20
also the order of the pages in the Links box of the Link Bar=20
Properties window also specifies the order in which the back=20
and next links will link.=20

NOTE:  If you change any of the link bars (such as the=20
order or page label) while in Navigation view, the link bars=20
on your web pages will reflect these changes. However,=20
you must right-click the blue background in Navigation view=20
and click Apply Changes on the shortcut menu.=20

If you clicked the Use Active Graphics check box the=20
button will show a highlight when you mouse over it.=20

Creating a Changing Link Bar:

A changing link bar is most useful for sites that have=20
numerous pages listed in their navigational structure.=20
FrontPage includes two powerful features, shared borders=20
and navigation bars, with which you create =91live=92 hyperlinks. =20
They are =91live' in the sense that they are automatically=20
updated even though you may radically alter the structure=20
of your site. Best of all, FrontPage will give you precise=20
control over which pages are linked, based on their=20
structural relationship to each other, for example you can=20
ask FrontPage to generate hyperlinks to any page above=20
the selected page (known as a parent page), to all pages on=20
the same level as the selected page, or to any page below=20
it=92s level (a child page). =20

FrontPage can also create navigation bars for single pages,=20
make sure you position single-page navigation bars in a=20
border not already being used by a site-wide bar, for=20
example if you have created site-wide navigation bars=20
across the top of all your pages, you will need to put your=20
single-page bar below that area or on the sides or bottom=20
of the page.=20

Shared borders can only be used for a website though, not=20
single pages, If the shared borders choice appears dimmed=20
this is because you don=92t have a website open. However you=20
can turn off shared borders for single pages within the=20
website.  Besides using them for navigation, shared borders=20
are also a great place to put any site-wide information that=20
may need regular updating. (More about this in Part III)=20
With shared borders you can change the information in only=20
one place and it will be automatically updated on every page.

Before setting up, you need to order the structure of your=20
site.  In Navigation view, do one or more of the following:=20

- Click the page in the Folder List, and drag it to the position in=20
the structure where you want it. If the Folder List is not=20
showing, on the View menu, click Folder List.

- Click the page, and then drag it to another location, such=20
as under or next to another page.

- Right-click the page, click Rename on the shortcut menu,=20
and then edit the name.=20

- Right-click the existing page, point to New, and then=20
click Page on the shortcut menu.=20

- Click the page, and then press DELETE.=20

NOTE: This does not delete your page from your web site.=20


1. Save changes without switching views. Right-click on the=20
view background, and then click Apply Changes on the=20
shortcut menu.
2. To open a page to edit it, double-click the page.
3. You might like to PRINT your navigation view to give you=20
a clearer idea on how you want to proceed.  In Navigation=20
view, Got to File | Print and specify printing options, such as=20
the printer name and number of copies you want. To see=20
how the navigation structure will appear when printed,=20
click Print Preview on the File menu.

To Set Shared Borders:=20

Open up the website for which you want to set navigation=20
borders Go to Format | Shared Borders, the =91Shared=20
Borders=92 Dialog box will appear. Choose the  =91All Pages=92=20
radio button. Set the border you want the navigation bar=20
to appear on, you have a choice of left, right, top or bottom=20
and the related =91Include navigation buttons=92.  A dashed line=20
will appear within the dialog box showing where the=20
navigation bar(s) will appear.

TIP: Only the Top, left and right choices let you show=20
hyperlinks to other pages. In the =91Shared borders=92 Dialog=20
box, however, you may insert a navigation bar directly=20
from the menu Insert | Navigation.

New Feature: While you are still in the =91Shared Borders=92=20
Dialog box click the Border Properties button at the=20
bottom of the box, and here you can now Colour the=20
borders or insert a graphic or both for all borders.=20

Add a Link Bar Based on the Navigation Structure:

In Page view, position the insertion point where you want=20
to place the link bar (In this example the left shared border).=20

NOTE: When you click in the shared border the dashed line=20
changes to a solid one.=20

Go to Insert | Navigation, in the right pane click Bar based=20
on navigation structure, click Next. Select the link bar style=20
you want to use for this link bar. Or, if your page uses a=20
theme, click Use Page's Theme. If a theme has been applied=20
to your web site, button link bars will use fonts, colours, and=20
other style elements from the theme. If you click Use Page's=20
Theme and your page does not use a theme, the link bar will=20
use the default text of the page. Click Next.=20

Choose the page orientation of the link bar (vertical or=20
horizontal), and click Finish. Under Hyperlinks to add to=20
page, select the type of hyperlinks you want on the link bar.=20
(Based on your choices, the squares in the left hand site=20
tree will change to show which pages relative to the current=20
page will be linked. You can add two other links by clicking=20
the additional pages choices) Click OK.=20

NOTE: The navigation structure for the link bar is=20
determined by the order of pages in Navigation view.=20

A link bar might seem useful when you view it from one page,=20
but you might not like the selection of hyperlinks when you=20
view the link bar from a different page. Since a link bar=20
inside a shared border has the same settings for all pages=20
using the shared border, you must be careful how you set=20
up the link bar.

Apart from these methods outlined above a much more=20
customised way which requires slightly more maintenance=20
is to use include pages. (More about this in Part III next issue).=20

Once again, MenuPlus (see ABC, Vol. 9) can customise your=20
navigation bars even up to and including bookmarks you can=20
choose from a number of preset styles, create your own=20
custom version, create a custom style from scratch, or base=20
it on one of the preset styles and even specify the scripting=20
to be placed around the individual parts of the navigation bar=20
by using the tabs at the bottom, if you are familiar with HTML.=20
When you're done creating your custom style, you can then=20
save it for future use.  Using the separate Style Manager=20
application included in the package, you can back up your=20
favourite styles (stored in the Registry) to a file.  As well=20
as a security measure, this is also a great way to swap styles=20
with others - such as when collaborating on a project.=20
(At the moment) MenuPlus is available for $9:95 it is usually=20
around $25. It can be obtained at the lower price from:
Tina Clarke is the Webmaster of AccessFP - FrontPage=20
Resource Centre=20
and an editor of "AnyFrontPage Bytes Ezine". Subscribe to=20
the FrontPage ezine and get FREE FrontPage E-Books upon=20
******************STATION BREAK***********************
Do you want to know the latest on FrontPage? Do you want=20
Tips, news, articles, links and ebooks on FrontPage? Well the=20
AnyFrontPage Bytes Ezine is the best place for your FrontPage=20
and web crafting needs, join up at:=20
Are you looking for resources for FrontPage? Want to know=20
where all the best FP links are? The hosts, the lists, the forums?=20
Use AccessFP - FrontPage Resources Centre as the start site=20
for your FrontPage Information facts.=20
~~Chad K. Welch
Administrative:  A few episodes ago we created a table of contents=20
sheet in Excel.  However, it has been brought to my attention by=20
an alert reader that the hyperlinks don=92t work if the worksheet=20
name contains a space.  That can be fixed by replacing line 31 with=20
SubAddress:=3D"'" & ws.Name & "'!A1", _ =20

Thanks Don!

I do a little bit of VBA programming and have learned quite a=20
bit from your column.  I have a suggestion for you to cover=85=20
Dates.  I can=92t seem to understand how they work.  Oh, and=20
calculations such as time between=85 forget it! =20


Thank you, Julie, for a good suggestion.  Dates have been a=20
stumbling block for a lot of people.  However, I=92m sure that=20
once you understand how they work, you=92ll agree they really=20
aren=92t that hard to use.

First of all, the basic unit of a date used in all Microsoft=20
products is the day.  One day equals one unit. If we subtract=20
one day from the previous day we will get one.  To show that,=20
do the following in Excel:

In cell A3 enter the formula =3DA1-A2.=20
Enter a date in cell A1 for example 4 Jul 2002=20
Enter the previous day in cell A2 3 Jul 2002=20
You=92ll notice that 1 is shown in cell A3.  In fact enter any=20
two dates in A1 and A2.  A3 will display the days between=20
the dates.=20

How about times?  They can be calculated the same way. =20
What is the basic unit of time in Microsoft?  The day.  That=20
means that each hour, minute and second can be represented=20
as a fraction of a day.  One hour is 1/24 of a day.  One=20
minute is 1/(24*60) or 1/1440 of a day.  Enter two times=20
in cells A1 and A2 on the same worksheet used above. =20
For example enter 3:00 PM in A1 and 12:00 PM in A2. =20
Cell A1 will show 0.125 as the difference. =20
That, incidentally, is 3/24.

Unfortunately, it isn=92t as convenient to display the months=20
or years between dates.  After all, one day will always have=20
24 hours, but how many days are in a month? 28, 29, 30=20
or 31?  I=92ll let you in on a little secret called the DATEDIF=20
formula that will display the differences very easily.  It=20
must be a secret since it has been available since version 95,=20
but has never appeared in the function list in Excel.  The=20
function is described very well in the help files included with=20
version 2000, so I won=92t take the time to describe it here.=20


The biggest problem that people have understanding dates=20
in Microsoft products is the way it chooses the cell formats. =20
Let=92s look at the first example above again, but reverse the=20
steps.  Open a new worksheet and do the following:

Enter a date in cell A1 for example 4 Jul 2002=20
Enter the previous day in cell A2 3 Jul 2002=20
Now in cell A3 enter the formula =3DA1-A2=20
Cell A3 should display 1-Jan-00.  Excel tries to be smart. =20
If you are using dates in your function, it will display the=20
result as a date as well.  Select the cell and choose Cells=20
from the Format menu.  Then choose the general or a number=20
format.  Click OK and cell A3 should show 1 as expected.=20

Dates can be simple if you know the format that the result=20
should be displayed in.  The second example above displayed=20
0.125.  That=92s all fine and dandy unless you don=92t want the=20
result displayed as a fraction of a day.  Suppose we wanted=20
it displayed as 3:00 meaning three hours zero minutes. =20
Choose Cells from the Format menu again.  In the list there=20
is a Time category, however there isn=92t a format that will suit=20
our needs.  Instead select the Custom category.  In the type=20
box type [h]:mm.  Click OK and cell A3 will display 3:00 as=20
we would like.  As you might guess, in the custom formats,=20
h is for hour, m for minutes, s for seconds, d for days, M=20
for months and y for years.  So if you wanted a format to=20
display Thursday, July 4, 2002 7:00 PM use the custom=20
format dddd, MMMM d, yyyy h:mm AM/PM.  Look up=20
=93Number Format Codes=94 in the help files for more information.=20

This month we haven=92t done anything with VBA.  I decided to=20
plow the way with dates in general.  Next month we=92ll take=20
a look at some of the quirks and nuances of using dates in VBA.=20

Remember, the offer still stands, $5.00 to anyone who=20
sends me a question or idea that I can use in this section.
Chad K. Welch works as a technician/enabler in Utah. He is=20
available for consulting or application programming with=20
Microsoft Office and VBA. Contact him directly for more=20
information at chad@xxxxxxxxxxxxx
~~Corey Seaton
The following article contains instructions for advanced=20
NAT configuration using port mapping. Port mapping is=20
required for some specific things, such as client computers=20
receiving files via ICQ. It is not necessary to read any further=20
unless you wish to enhance your network with this kind of=20

What is a port, anyway?=20

For 2 computers on the Internet to talk to one another,=20
a connection must first be established. To establish a=20
connection, one computer (the client - NOT the same definition=20
as was used for the local network you've already set up!)=20
sends a message to the other computer (the server),=20
requesting a connection. It's like one computer is making=20
a phone call to the other. Also like a phone call, the initial=20
request for a connection is one-way; but once the connection=20
is established, each computer can send and receive information.=20

Now extend the phone call analogy to imagine that instead=20
of 2 people talking on the phone, a person from one large=20
company calls a person from another large company. Each=20
company has heaps of phones, but the caller uses just one=20
of their company's phones to call out, and the person receiving=20
the call uses just one of their company's phones to answer.=20
All of the phones in one company share the first few digits=20
of their phone number, but they each have a different=20

In an Internet connection, a similar process occurs. Each=20
computer has many "ports", and when a computer sends a=20
connection request, it sends it from a particular "outgoing"=20
port on that computer (i.e. the client) to a particular=20
"incoming" port on the server. Thus the first part of the=20
"phone number" is equivalent to the IP address of the=20
relevant computer, and the "extension" is equivalent to=20
the port number.=20

For example, let's say you surf to www.optushome.com.au ,=20
which has an IP address of Your computer=20
(the client) sends a connection request from a particular=20
port on your computer (it doesn't matter which) to=20, port 80. Port 80 is the standard port number=20
used for web browsing. The web-server accepts the=20
connection, and sends you the WebPages. Now you have a=20
connection established with that computer (
and you can request WebPages, files etc and it can send=20
them to you. =20

Your computers can continue to talk until one of the=20
computers closes this connection. Your web browser handles=20
all of this, so you don't need to know what's going on=20
underneath the shiny surface.=20

Everything you do on the Internet is based on this simple=20
premise - communication between 2 computers is established=20
after one computer requests a connection from the other.=20
Note that the outgoing port is generally unimportant,=20
whereas the incoming port (which is specified by the=20
computer requesting a connection) is very important; as=20
different services are assigned to different ports (e.g.=20
port 80 for WWW). So the client computer could request=20
a connection on a weird port such as 8754, and the server=20
may accept it; but more likely the server will think "8754?=20
What on earth is that for?" and reject the request.=20

Some more examples of connections include:=20

- Your computer (the client) sends a request from any=20
port to port 21 on the server=20
 Sending email=20
- Your computer (the client) sends a request from any=20
port to port 25 on the server (the SMTP server)=20
 Receiving email=20
- Your computer (the client) sends a request from any=20
port to port 110 on the server (the POP server)=20
 Sharing files with Napster=20
- (1) If you are downloading from another user, your=20
computer is the client. Thus your computer sends a request=20
from any port to port 6699 on the computer with the song=20
you're downloading. This incoming port doesn't need to be=20
6699; it can be anything, and is specified by the Napster=20
preferences on the other computer. However, 6699 is the=20
- (2) If, on the other hand, another user wants to download=20
a song from you, their computer sends a request from any=20
port to port 6699 (or whichever you've specified in your=20
Napster preferences) on your computer.=20
Sharing files with ICQ=20
- This is similar to Napster, but ICQ likes to use multiple=20
ports. =20

So (1) If you are sending a file to another user, your=20
computer is the client - it sends a request from any port=20
to "a port" on the computer that you're sending the file to.=20
I say "a port" because it depends on the ICQ configuration=20
of the person you're sending the file to; it generally has to=20
be within a range, e.g. between 20000 and 20009.=20
(2) If, on the other hand, another user is sending a file to=20
you, their computer sends a request from any port to "a port"=20
(specified in your ICQ preferences) on your computer. =20

Did you get all that? :-)=20

You may need to read over it a couple of times to understand=20
exactly what I mean. Anyway, the important thing is this -=20
any computer in your network that is receiving its internet=20
connection via NAT (basically your client computers, and=20
I'm going back to the definition of client that we were using=20
in the rest of the guide) can send connection requests, but=20
can not receive them.

The ramifications of this are easy to determine if you look=20
at the above examples of connections. WWW, FTP, sending=20
email and receiving email work fine, as do downloading in=20
Napster and sending files in ICQ. However, allowing others=20
to download from you in Napster, and receiving files in ICQ,=20
require that your computer can receive a connection request.=20
Thus, none of your client computers can upload in Napster=20
or receive files in ICQ.=20

Port Mapping=20

Port mapping is a feature of a NAT program that gets around=20
this problem. Normally, any incoming connection requests go=20
straight to the server computer. The server computer has no=20
way of knowing which computer on the home network the=20
connection request was intended for, so by default it takes=20
all such requests. Port mapping is a process whereby you can=20
tell the server computer "please forward any requests for a=20
connection on port x to computer 192.168.0.y".=20

For example, let's say you had a client computer,=20, running Napster; and that you wanted people=20
to be able to download your shared songs. Let's say Napster=20
was configured to accept connections on port 6699, the=20
default. You could configure your server to allow this by=20
saying "please forward any requests for a connection on=20
port 6699 to computer". If you had another=20
computer,, also running Napster, you could=20
configure its version of Napster to accept connections on=20
port 6700. Then you could configure the server to "please=20
forward any requests for a connection on port 6700 to=20

Port mapping thus allows your client computers to accept=20
connections from other computers on the Internet, which=20
they would have been otherwise unable to do. The most=20
common applications of this are Napster and ICQ, but it is=20
equally applicable to any program that needs the computer=20
to accept connections.=20

Mapping Ports on the Server=20

For each NAT routing program I'll show you how to set up=20
port mapping by way of 2 examples - Napster (a program=20
that requires a single port) and ICQ (requiring multiple ports).=20

Windows 2000/XP Internet Connection Sharing =20

To map ports in Windows 2000/XP ICS, open your=20
"Network and Dial-up connections" Control Panel. Right-click=20
on the network card that's connected to the Internet and=20
choose "Properties". Click on the "Sharing" tab. Click on=20
"Settings". Click on the "Services" tab. Here you can add=20
port mappings.=20

The first example is Napster - let's say you want the=20
computer to receive connections on port 6699=20
so that it can share files. You would click "Add...=94 Call this=20
port map "Napster6699", choose service port number 6699,=20
TCP, and enter as the IP address. Click "OK" to=20
add this port mapping to Windows ICS. If you wanted=20 to receive Napster connections as well, you=20
could do the same thing but with port 7000, and so on.

Now for ICQ. Later you'll need to configure the ICQ=20
program on the client computer and tell it exactly which=20
ports it should use to accept connections. I recommend=20
using ports 20000-20009 for the first computer running=20
ICQ, 20010-20019 for the second one and so on. Thus,=20
to enable ICQ to receive files on the computer,=20
add port maps for ports 20000-20009. Click "Add...=94 Call=20
this port map "ICQ20000", choose service port number=20
20000, TCP, and enter as the IP address.

Now do the same for ports 20001 to 20009.

You now know how to add port mappings for applications=20
that need to accept connections on 1, or multiple, ports.=20
You should now be able to add port mappings for any other=20
applications that need to accept connections. Good luck!=20

However, these port mappings won't work unless the=20
relevant applications on the client computer/s are set up=20

Configuring server programs on the client=20

Napster and like programs=20

The default port for Napster to accept connections on is=20
6699. It's fine to leave it as 6699 for the first computer=20
running Napster, but for each subsequent computer you=20
should add 1 to the port number. To tell Napster which=20
port to accept connections on, open the File menu and choose=20
"Preferences..." Click on the "Transfer" tab. The bit you're=20
interested in is "Share files with Napster users on TCP port".=20


Open ICQ on the client computer. Click on the "ICQ" button=20
and choose "Preferences". Open the "Connections" section.=20
Tell ICQ that you have a permanent connection, and to=20
determine your IP address automatically.

Now click on the "Server" tab and tell ICQ that you're=20
using a firewall, but not using a proxy.

You shouldn't need to change anything in the "Firewall" tab.

Now, finally, you get to tell ICQ which port numbers to=20
accept connections on. Click on the "User" tab and choose=20
"Not using Proxy", click "Use the following TCP listen port=20
for incoming event", and enter a port range. ICQ needs to=20
be able to accept connections on several ports to work=20
properly; I recommend using ports 20000-20009 for=20
the first client, 20010-20019 for the second client and=20
so on.

Other Applications That Need To Accept Connections=20

As you can see, the exact configuration of each program=20
is different, but the general principles are the same. For=20
each program on each client computer, you need to=20
(1) configure the server computer to map a port or port=20
range to that client computer,=20
and (2) configure the program on the client computer to=20
accept connections on that port or port range.
Corey Seaton is a Systems Support Officer with Queensland
Health.  He also moderates an email group on Home Networking.
Why don't you join and talk to others who are networking their
home PCs?

There=92s been a lot in the news lately about free e-mail and=20
listservs going to paid versions, loss of privacy for individuals,=20
spamming, and poor service. Here are some e-mail accounts=20
that are still free, followed by other listserv options besides=20


Free E-mail=20

(EDITOR'S NOTE:  To see a table which shows the stats for
each of these services and what they include, go to the online
version of this article here:
http://www.personal-computer-tutor.com/ns11.htm )

Ziplip Secure E-mail
GMX (site only available in German-need to translate to set=20
up account)
Shanjemail (was mailandnews)
http://www.shanjemail.com/ =20

Pop3 Free E-mail Accounts

More Pop3 E-mail Accounts=97Free or Free Trials

Free E-Mail Providers Guide=97US and International, by=20
Supplier or Special Interest

Web-Based POP3 Readers=97These providers allow you to=20
read your POP3-accessible mail through a web-based interface=20
from any computer anywhere in the world.

E-Mail Forwarding, POP3 and Web-based Services

Discussion Groups and Newsletters are another area that=20
is being taken to paid or spam-level heights. Here are some=20
Listservs that are still free and provide other options.=20

Topica=97Can read messages from web, or sent to your=20
inbox at address that you choose.

Smartgroups--Each SmartGroup has a: homepage with=20
basic group information (SmartGroups.com automatically=20
sets it up), message area, event calendar,=20
files area, picture albums, voting area, classified ads,=20
simple database system

Freelists=97lists are all internet and technology-related=20
without the support of advertisements.

VPMail=97Ads on free version. Moderator and subscriber=20
options, archives.
NightSneak is a private investigator and a collector of URLs. =20
Her specialties are security and privacy.
~~ by Kathy Jacobs
When someone thinks about a computer problem today, they=20
are likely to complain about bugs in the software or hardware.=20
Did you ever wonder why? One explanation provided by=20
computer historians is that actual bugs were found in an=20
old military machine in the mid-1940's.=20

Some Background

In the early days of computing, computers were room-sized=20
masses of circuit boards and wires. Instead of programmers=20
creating programs that could be run over and over, engineers=20
wrote lengthy instructions for wiring the circuits to evaluate=20
the data and find the answer to a problem. These instructions=20
were then passed to clerks who would change the existing=20
wires and set the inputs to the first set of data.

Many things could go wrong between the engineer's=20
conception of the solution and the execution of the computer=20
problem. The engineer could have developed the wrong solution=20
or could have a logic problem in the solution. The clerk could=20
have wired the diagrams incorrectly. One of the boards could=20
have overheated or cracked. All of these were likely causes=20
of problems.

Buggy Computers

However, the very first problem reported was an actual=20
physical bug. According to Grace Hopper, a computer pioneer,=20
the first bug she found was in the Mark I. A moth had actually=20
flown into the computer and gotten to the wires. That bug was=20
saved in a 1945 logbook, which now can be found in the=20
Smithsonian Museum in Washington DC.=20

Other bug examples include:=20

 *A caterpillar that hatched inside a machine in a seldom=20
changed area =20
 *A fly zapped by the current running through the wires=20
or across the boards. =20
 *A creepy crawler entangled in the wires =20
 *Spider webs in little used areas of the computers =20

In each of these cases, the wires would short out and the=20
boards or wires would need to be replaced.=20

When the bugs were found, the clerks would have to stop=20
work, gather up the invader or invaders, and run a full check=20
on the machine. Since these occurrences cost a lot of time=20
and were frequent, people continued calling computer errors=20

Other Origins of the Word

Other computer historians have disagreed with the claim=20
that this was the beginning of the use of the term. Some of=20
them attribute the word to Thomas Edison, who was known=20
to spend hours working on his inventions.=20

However, it is most likely that the word is even older than=20
that. There is a German phrase "bugbear" which has been=20
long used for an error which is hard to track down or solve.=20

No matter how the term started, we should all be glad=20
that our current computer bugs are of the software and=20
hardware kind rather than the live kind!=20
Kathryn Jacobs, BrainBench MVP, MS PowerPoint
Get PowerPoint answers at http://www.powerpointanswers.com
Cook anything outdoors with http://www.outdoorcook.com
Hardware, software, and history: http://www.oldcpu.com

Kathy is a trainer, writer, Girl Scout, parent, and whatever else=20
there is time for.

"I believe life is meant to be lived. But: if we live without=20
making a difference, it makes no difference that we lived"
~~ by Shelley Lowery
The Aesop Meta Tag is a new standard that is dramatically=20
changing the way we search the Internet. This new Meta=20
Tag not only returns highly targeted search results, but it=20
also provides website owners with highly targeted traffic.

The concept is simple. The Aesop Meta Tag provides website=20
owners with a standardized method of classifying their web=20
pages into one of six categories. The Search Engine matches=20
the search terms with appropriate web pages according to=20
the classification. This enables the Search Engine to return=20
fast and relevant results for users -- while at the same time,=20
driving highly targeted traffic to the websites.

When classifying a website, webmasters can categorize each=20
page within their website rather than just one general=20
classification. This allows for precise targeting not only for=20
specific search terms, but also for each page of a website.

The new classification categories are as follows:


The "Sales" classification signifies that the purpose of a web=20
page is to sell a product or service. This includes any web=20
page that plays a role in the sales process or leads to a sales=20
page. This classification will provide those selling a product or=20
service with highly targeted traffic, as the search results will=20
display a sales icon. This icon will immediately let the user=20
know that this particular page is selling a product or service.=20
If they're in the market to buy, they'll click through.


The "Interactive" classification includes web pages that=20
enable visitors to dynamically interact. This includes web=20
pages that provide any of the following:

Email services
Postcard services
Online games
Chat rooms
Bulletin boards

This classification will display the "Interactive" icon within=20
the search results.


The "Multimedia" classification will consist of sites that offer=20
audio, video, animation, graphics or any other form of media=20
that isn't text.

This classification will display the "Multimedia" icon within the=20
search results.

Links to Information

The "Links to Information" classification will include web=20
pages that provide a list of resources or links to other sites.

This classification will display the "Links to Information" icon=20
within the search results.


The "Personal" classification will include web pages that are=20
personal home pages for an individual person or family.

This classification will display the "Personal" icon within the=20
search results.


The "Information" classification will include web pages that=20
don't fit into any of the other categories.

This classification will display the "Information" icon within=20
the search results.

Although the only Search Engine currently utilizing the new=20
Meta tag is aesop.com, I have it on good authority that the=20
other Search Engines are preparing to recognize them as well.=20

For further information about the new Aesop Meta Tag, Visit=20
the official Aesop.com site. You can submit your site and=20
generate your Meta Tags completely free.=20

The days of a "search" returning thousands of irrelevant=20
results is coming to an end -- thanks to the new Aesop=20
Meta Tag. This new Meta Tag will dramatically change the=20
way we search the Internet. If you haven't already done so,=20
it is very important that you prepare your pages now.

Copyright =A9 S Lowery 2001.
Shelley Lowery is the author of Ebook Starter - A complete
ebook design kit. Subscribe to Etips, for a wealth of quality=20
information to assist you in Web Design, Internet Marketing=20
& Ecommerce. All new subscribers receive a free copy of=20
the highly acclaimed ebook, "Killer Internet Marketing=20
~~ by Markus Hoevener=20
The more web sites there are on the internet, the more=20
difficult it becomes for the average webmaster to find=20
his/her audience. You can burn a lot of money for marketing=20
(banner advertising, mail campaigns, even Yahoo! now=20
charges an annual fee of 249$) or go the smart way. If=20
you can afford some time, you're at the right place:=20
The BLOONATIC Approach=20
(learn more about it at http://www.bloonatic.com/approach/). =20
BLOONATIC is a professional site promotion agency that came=20
up with a new site promotion methodology. The focus is on=20
site promotion techniques, that everybody can do and that=20
do not cost you a single cent. Of course, if you do not want=20
to do site promotion and online marketing on your own,=20
BLOONATIC would like to have you as a customer.=20

The BLOONATIC Approach aims at improving your web=20
site's link popularity, i.e. the number and quality of links to it.=20
This will increase quality traffic to your site and - more=20
important - dramatically improve your search engine ranking,=20
because many search engines (Google, AltaVista, ...) rank web=20
pages by their link popularity.=20

The BLOONATIC Approach focuses on three site promotion=20

1.) Hot spots
2.) Link lists
3.) Community outreach=20

1.) Hot spots are high quality, high traffic, authoritive web=20
sites. It can be more important to have a hot spot link to=20
you than to have a hundred links from unimportant personal=20
home pages. Thus, find out which sites are hot spots for=20
your topic and ask them to link to your site; many sites even=20
have an "Add your web site" link for you. One example: If=20
your web site deals with alternative cancer treatment,=20
your hot spots could be www.cancerdecisions.com and=20
Some sites will ask you for reciprocal linking, so you might=20
consider adding a link section to your web site as well.=20

2.) There are many web pages on the internet, that link to=20
competitor sites of yours, but not to your site - you want to=20
change that! Use search engines to find such link lists: Ask=20
Google for "link:www.cancerdecisions.com" and find web=20
pages, that link to www.cancerdecisions.com. It can take=20
some time to contact their webmasters and ask them to=20
link to your site, but it's worth the effort. There is a=20
shortcut to all this: 101 OCTANE (www.101octane.com).=20
This service does all the research and compiles a report for=20
you, that lists hundreds of web pages, that link to your=20

3.) Finally, community outreach is very important. The best=20
advertisement is one that people request! A very easy and=20
convenient way is to visit groups.google.com and to search=20
for people, that ask for a service or product, that your web=20
site can offer. One example: Search for "alternative cancer=20
treatment", reply to messages and tell them about your site.=20
But be aware: You do not want to raise the suspicion of=20
sending spam. Your postings should always be informative=20
and helpful to others.
If you want to learn more about the BLOONATIC Approach,=20
please visit=20
or contact me: Markus Hoevener (markus@xxxxxxxxxxxxx).
Well, gang.....that's about it for this edition of=20
ABC ~ All 'Bout Computers. I sure hope you enjoyed it! If=20
any of it was over your head and you need some clarification=20
from one of the Fleet, just send me an email at=20
ABComputers-owner@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx and I will pass it on=20
to them. Remember that they do this in their spare time on=20
a voluntary basis, so you might have to wait for an answer.=20
To make all things work more quickly, include as many details=20
as you can in your email and make your questions as specific=20
as possible. Also, feel free to write to me and let us know=20
what you want the Fleet to teach you. This is YOUR newsletter!
Happy computing, my friends!
Linda Johnson
In order to get what you want, you must send your email=20
to the right place. These are the correct addresses to use:

Subscribe: ABComputers-subscribe@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Unsubscribe: ABComputers-unsubscribe@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Ezine owner: ABComputers-owner@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Or, you can go to the homepage for this newsletter and=20
change any of your subscription preferences:=20

This FREE publication is sent ONLY to people who have=20
requested it.

Note: My subscriber list is NOT made available to other=20
companies. I value every subscriber and respect your privacy.=20

Do you know anyone who might be interested in receiving=20
this newsletter? Please feel free to forward it on to them=20
and invite them to subscribe.
Routine Disclaimer: Although I make an effort to check=20
out every advertisement and link, I cannot assume=20
responsibility for the actions of my advertisers, or the=20
availability of links. You use the information provided at=20
your own risk, it is always wise to back up your data=20
before editing.

All advice given in this newsletter/ezine or at Linda's=20
Computer Stop is given with the best of intentions and=20
should only be taken as a suggestion and not a definite=20
fix to a problem.=20

ABC ~ All 'Bout Computers and Linda's Computer Stop=20
are the property of Linda F. Johnson. The views expressed=20
by readers or contributors are not necessarily those of=20
Linda F. Johnson and, as editor, she reserves the right to=20
deny inclusion of any contributions if she feels they could=20
be harmful to someone's computer. However, just because=20
she allows it to be included, does not mean she is responsible=20
if it causes problems.=20

Please help promote ABComputers by linking to my sites.=20

or, click on these links to become an affiliate under me and=20
you will earn money if you sell any of my ebooks=20
(or any other books published by these companies, for that matter):=20

Thank you for reading "ABC ~ All 'Bout Computers".

(Copyright) 2001, 2002 - ABC ~ All 'Bout Computers,=20
Linda F. Johnson, MA.=20

ABC may only be redistributed in its unedited form. Written=20
permission from the editor must be obtained to reprint or=20
cite the information contained within this newsletter.=20

Please feel free to forward this newsletter to any of your=20
associates who might benefit from this information.=20

If you are receiving this issue as a forward, and would like=20
to get your own free subscription, please see subscription=20
management above, or visit=20
to see back issues.

Thank you and I hope to continue to bring you a newsletter=20
that you will actually want to read.

Linda Johnson

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