Fountain pens, though seemingly simple, employ a vast range of manufacturing techniques and filling systems. Manufacturing techniques range from modern resinous materials to celluloids that must be cured: for years, sometimes, before they are structurally stable. Often, lacquer finishes over various metals are used as less expensive alternatives. Filling systems can be as simple as those that accept ink by capillary action to those that require multistage pistons and assorted seals to effect the necessary vacuum.Lastly, even the inks vary widely and are a source of discussion. Until recently, there were only a few that had true archival qualities. Nowadays, many everyday inks have the quality of bonding with the cellulose in paper to produce documents that stand up to the strongest efforts of those who would tamper with checks or documents.These are the technologies that make up typical discussions between fountain pen enthusiasts. It is expected that the threads of conversation will range from types of fountain pens, their use and maintenance and even the properties of their fuel (inks) and how the use of various inks affects the writing from the pen.