It's difficult to say that Britain has similar military-industry (and research) complex to that of US. But it has networks of weapon makers/dealers - and relevant industries and R&D institutes and even trade union sectors. One in ten - British is involved in Military relevant industry. (In states, people say one in four - ) But there has been signs that 'Cr' is creeping up to or getting absorbed by the ranks of elites and reps in the military and British govt. The dubious character of British 'Ethical Foreign Policy' - there are respectable actitivities, by UK activists and UK court judges done at those issues of weapon selling to the Indonesian govt - still it looks former Imperial govt's militaristic links/networks within itself and outside world is extensive and secretively deep. Also some aspects of UK's commitment toward Sierra Leone mission is not totally clearly - 'CR' - rather it looks like 'a test trial' for the recolonisation of west Africa. British troops are training Sierra Leone's national troops and some UN troops - but as you may know in past 3 to 4 years - Pentagon has been facilitating all those trainings for African militaries - like they do in Latin America - and in a way, it is possible to regard that UK just hopped on the same thing lately. (of course there is a need for more delicate argument.) ---UK is an excoloniser of the region and it probably still living the rivalry with France - UK retreated from its colony in fairly smooth way but French made a lot of mess - so UK has its pride that its ex-colonies would remain okay - (but recent years, erruptions everywhere )- so they need to do something new - another historical page. --- The issue of Genoa summit was about 'Central Asia' - among elites - and one British bureaucrat slipped his tongue at radio 'The world is now competing for the interest in the Central Asian region and we need to apply 'contingency and complimentarity principles' to success in this competition [The hell shows this guy read Cr paper but didn't understand what it means] - more over we need public support from British citizens - our people haven't been updated about 'our' potential interest in that Central Asia region - we need to educate them that we cannot lose this competition in the Central Asia. We need understanding and support to win this competition. ' so, even the Guradians are the instrument 'Let's steer what people discuss next - Let's decide what Peace studies students would argue next.' We are living in the big hands, caught and fed. And when this Genoa summit was at closing, finally Tony Blair mentioned to that word - 'We don't have time to waste - (it was about probably Kyoto protocol thing with US: no it was about Africa - ) - we need to keep up - there are many things we need to do - like that of 'Conflict Resolution'. ------------------------------------------------------------------------ QUESTION: You talk about this being a Marshall Plan for Africa - is this going to be backed up by real money, real resources, or is it just something which is full of good intentions but is not going to deliver anything on the ground? PRIME MINISTER: It can be and should be backed up by not just resources but by private sector investment, by measures like the global health fund to tackle killer diseases, but it can only happen as part of a deal, as part of an agreement in which we the wealthy countries of the world are doing more for Africa but Africa is also doing more for itself and tackling the problems of corrupt governments, commercial and legal systems that don't work, and ###conflict resolution.### So I think there is a great deal more that we can and should do, but we can only do it as part of an agreement, we cannot do it without that conditionality. http://www.fco.gov.uk/news/newstext.asp?5179 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ And as we've been witnessing - British Cr or Bradford Cr has been commiting itself to the issues of FYR. As I always say they don't look in history and nationalism issues - so they won't make it - It would require 7 to 8 experts in one place - and hard language course with much better lecture contents - to raise really effective 'mediaters' or 'bridging workers' between Western Europe and FYR/south eastern Europe region. But they try to do their apologistic job about UN mission/instrument design. At the PCR, week 7 or 8 I questioned to TW about how much Cr is involved in the currently ongoing Mcdn conflict - I listed up questions - and then TW said - he was receptive and showed genuine curiosity towards them - I saw - but he said 'it is interesting question so keep that OHP and sheets - when Laina comes back from balkans we may have special sessions. ' Laina - but I don't know how she is that good. http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/nm/20010801/wl/balkans_macedonia_dc_212.html The (Macedonian)army, which has used long-range artillery and helicopter gunships against the rebels with little effect, asked Britain on Tuesday for assistance in training a new counter-insurgency infantry formation, a Macedonian defense official said. He said there had been a longstanding offer from the British which the government had decided to take up. A British diplomat confirmed the Macedonian request but denied there had been any offer and also declined to say if London would accept.' Have you ever saw Tammy Duffy - recently? I saw her once - maybe 3 to 4 weeks before - She looked totally different. She looked like a lady warrior - totally frustrated and devastated - carrying papers - walking across the campus in the speed of - 'mad'. I recall one thing I discuss at Janet's Thursday debate with her - It was about how militaries are thinking about CR/Peacekeeping missions. I said 'US troops are even sending out 'National Guards' - I mean they are just 'guys' - so they don't want to lose those ordinary people - is this could be the reason why military is commiting to the Cr? ' Tammy, defied - (I didn't know she is from California at that time) 'I understand, what you mean, it's hard to --- I don't know how to say but I understand it - but then - we really have to be careful about it.' It's a conversation between an American and Japanese so sometimes goes like this. (we are closer - in a way, than each of us to British) 1: Military, is still human organisation, they cannot dispose their troopers, soliders like hell. Now they afraid of body bags - but also no matter what the heck that 'the end of the cold war' means - You can't - you can't lose a life of those 'good ol' buddies in town' - National Guards - in foreign land. It's just way too sad and too much. Whole nation of US would cry out and collapse. (That's the meaning or sound of the news that 'National guards' are in Kosovo or Middle east - or else where. ) So they may learn things from CR. 2: But there are slipperly slopes in the relations of Cr and military - Nato has basically been willing to commit itself in PKF, because after the end of the cold war - they had no cause to exist - some said even Nato should be resolved. But now they found 'the region' they can work in and even, very often, they can have more chances to claim more budget. And you really don't have to fight there - no one likes 'body bag' - money eating - inefficient - but - soliders feeding - rather secure missions. I've been living in dissatisfaction because Tw, Or, Nl, never mentions to this risky relationship - and moreover - most of the students never question this - only one Phd, Cecile - only questions Peacekeeping missions and commitment of Cr and Peace Studies to it - absolutist/absoulte pacifist. (Marta once indicated similar position but I think she is more likely to compromise to be a good bureacrat and get promotions. ) I don't know why Daffy looked so anguished and frustrated - US troop's position in Macedonia - officially at least is not that complex - they want to pull out - or they won't take risk. (US intelligence agencies are probably really comitting. I think. ) And UK is offering - not only taking political sides - UK is offering - http://www.mod.uk/ http://www.britainusa.com/ http://www.bdsw.org/ http://www.bdsw.org/bafdc/ http://www.britainusa.com/consular/embassy/embassy.asp is that something for peace -? (again it's - chronogical - historical when PKF and Cr started to getting closer - and when NATO or US pentagon started to get closer to PKF and Cr - this is the only process we can check whole PS/Cr really is going to mean what they want to mean - or not.) about a year left - and will we really get to the real picture - of what's goin' on in this world? ------------------------------------------------------------------ http://www.iht.com/articles/27821.html ...Macedonia at least has tried to take action: the government has gained international praise for opening a refuge for the women and moving to close bars and send some of the women home. But its situation as a transit country for trafficking, and its growing home market for prostitutes - bolstered in part by United Nations personnel and NATO-led peacekeepers on leave from nearby Kosovo - illustrate the regionwide problem. And as Macedonia grapples with a spreading insurgency and a growing likelihood of civil war, organized crime and smuggling are likely to increase. ------------------------------------------------------------------- 'I mean, BA is nothing... in this country, it's a qualification but won't give you much promise at all - and people don't understand 'Peace Studies' so I say 'Political Science', whatever it is I just need better grade - 2.1? - for my survival. ' good will - but failing to make most out of real human resources, 'One of my best friends is still unemployed - she's been working in care houses for her community - for elderly people - unpaid - it's volunteer - she only can have work as a social worker - she's got an degree - peace studies.' UG is caste and PG is about 'intercultural communication' published by 'Penthouse' - Salute to old Europe - still it's yet to leave humanity, A.