Philip, I do not know what is going on with posts and spam filters at the moment, but some postings are certainly going awry. The "triple equals" sign is (presuming you mean three lines one above the other) "equivalent to" or "is defined as". Neville. philip madsen <pma15027@xxxxxxxxxxxxxx> wrote: ï»¿ Sorry everyone, but I only got about 3 posts from a dozen listed on the archives. Neville I found your amended latter post up there which explained the lbs, wt lbs mass confusion and the need for, a = 32.. Thanks. Re the example.. errors are mine.. The original concerned a bullet of given weight and exit velocity, from which Ke was to be calculated, (website) and yes twas in my old books units.. Lots of old fuddies like me out there with web pages. I cant cut and paste from my book, mores the pity.. However, after reading this article below I now know that the real unit of weight is the poundal, .....Its enough to make me get serious with the new units, especially when we got to "slugs". But we are sposed to buy our butter by weight.. not mass... Who sells butter by the Newton? Is that a new ton? lol. So if I want a pound of butter, I should ask for 4.448222 Newtons please....But todays substitute pound of butter is 500grms Mass, which according to below might be 5 newtons here on Earth, if I knew what the s stood for in this:- 1 N â?¡ 1 kgÂ·m/sÂ² And whats the triple equals sign????? Philip. PS for all our cleverness, why hasn't our keyboard included simple math notation? The poundal is a non-SI unit of force. It is a part of the absolute foot-pound-second system of units, a coherent subsystem of English units introduced in 1879, and one of several specialized subsystems of mechanical units used as aids in calculations. It is defined as 1 lbÂ·ftÂ·s-2, or in words, as the force necessary to accelerate a pound of mass at 1 foot per second, per second. 1 pdl = 0.138 254 954 376 newton (N) exactly. English units require re-scaling of either force or mass to eliminate a numerical proportionality constant in the equation F = ma. The poundal represents one choice, which is to rescale units of force. Since a pound of force accelerates a pound of mass at about 32 ft/s2 (the acceleration of gravity, g), the smaller unit of force represented by the poundal is chosen as that force which accelerates a 1 pound mass at 1 foot per second squared. The poundal is only about 1â??32 of a pound of force. For example, a force of 1200 poundals is required to accelerate a man with 150 pounds mass at 8 feet per second squared, that is . The poundal-force, pound-mass system is contrasted with an alternate system in which pounds are used as force, and instead, the mass unit is rescaled by a factor of 32. If force is given in pounds rather than poundals, then an acceleration of one foot per second squared is induced in a mass of about 32 pounds mass, for each applied pound of force. The mass unit of about 32 mass-pounds (32.2 to three digits) in this alternate system, is called a slug. In this system, the above result would be expressed as . Note that slugs and poundals are never used in the same system, since each exists to solve the same problem, so that both should not be used together. Rather than changing either force or mass units, one may choose to express acceleration in units of the acceleration due to Earth's gravity. With this system, the above result would be expressed as . Units of force Newton (SI unit) Dyne Kilogram-force (Kilopond) Pound-force Poundal 1 N â?¡ 1 kgÂ·m/sÂ² = 105 dyn â?? 0.10197 kp â?? 0.22481 lbf â?? 7.2330 pdl 1 dyn = 10â??5 N â?¡ 1 gÂ·cm/sÂ² â?? 1.0197Ã?10â??6 kp â?? 2.2481Ã?10â??6 lbf â?? 7.2330Ã?10â??5 pdl 1 kp = 9.80665 N = 980665 dyn â?¡ gnÂ·(1 kg) â?? 2.2046 lbf â?? 70.932 pdl 1 lbf â?? 4.448222 N â?? 444822 dyn â?? 0.45359 kp â?¡ gnÂ·(1 lb) â?? 32.174 pdl 1 pdl â?? 0.138255 N â?? 13825 dyn â?? 0.014098 kp â?? 0.031081 lbf â?¡ 1 lbÂ·ft/sÂ² The value of gn as used in the official definition of the kilogram-force is used here for all gravitational units. Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poundal" Categories: Units of force | Imperial units | Customary units in the United States ----- Original Message ----- From: Dr. Neville Jones To: geocentrism@xxxxxxxxxxxxx Sent: Sunday, May 27, 2007 11:46 PM Subject: [geocentrism] E = mc^2 Now I have your attention. Check the e-mail bulk message folders that your spam filters are adding to. Do any of you have certain forum postings going into them? Neville. --------------------------------- Yahoo! Answers - Got a question? Someone out there knows the answer. Try it now. --------------------------------- No virus found in this incoming message. Checked by AVG Free Edition. Version: 7.5.472 / Virus Database: 269.8.0/819 - Release Date: 26/05/2007 10:47 AM --------------------------------- New Yahoo! Mail is the ultimate force in competitive emailing. Find out more at the Yahoo! Mail Championships. Plus: play games and win prizes.