[SI-LIST] Re: BGA Breakout.

Lee,
When I decided in 2001/2002 to go for 2 traces between 1mm pitch vias, I
did so on the basis of 10 years layouting experience, detailed knowledge
of the PCB manufacturing process, and close contact with a small handful
of high quality PCB manufacturers - I like to be at least 99% sure that
I'm doing the right thing before I do it... although I recognise, even
if I'm 100% sure I'm right, I'm still wrong sometimes (particularly in
'discussions' with my better-half :)!).

Nevertheless, thanks for the article - nicely written, containing much
of the basic PCB manufacturing information that I find many
layouters/engineers _should_ be fully aware of, but aren't. Actually, it
astounds me how few people seem to even begin to use such resources that
so many well-educated and/or well-informed professionals like yourself
go to the effort to make freely available - a few minutes to google and
the motivation to self-educate are all they really need.

Anyway, I think where we are kind of getting short-circuited :) has
simply (or at least mostly) to do with the board thickness: based on
your assumption of 120 mil boards, I would essentially agree with
everything in your article. What I _wouldn't_ agree with is that a 1400+
ball BGA necessarily (or even usually) requires 22-26+ layers, and
therefore a 100+ mil board, and therefore only one trace between vias
would be possible; that there are board thicknesses where 2 traces
between 1mm pitch vias makes no sense, or is physically impossible,
should be clear and was never an issue for me.

As I wrote, I take measures to make sure that I don't even approach this
thickness (where possible), exactly _because_ of the reasons you
mentioned. At around 20 layers/2,0mm board thickness (even up to 26
layers/2,4mm), the problems are the same... BUT the numbers are
different: a 0,2mm (8 mil) or 0,25mm (10 mil) drill is then (depending
upon exact board thickness and manufacturer) no problem with regards to
achieving adequate plating in the vias. This, as I said, opens the way
to 0,5mm (20 mil) via pads and 2 traces between the via with no risk of
bad yields (provided good layouting techniques are employed, of
course!), leading in turn to more affordable boards.

That this may mean you have to consider differential pair
coupling/routing at a different level than just whether you can achieve
a required impedance or not, is (or should be) a no-brainer, hence the
simple and short comment in the first paragraph of my last mail (that it
depends upon how the signals are to be routed). At the end of the day,
not all high-ballcount BGAs require all signal pins to be routed
differentially for 10+ GHz :).

Another possibly critical factor is the targeted production volume, for
obvious reasons - with regards to that, you don't specify a number in
your article and I didn't mention this in my first email. Really, it's a
key question that has to be asked right at the beginning of any project,
as I'm sure you know and appreciate - I think we both failed to ask this
key question before volunteering an answer, or rather, we should have
mentioned it as a qualifying factor.

Still, there are many other factors that could be discussed too, but the
basic essence of my answer was and remains: I am 100% sure that it could
(perhaps even should) easily be possible for Surita to produce a
functioning and reliable volume-production layout for a 1400+ ball BGA
running 2 traces between 1mm pitch vias, just as the original Intel
application note states. My personal experience confirms this, at least
for me.

Although... maybe this is one of those cases where I am 100% sure I'm
right, but I'm still wrong ;)?!

Regards,
Sol

P.S. Before 2001, I also, as Robert Szumowicz mentioned, resorted to
off-grid vias for some years, back in the days when most people quaked
in their boots at the idea of 0,1mm and smaller traces... actually, I
thought _I_ had "invented" it - damn ;)!



Lee Ritchey schrieb:
> Sol,
>
> I have attached an analysis I did of clearances, tolerances and reliability
> requirements when routing PCBs.  Hope this makes it clear what the risks
> are when routing 2 between on 1 mm pitch BGAs.
>
> Lee
>
>
>   
>> [Original Message]
>> From: Sol Tatlow <Sol.Tatlow@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
>> To: Lee Ritchey <leeritchey@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>
>> Cc: Surita Chandani <surita.chandani@xxxxxxxxx>; <si-list@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>
>> Date: 1/18/2010 1:39:42 PM
>> Subject: [SI-LIST] Re: BGA Breakout.
>>
>> With all respect, Lee, I beg to differ (at least a little bit ;)!): I
>> personally have routed many boards with 1mm BGAs of over 1700 balls
>> (with 1200+ signals, ALL 1700+ balls connected), and, depending upon how
>> these signals are to be routed (which is, admittedly, a fairly big
>> 'depending'), 18 layers can be (and usually is) enough already.
>> Since roughly 2001/2002, I have had such BGAs on boards where I
>> generally have around 18-20 layers in <2,0mm (78 mil) together with
>> 0,5mm (20mil) via pads (the drill doesn't really interest me, in
>> general, just the reliability of the results!) - this leaves 0,1mm (4
>> mil) track and gap (roughly speaking) for 2 tracks between vias... and
>> the '2 traces between the vias' is the key to holding down board
>> thickness and layer count. This has worked for me even up to 26 layers
>> and ~2,5mm board thickness.
>>
>> With (in the meantime) 30,000-60,000 component pins/balls per board, and
>> a resulting via count of only somewhat less than the pin count, it is
>> still possible to have these boards manufactured in series quantities at
>> affordable prices from a comfortable number of manufacturers around the
>> world; the results, in some cases, have been in operation since 2002 and
>> we have very good reliability results across the board (I sweated back
>> then a little, but in the meantime, it's 100% normal... I sleep easily
>> at night now :D!!).
>>
>> One typical problem occurs, of course, in the planning phase: if you
>> assume too many power/gnd _pairs_ (as opposed to _individual_ gnd or pwr
>> layers), you are automatically forced to have a thicker board, where it
>> may no longer be possible to have small enough vias to route 2 tracks
>> between the vias; this is a downward spiral, of course, forcing the
>> number of signal layers up, and then again, the pwr/gnd count.
>>
>> I have, up until now, avoided having exclusively pwr/gnd power
>> sandwiches (however nice an idea these are) for exactly this reason;
>> instead, alternating (in general) GND-SIG-SIG-PWR-SIG-SIG- etc. coupled
>> with good routing strategies has given me very good results - there are
>> many proponents for always using pwr/gnd 'sandwich' pairs, but this is,
>> quite simply, not always necessary).
>>
>> Not that I want to start a fight, Lee, just wanted to voice my
>> experience/opinion :D!!
>>
>> Regards,
>> Sol
>>
>> P.S. What 'affordable' means, depends, of course, on the end product ;),
>> but usually, the 0,1mm track and gap means reduced costs in comparison
>> to thicker boards with more coarse structures and higher layer count...
>> in some cases, you might even go to slightly bigger via pads and LESS
>> than 0,1mm track and gap, to reduce costs... this depends upon the
>> manufacturer, thickness of the board, availability of specific
>> materials, etc.
>>
>> Lee Ritchey schrieb:
>>     
>>> Surita,
>>>
>>> I believe this kind of routing is possible with very thin PCBs with very
>>> small holes such as in laptop motherboards.  However, with very large
>>>       
> BGAs
>   
>>> such as yours, it is unlikely that it w ill route on a thin PCB.  My
>>> experience with BGAs of your size is that a 22-26 layer PCB will be
>>>       
> needed
>   
>>> and that will likely be 100+ mils thick resulting in the need for 12 mil
>>> drills.
>>>
>>> Lee
>>>
>>>
>>>   
>>>       
>>>> [Original Message]
>>>> From: Surita Chandani <surita.chandani@xxxxxxxxx>
>>>> To: <si-list@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>
>>>> Date: 1/15/2010 11:43:41 AM
>>>> Subject: [SI-LIST] Re: BGA Breakout.
>>>>
>>>> Thanks Lee for your comments. 
>>>> The suggestions for two traces between Vias comes directly from Intel
>>>>     
>>>>         
>>> document, also this document is from 2002. Their pitch is 1.067 mm. The
>>> document itself is available at: 
>>>   
>>>       
>>>> http://download.intel.com/support/processors/xeon/sb/25039702.pdf 
>>>> ; Page 43.
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> --- On Fri, 1/15/10, Lee Ritchey <leeritchey@xxxxxxxxxxxxx> wrote:
>>>> Surita,
>>>>
>>>> You are right, you cannot successfully route two traces between pins
>>>>         
> on a
>   
>>>>     
>>>>         
>>> 1
>>>   
>>>       
>>>> mm pitch BGA without significant risk of shorts.
>>>>
>>>> If you drill a 12 mil hole, your antipad does not have to be larger
>>>>         
> than
>   
>>>>     
>>>>         
>>> 32
>>>   
>>>       
>>>> mils.  This leaves you with a 7.37 mil web, which works nicely for a
>>>>     
>>>>         
>>> single
>>>   
>>>       
>>>> trace, but not two traces..  Your surface or signal layer pads can be
>>>>         
> 24
>   
>>>> mils for 1 mil annular ring and 26 mils for 2 mil annular ring.
>>>>
>>>> There will only be pads on inner layers where traces connect.
>>>>
>>>> By the way, what vendor told you to route 2 traces between pins?
>>>>
>>>> Lee Ritchey
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>     
>>>>         
>>>>> [Original Message]
>>>>> From: Surita Chandani <surita.chandani@xxxxxxxxx>
>>>>> To: <si-list@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>
>>>>> Date: 1/14/2010 9:19:08 AM
>>>>> Subject: [SI-LIST] BGA Breakout.
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> Hello Gurus;
>>>>>
>>>>>  
>>>>>
>>>>> I am doing some preliminary calculations on the breakout of
>>>>> a 1,400+  Ball  , BGA. Roughly one half of them are signal
>>>>> connections which would need traces running up to them. The vendor
>>>>>       
>>>>>           
>>> claims
>>>   
>>>       
>>>> you
>>>>     
>>>>         
>>>>> can run two traces between Vias, my calculations are not adding up, I
>>>>>       
>>>>>           
>>>> have a
>>>>     
>>>>         
>>>>> few questions.
>>>>>
>>>>>  
>>>>>
>>>>> 1. Generally, do the Vias have a pad even on the signal
>>>>> layer it is not connecting to?.
>>>>>
>>>>>  
>>>>>
>>>>> 2. Do the Vias have a larger pad on the inner layers?
>>>>>
>>>>>  
>>>>>
>>>>> 3.  With a Ball pitch
>>>>> of 1 mm (39 mils.) and an Antipad of 35 mils, there is hardly any room
>>>>>       
>>>>>           
>>>> for one
>>>>     
>>>>         
>>>>> trace between Vias, what am I doing wrong?
>>>>>
>>>>>  
>>>>>
>>>>> Thanks, 
>>>>>
>>>>>  
>>>>>
>>>>> Surita Chandani
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>        
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>> -- 
>> ________________________________________
>>
>> Sol Tatlow, M. Eng. (Oxon)
>> Product Developer
>>
>> Pro Design Electronic GmbH
>> Albert-Mayer-Str. 16
>> D-83052 Bruckmuehl
>> Phone: +49 (0) 8062/808-302
>> PCFax: +49 (0) 8062/808-2302
>> sol.tatlow@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
>> www.prodesign-europe.com
>> ________________________________________
>>
>> Vertretungsberechtigte Geschaeftsfuehrer:
>> Helmut Mahr, Ulrike Angersbach, Stephan Roeslmair, Dieter Lessenich
>>
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-- 
________________________________________

Sol Tatlow, M. Eng. (Oxon)
Product Developer

Pro Design Electronic GmbH
Albert-Mayer-Str. 16
D-83052 Bruckmuehl
Phone: +49 (0) 8062/808-302
PCFax: +49 (0) 8062/808-2302
sol.tatlow@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
www.prodesign-europe.com
________________________________________

Vertretungsberechtigte Geschaeftsfuehrer:
Helmut Mahr, Ulrike Angersbach, Stephan Roeslmair, Dieter Lessenich

Registergericht: Amtsgericht Traunstein  Registernummer: HRB 13 002



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