[geocentrism] Re: 28 moons

  I went looking for something a little different but came across this. I think 
the basic frame work here with alot of tweaking ( vibrations are ineffect just 
the transfer/ transportaion of Kinetic energy) is sound in the sense that it 
moves generaly in the right direction and is a fair general bases for some of 
the underlying basics of Aetheral Vibrational Gravitation notwithstanding the 
other reasons( O&E) I have already given and will expound upon further  perhaps 
latter when it comes up again...Particularly the implications of the alias 
effect in gravitaional modeling.... I do think his Grav Frequencies might be 
wrong. Further i believe that only a examination of large scale structure of 
mass distribution is going to yield the correct vibrational Frequency(ies) 
......More to follow....
     Nature 86: 130-132 (March 23, 1911)     A Kinetic Theory of Gravitation   
by   Charles F. Brush  


  Ever since Sir Isaac Newton enunciated the law of universal gravitation, more 
than 200 years ago, philosophers have speculated on the nature of that 
mysterious agency which links every atom of mater in the universe with every 
other atom. Newton found himself unable to offer any adequate explanation.   
Since Newton?s time several theories of gravitation have been proposed; but 
all, of which I am aware, are open to strong objections, and are not considered 
even promising by physicists.   Study of the nature of gravitation is beset 
with unusual difficulties, because gravitation is ever with us and about us; it 
is the one universal phenomenon, and we cannot escape from its influence -- 
cannot obtain any outside point of view.   Gravitation is often described as a 
feeble force: and so it is, from one point of view. It is difficult to measure, 
or even to detect, attraction between two small bodies. But when the bodies are 
pf planetary size the aggregate attraction of their
 molecules is enormous. It is easy to calculate that the attraction between the 
earth and the moon, which is just sufficient to retain the latter in its orbit, 
would, if replaced by a steel cable, require that the cable be about 500 miles 
in diameter in order to withstand the strain. Between the earth and sun, the 
cable would have to be nearly as large in diameter as the earth: and attraction 
between the components of double stars is millions of times greater than 
between the earth and sun (Lodge). So tremendous a phenomenon as gravitation, a 
phenomenon compared with which all others seem trivial, must have a mighty 
origin.   That gravitation is a phenomenon of the all-pervading aether is 
beyond reasonable doubt. This is so generally conceded that it need not be 
argued. But how does the gravitative influence originate? How is it transmitted 
and maintained? What is the mechanism of gravitation? It is the purpose of this 
paper to attempt an answer to these questions.   Let us
 consider what happens to a falling body. We know that it gathers kinetic 
energy from some source, as evidenced by its acceleration; that this energy may 
do external work or develop heat; that the amount of energy gathered is 
measured directly by the distance fallen through (within the limits of uniform 
gravitation), irrespective of the time or rate of falling. When the distance 
fallen through is of inter-planetary magnitude, and the attracting body large, 
the gathered energy is enormous, sufficient, if converted into heat, to 
vaporize the most refractory falling body.   We are here confronted with the 
question, Whence comes the energy acquired by a falling body? Certainly it was 
not inherent in the body before the fall, as evidenced by the fact that during 
unimpeded fall none of the physical or chemical attributes of the body, aside 
from the acquired motion, changes in the slightest degree.   We have been 
taught that before the fall the body was endowed with "potential
 energy of position" which is converted into kinetic energy during the fall. I 
think "energy of position" is an unfortunate term, because it is so very 
inadequate. To me it explains nothing. The case is not like that of a flexed 
spring, where there is internal molecular strain or displacement.   Let us 
imagine a pound-weight of iron, for instance, raised from the surface of the 
earth to a point near the moon in a line joining the centers of the two bodies, 
the point so chosen that the opposing attraction of the earth and the moon 
shall exactly balance each other, leaving orbital motion out of consideration.  
 On the surface of the earth the two-pound weight had some so-called "potential 
energy of position", because it was capable of falling into a pit; but in its 
new position near the moon, this potential energy not only has not been 
augmented, but has disappeared entirely; the pound-weight, left free to move, 
remains stationary; and yet we must have expended more energy in
 overcoming the attraction of the earth and lifting the weight to its new 
position. This amount of energy would be sufficient to impart to the weight a 
velocity more than 10 times greater than that of the swiftest cannon-ball, or, 
if converted into heat, would be many times more than sufficient to raise the 
iron weight to dazzling incandescence and then vaporize it. Now, in lifting the 
weight, this large amount of energy has disappeared utterly. We cannot believe 
that the whole or any part of it has been annihilated; it must, in some form, 
be resident somewhere. I think no one will contend that this energy is 
resident, in any form, in the cold, motionless pound-weight. I believe it was 
absorbed by, and is now resident in, the aether through which it falls. This is 
a fundamental idea to which I invite attention. Faraday glimpsed it long ago, 
and others have appreciated it more clearly since his time. But, so far as I am 
aware, no one has realized its significance.   This
 view of gravitation implies that the aether is endowed with very great 
intrinsic energy in some form. Many men of science now hold that the aether is 
so endowed, and that the amount of this intrinsic energy is enormous. Sir 
Oliver Lodge ("The Ether of Space") appears to regard this energy as potential 
in form, and estimates the intrinsic energy of a single cubic millimeter of the 
aether to be almost inconceivably vast. He says, "All potential energy exists 
in the ether". Sir J.J. Thomson says, "All kinetic energy is kinetic energy of 
the ether".   I conceive the aetherial energy involved in gravitation to be 
kinetic rather than potential, the latter involving strain or stress. Newton, 
and later Maxwell, assumed that bodies produce a stress in the aether about 
them of such nature as to account for gravitation, but they were unable to 
imagine any physical cause for the stress.   All the past theories of 
gravitation of which I am aware, except the corpuscular theory of La
 Sage, appear to regard gravitating matter as the seat of the gravitative 
influence, the surrounding aether, by induced stress or otherwise, acting 
simply as the medium of transmission. I cannot see that any of these theories 
account for the energy acquired by a falling body.   My own view of gravitation 
differs from these radically. I believe that kinetic energy of the aether is 
the fundamental cause of gravitation, and that a gravitating body plays a 
secondary role only in disturbing the normally uniform distribution of the 
aether?s energy, in manner I shall endeavor to explain later.   Let us assume, 
then, that the aether is endowed with very great kinetic energy normally 
uniform in distribution.   Kinetic energy implies motion of something possessed 
of inertia. Now, inertia is a fundamental attribute of the aether. The aether 
is highly elastic also, which, with its inertia, enables it to possess kinetic 
energy in wave form, as exemplified in radiation. By the term wave,
 I mean progressive motion locally periodic; doubtless the aether as a whole is 
stationary. Hence we may consider the kinetic energy of the aether as 
consisting in aether waves of some kind.   These waves, vast in aggregate 
energy, eternal in persistence, without finite source or destination, are 
imagined as being propagated in straight lines in every conceivable direction. 
The isotropic distribution of kinetic energy, essential to my theory of 
gravitation, was, for me, a difficult conception until I reflected that 
isotropic radiant energy is approximately realized in the interior of any 
furnace with uniformly heated walls.   Any kind of waves capable of exerting 
motive action on the atoms or molecules of matter will fulfill the 
requirements; but I shall first consider the transverse, electromagnetic waves 
of radiation, because these are the kind of aether waves we are familiar with.  
 Of course, intrinsic aether waves, if of the radiation kind, cannot be of any 
frequency
 at present known to us as radiation, because then all bodies would become 
heated. But we can easily imagine them of such extremely low frequency that the 
molecules or atoms of matter cannot respond to them -- cannot vibrate in unison 
with them -- molecular resonance cannot be established; hence no conversion of 
the aether?s energy directly into heat in the ordinary way can take place.   We 
are familiar with the dissipation or degeneration of the higher forms of energy 
into heat, and the continual degradation of heat to lower degree; that is to 
say, less violent molecular vibration and more general distribution. As is well 
known, it is only through this degradation or running down of natural energy 
that we are enabled to utilize some of it. Lord Kelvin called this function of 
energy "motivity" (we now call it entropy), and said the motivity of the 
universe tends to zero.   We know that ordinary radiation waves in the aether 
persist indefinitely and without change of
 frequency or direction until they encounter matter, when they are absorbed and 
converted into heat, only to be radiated again, usually in longer waves, to 
some cooler body. This degradation of wave frequency continues until we can no 
longer follow it. I beg to suggest that the ultimate destination of this wave 
energy is that vast reservoir of kinetic energy intrinsic to the aether. We may 
liken the waves of radiant energy, which we apprehend as light and heat, to 
wind ripples on the surface of water, which continually degenerate in wave 
frequency until they are absorbed into and become part of a mighty swell of the 
ocean.   Thus we may, perhaps, regard the aether?s intrinsic energy as energy 
in its lowest form -- Kelvin?s zero of "motivity". But unfortunately we may, 
and do, get some of this energy back in available form in many ways, as, for 
instance, when a falling body is arrested and develops heat; some of our wind 
ripples are then returned to us.   When two gigantic
 astronomical bodies collide under the influence of gravitation, as sometimes 
happens, we witness in far distant space the birth of a nebula. The 
inconceivably vast amount of heat developed by the collision converts both 
bodies into luminous vapor, which expands with incredible rapidity into the 
nebulous cloud. This heat energy must in course of time degenerate back into 
the aether whence it came, though billions of years may be required; and during 
all this time the energy has "motivity". We may picture the stupendous result 
of the collision as only a local splash in the aether?s mighty ocean of energy. 
  Having postulated that the aether is endowed with very great intrinsic 
kinetic energy in wave form of some kind, that the waves are propagated in 
straight lines in every conceivable direction, i.e., the wave energy is 
isotropic, and that this energy is distributed uniformly throughout the 
universe except in so far as the distribution is disturbed by the presence of
 matter, I shall endeavor to explain my conception of the mechanism of 
gravitation.   For illustration in terms of the known, let us imagine a closed 
space having uniformly luminous walls of such character that every point on 
their surface radiates light in all internal directions. The enclosed space may 
be of any shape, but for the sake of simplicity let it be spherical or cubical, 
and large, say as large as a lecture-room. The space will be filled with 
isotropic radiant energy uniformly distributed -- any cubic centimeter of space 
containing as much energy as any other.   Next let us picture a small opaque 
body suspended anywhere in our luminous sphere. The body may be of any shape we 
may imagine an atom or molecule to have; but, again for simplicity, let it be 
spherical -- say a small grain of shot, and let it be located near the center 
of the space.   The small body will absorb the light which falls upon it, and 
will cast a spherical shadow, the depth or intensity of
 which will vary inversely with the square of the distance from the center of 
the body; and the shadow will extend to the confines of the enclosure, however 
large the latter may be. We cannot perceive the shadow but we know it is there. 
It is true that the body will soon acquire the temperature of its surroundings, 
and radiate as much energy as it receives; but for the purpose of this 
illustration let us consider only the high-frequency light energy.   As is well 
known, the aether waves of light will exert a slight pressure on the body. But 
in the case supposed the pressure will be equal on all sides, and no effort 
toward translation can result.   Now let us introduce a second small body, 
similar to the first, and some distance from it. This will also cast a 
spherical shadow like the first. The first two shadows will intersect, and each 
body will lie within the shadow of the other. In other words, each body will be 
partially shielded by the other from the aether waves
 coming from that direction. Hence the light pressure will be less on that side 
of each body which faces toward the other than on the side which is turned 
away, and the bodies will be urged toward each other by the excess of light 
pressure on the side turned away. This excess of pressure will vary with the 
inverse square of the distance between the centers of the bodies so long as the 
ratio of distance to diameters remains large.   The aether waves concerned in 
gravitation cannot, however, be like the light wave I have just used for 
illustration, because light waves heat bodies on which they fall; and their 
pressure is almost wholly superficial, it does not reach molecules much below 
the surface, and hence bears little relation to mass.   But let us substitute 
for the short and feeble waves of light powerful waves, still of the radiant 
kind, but of such great length and slow frequency that, as before explained, 
they do not excite the molecular vibrations which we appreciate
 as heat, and hence are not absorbed by matter; they pass freely through all 
bodies, bathing the interior molecules as effectively as those on the surface.  
 Under these conditions each molecule or atom or unit of a gravitating body 
will have its own spherical shadow or field of influence, and the gravitative 
force acting on the body will vary directly with the sum of its units, i.e., 
with its mass.   The spherical shadow which I have pictured as the field of 
influence of each atom or material unit implies that the atom has caused, 
principally in its immediate neighborhood, a diminution of the aether?s energy. 
Let us further imagine this subtracted energy resident in the atom as kinetic 
energy of translation in many paths, almost infinitesimally short and in every 
direction, but without collisions, because neighboring atoms follow very nearly 
parallel paths. We may then picture the collective atoms or molecules of matter 
buffeted in every direction by the aether waves in
 which they are entangled, like a suspended precipitate in turbulent water.   
Each atom or molecule may be regarded as a center of activity due to its 
kinetic energy of translation, with continual absorption and restitution of the 
aether?s energy, normally equal in amount. The manner in which this molecular 
activity maintains, in effect, the supposed spherical shadow, requires 
explanation, which I shall attempt in a future paper.   Of the several 
components into which the composite motion of each atom can be resolved, that 
one lying in the direction of an attracting body will be the greatest, because 
the waves from that direction, being partially intercepted by the attracting 
body, are weakest, and the atom will be pushed in that direction by the 
superior waves behind it than it restores to the weaker waves in front, and 
will thus acquire additional kinetic energy of translation in the line of fall, 
measured directly by the number of waves involved, i.e., by the distance
 moved. Conversely, if the atom be forced away from the attracting body, 
restitution of energy will exceed absorption, and the energy expended in moving 
the atom against attraction will be transferred to the aether.   It will be 
seen that gravitation is a push toward the attracting body, and not a pull. It 
is clear, also, that the velocity which a falling body can acquire tends 
asymptotically to a limit, which is the velocity of the aether waves which push 
it -- the velocity of light, if transverse waves are involved   I have already 
intimated that any kind of aether waves capable of imparting motion (not 
internal vibration) to the atoms of matter will fulfill the requirements of my 
theory, but have thus far discussed only transverse waves.   Let us now 
consider longitudinal waves -- waves of compression and rarefaction, like sound 
waves in air and in elastic liquids and solids. The "spherical shadow" 
conception which I have employed in connection with transverse waves
 applies equally well here.   So far as I am aware, longitudinal waves in the 
aether are unknown, but that such waves have not been observed is not 
convincing argument that they do not exist.   Assuming, then, that some, or 
perhaps much, of the intrinsic energy of the aether is embodied in longitudinal 
waves, we have only to find some motive action of such waves on atoms to 
account for gravitation. Adequate motive connection may perhaps be effected by 
the locally alternating flow and ebb -- acceleration and retardation of the 
aether in which the atoms are enmeshed, incident to its wave motion. We have 
ample reason for believing that does obtain a grip of some sort on the atoms of 
an accelerating (falling) body and a retarding (rising) body, from which it 
follows that accelerating and retarding aether, as in a wave of compression, 
must grip a comparatively stationary atom.   Certain facts of astronomy 
apparently require that gravitational attraction between bodies, however
 distant from each other, must, in effect, be instantaneous; that is to say, 
the line of apparent attraction between them is a straight line adjoining their 
centers. I believe my theory meets this condition, but shall reserve discussion 
of the point for a future paper.   I feel much diffidence in presenting the 
foregoing rough draft of a theory of gravitation, but I cannot avoid the belief 
that it contains some germs of truth, perhaps the real key to the great 
mystery, though, if this be true, I have no doubt used the key clumsily and 
imperfectly.   If the aether theory of gravitation is, in the main, the true 
one, it offers some hope of experimental verification. Provided the waves are 
of one principal frequency, or even of several, we may find something, 
doubtless of molecular magnitude only, which will oscillate in unison with them 
so that resonance can occasionally be established and a cumulative effect be 
obtained sufficient to manifest itself as heat.   In searching
 for some natural phenomenon of this nature, I thought of the thermal condition 
of the upper atmosphere as a possible case. The mean molecular velocity of a 
gas at some temperature, in connection with the mean free path of its molecules 
at some particular pressure or pressures, may possibly afford the necessary 
conditions for fortuitous resonance, with development of some slight amount of 
heat by the increased violence of inter-molecular collisions. I have done much 
experimental work on these lines during the past year, but, notwithstanding 
refinement of method and manipulation, the results have thus far been 
unsatisfactory. The work is till in progress, however, and investigation of 
other phenomena is contemplated.     
---------------------------------
     Nature (March 30, 1911)     Letters to the Editor: Sir Oliver Lodge 
Re: A Kinetic Theory of Gravitation  The subject of Mr. Brush?s article in 
Nature of March 23 (p. 129) is certainly of profound interest, and will 
continue to be so until the problem as to the nature of gravitation is solved. 
Meanwhile, a few questions raised are comparatively simple. Anyone asked, Where 
lies the energy of a raised weight? Must surely reply, "In the aether", i.e., 
in the medium, whatever it is, that is driving the weight down towards the 
earth. A critic who either doubts or asserts this will not be confused -- as 
Mr. Brush suggests he will be -- by the suggestion that the weight might be 
raised up so high as to reach the neutral point between the earth and moon -- a 
suggestion which carries with it the tacit questions, "Where is the energy 
now?" and "What has become of the work done?" -- for this case is no more 
troublesome than the case of a weight raised and hung on a hook. Something -- 
some opposition force -- sustains the weight, i.e., opposes the pull
 of the earth, and it matters little whether the opponent be a shelf beneath it 
or the moon above it. The important thing to understand is the nature of the 
downward propelling force -- indeed, of both the upward and the downward force 
-- in either case.   The question whether the energy of a raised weight is 
potential or kinetic is of little or no importance. The energy is certainly 
potential, according to our definition of potential. So is the energy of a 
strained spring: for there also the atoms are separated against their mutual 
(cohesive) attraction, and there again the energy really resides in the aether. 
But that all energy may turn out to be ultimately kinetic -- when we come to 
understand what elastive stress fundamentally is -- that proposition is not 
negatived in the least.   Mr. Brush proposes a shadow theory of gravitation, a 
modification of Le Sages?s theory except that the pressure is supposed due to 
the non-syntonic impact of waves traveling in all
 direction, instead of to a bombardment of utterly minute particles flying at 
random. There is nothing new in a shadow theory, and all such theories are 
faced with the difficulty of plausibly explaining the absence of noticeable 
screening -- a difficulty which is bound to reduce them to acquiescence in an 
approximation.   The contribution which Mr. Brush makes to the discussion is 
the suggestion that the supposed gravitational aether-waves are the result of 
accumulated thermal radiation from all past and present suns, the wave-lengths 
having automatically increased during their long storage.   To this view 
several objections might be urged -- one of them being that in that case the 
constant of gravitation would be secularly increasing; another, that it should 
be greater in a hot enclosure, say the interior of a sun, than elsewhere; but a 
more salient objection is raised by the inquiry as to which is cause and which 
is effect. How did the bodies get hot and so radiate? Was
 not their heat perhaps due to their having clashed together with gravitational 
energy itself derived from the aether?   The fact is that every question 
concerning origin involves us always with insuperable puzzles, and that is just 
the main difficulty about gravitation. An atom of matter, by its very 
existence, sets up a fixed stress in the aether, varying directly as the mass 
and inverse as the distance -- that is only another way of stating the law of 
gravitation; we are trying to understand the nature and cause of that stress. 
It appears to be one of the fundamental properties of matter, and until we can 
understand what is meant by the generation or destruction of an atom -- i.e., 
of an electron if that is the fundamental unit -- we are hardly likely to 
understand its gravitational influence more than any other of its fundamental 
properties -- including, perhaps, existence itself.   Let this not be 
understood as a negative prediction or estimate of impossibility -- such
 predictions are always absurd; it may be that when the structure of an 
electron is understood, we shall see that an "even-powered" stress in the 
surrounding aether is necessarily involved. What I do feel instinctively is 
that this is the direction for discovery, and what is needed is something 
internal and intrinsic, and that all attempts to explain gravitation as due to 
the action of some external agency, whether flying particles or impinging 
waves, are doomed to failure; for all these speculations regard the atom as a 
foreign substance -- a sort of "grit" in the aether -- driven hither and 
thither by forces alien to itself. When, some day, we understand the real 
relation between matter and aether, I venture predict that we shall perceive 
something more satisfying than that.   Oliver Lodge 
University of Birmingham 
March 25, 1911     
---------------------------------
    Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 68: 55-68 (May 1929)     Gravitation   by   
Charles F. Brush  At the Minneapolis meeting of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science in December 1910, I had the honor to outline "A 
Kinetic Theory of Gravitation" (Ref. 1). This was followed by a "Discussion" of 
the theory in 1914 (Ref. 2) A second "Discussion" came in 1921 (Ref. 3) A third 
"Discussion" in appeared in 1926 (Ref 4).   The later paper contains a concise 
synopsis of the theory and very convincing argument supporting my contention of 
1910, that the energy acquired by falling bodies is derived from the ether.   
This Kinetic Theory of Gravitation postulates that the ether is endowed with 
vast intrinsic energy in the form of waves propagated continually in every 
conceivable direction, so that the wave energy is isotropic. The belief 
expressed is that all energy is primarily energy of the ether.   The very 
high-frequency ether waves, which embody most of the ether?s
 intrinsic energy, pass freely through matter without obstruction except that 
concerned in gravitation, and a very small heating effect (which will be 
explained later). The ether waves exert motive action on atoms or particles of 
matte whereby the latter are buffered about in all directions with some 
absorption of ethereal energy. Thus a lump of matter casts a spherical energy 
shadow into space, the depth of shadow diminishing with the square of the 
distance from its origin. The energy shadows of two or more bodies interblend, 
so that energy density between them is less than elsewhere, and they are pushed 
toward each other by the superior wave energy from directions beyond them. The 
1926 paper (Ref. 4) explains this at length.   To aid in forming a mental 
picture of the relation of the very high-frequency ether waves postulated as 
the cause of gravitation, to other well-known classes of ether waves, I have 
prepared the chart of ether-wave frequencies shown in Figure 1.     
  Each horizontal line in the scale of frequencies represents double the 
frequency of the line below it, or half the frequency of the line above it. 
Thus the scale of frequency increases upward by octaves as in music.   Starting 
at the bottom of the scale with a frequency of one ether wave per second, the 
second line four waves per second, the third line eight waves per second, and 
so on to the tenth doubling where we get a frequency of 1,024 waves per second 
as shown. Continuing the doubling process another ten times we get a frequency 
of 1,024 time 1,024, or 1,024 to the second power, and so on up the scale to 
the third, fourth, and fifth, etc., powers of 1,024. Thus it is seen that the 
indicated wave frequency increases with great rapidity as we ascend the scale. 
At the 20th octave it is more than a million per second; at the 40th octave 
more than a million million waves per second.   I am indebted to a chart shown 
a the British Exposition in 1925; to a chart by G.L.
 Clark in 1927, and to a chart by W.E. Deming in 1929 for much of the material 
shown in my chart. But I have arranged it somewhat differently, emphasizing 
ether-wave frequency rather than wavelength.   Frequency is converted into 
wavelength by dividing the velocity of light per second by frequency of the 
waves per second. Thus the frequency 1 at the bottom of the chart means one 
wave per second, and its wavelength is the distance it would travel in one 
second, before another wave started after it. This is the velocity of light, 
about 186,000 miles, or about 300,000 kilometers. All ether waves travel at the 
same velocity.   A wave train of this very low frequency and very great 
wavelength could easily be launched into the ether by revolving a closed coil 
of wire on its own diameter as an axis, in a magnetic field, at the rate of one 
revolution per second. If we should increase its revolutions to ten per second, 
we would get a frequency of ten, and a wavelength of 18,600
 miles. Such mechanically generated electric ether waves may be increased in 
frequency without much difficulty as far up as shown in the chart.   Next above 
we have Hertzian waves, covering about 28 octaves, generated by the condensor 
and sparkgap method. The upper half of of this long range of ether waves 
contains the waves used in radio transmissions and music.   Next above the 
Hertzian waves, of higher and higher frequency and shorter and shorter 
wavelength, we find the infrared and heat waves covering about 9 octaves. These 
waves embody most of the heat received from the sun, and nearly all the heat 
radiated from hot bodies below redness.   Then we cone to the exceedingly 
interesting and intensively studied light waves or rays. These cover barely one 
octave of the scale, and their mean frequency is about 500 million million 
waves per second. It seems unfortunate that the human eye is sensitive to such 
a short range of ether vibrations only, while the human ear can
 perceive about 11 octaves of sound, or air vibrations. Perhaps some animals or 
insects have a wider range of vision than humans.   Above the light waves we 
find about 5 octaves of ultraviolet waves. The sun?s radiation includes the 
last three classes of waves, though some of the ultraviolet is absorbed by our 
atmosphere and does not reach the earth. The ultraviolet rays or waves promote 
chemical action and are chiefly responsible for the ordinary photographic 
image.   Next in the growing range of frequency we have the well-known x-rays, 
so extensively used in x-ray photography for therapeutic and industrial 
purposes. These cover a long range of octaves in our chart, and overlap the 
upper part of the ultraviolet range and the lower part of the gamma range. 
X-rays, particularly those of the highest frequencies, pass rather freely 
through large thicknesses of light substances such as wood, fabric, animal 
tissue and metals of low atomic weight and density; but metals of large
 density and high atomic weight absorb and obstruct them greatly. Thus a 
quarter inch of lead almost completely stops x-rays of the highest frequency. 
The ability of x-rays to pass deeply into or through matter, is called 
"penetrating power".   Above the x-rays in our chart are the gamma rays of 
radium, so extensively used in therapy. These have a much greater penetrating 
power than the highest-frequency x-rays.   All the above described classes of 
ether waves have been demonstrated experimentally, and doubtless all exist to 
some extent, permanently in the ether of space. Particularly is this true of 
the heat waves, as I pointed out in my 1927 paper (Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. LXVI, 
1927). In that paper I showed, conclusively I think, that a lump of matter far 
out in inter-stellar space could not possibly fall to absolute zero by 
temperature radiation of all its heat, as commonly supposed, but would soon 
acquire and then maintain the "temperature of space" which I estimated to be
 something like 50* to 100* above absolute zero.   Above the gamma rays there 
are about 6 octaves which have not been explored experimentally. Then we come 
to the cosmic rays, so ably demonstrated and studied by Dr. Millikan. These 
cover considerably less than one octave, and their mean frequency is about 
5,000 million million million waves per second. This is 10 million times 
greater frequency than light waves possess; and yet there can be no doubt that 
cosmic rays are ether waves like all the rest. As might be expected, cosmic 
waves, on account of their very much higher frequency (shorter wave length), 
have far greater penetrating power than the highest-frequency x-rays; in fact, 
about 300 times greater, as they pass through 6 feet of lead.   Starting 
considerably above cosmic rays in the chart, I have drawn a long bracket with 
indeterminate ends. Somewhere in this region lie the isotropic ether waves of 
gravitation, probably having considerable range of frequency. The
 enormous frequency of these waves enables them to pass freely through all 
kinds of matter without obstruction except that concerned in gravitation.   
Probably most of the vast intrinsic energy of the ether lies in the region of 
the gravitation waves.   Until about a year and a half ago, we had no 
experimental evidence of the gravitation waves other than gravitation itself. 
But gravitation is a most impressive demonstration of the ether waves which 
cause it, and of the very great energy embodied in them. As illustrating both 
pints, I call attention to Lord Kelvin?s graphic word-picture of collision of 
two large astronomical bodies under the influence of their mutual gravitational 
attraction, which I have quoted in my 1914 paper ((Ref. 2) and my 1926 paper 
(Ref. 4) As another illustration of the enormous differential ether-wave push 
of astronomical bodies toward each other, let us consider the case of the earth 
and moon. The urge toward each other is commonly called
 gravitational attraction, which is only another way of looking at it. If this 
attraction were absent, and the moon were held in her orbit by a weightless 
steel cable, the cable would need to be about 500 miles in diameter to stand 
the strain. Between the earth and sun, the cable must be about 6,000 miles in 
diameter. And the attraction (push toward each other) of the components of some 
double stars must be thousands of times greater than this.   Obviously, the 
ether waves of gravitation, and the other classes of waves we have discussed, 
must be permanent attributes of the ether; they cannot escape from either 
boundless or bounded space. They must fill all space; and we may therefore 
regard gravitation as a property of space, because wherever there are two or 
more particles or bodies of mater, however small or large, however near or 
distant, they are urged toward each other by the ever-present isotropic ether 
waves of gravitation.   Very high up in the chart I have
 tentatively drawn the line marked "Quanta waves or rays", indicating a 
frequency of 6.54 x 1027.   Experimental Evidence of the Ether Waves of 
Gravitation:   A year ago I had the honor of presenting a paper under the title 
"Correlation of Continual Generation of Heat in Some Substances, & Impairment 
of Their Gravitational Acceleration" (Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. LXVI, No. 2, 1928).  
 This division of papers is a continuation of last year?s paper; and to save 
the reader the bother of looking up that paper and its several references, I 
shall quote very freely from it and prior papers.   The third "Discussion" 
(1926; Ref. 4) contains in its title "Some Experimental Evidence Supporting 
Theory; Continual Generation of Heat in Some Igneous Rocks & Minerals".   "Heat 
is often defined as an agitation of atoms and molecules of matter, and measured 
by the total kinetic energy of such agitation. The agitation consists partly in 
internal vibrations of the elastic atoms and molecules and
 spinning about their various axes, and partly in very rapid transitory motion 
among themselves. Thus they are supposed to dart about in every conceivable 
direction, constantly colliding with each other and rebounding or glancing in 
new directions. The kinetic energy of this translatory motion constitutes 
sensible heat (not total heat) and is the measure of temperature. Anything 
(such as absorbed radiation) which stimulates the internal vibration of atoms 
or molecules likewise increases their translatory velocities by the increased 
violence of rebound after collision, and thus increases their temperature; and 
vice versa.   "All the above is known to be true of gases and vapors (kinetic 
theory of gases) and is generally believed to be true of liquids and solids.   
"The ?mean free path? and the ?mean velocity? between collisions of the 
molecules of many gases under stated conditions have been computed. But it has 
also been shown mathematically that the higher and lower
 velocities, and the longer and shorter paths, differ greatly from the means, 
and may in each respect vary 20 or more times in amount. Doubtles this is true 
also of liquids and solids.   "From the fortuitously wide variation I 
velocities and free paths of the billions of vibrating atoms or molecules in 
their heterogenous movement, it follows that collision frequencies must also 
vary greatly, but have a wide range of frequencies as do the well-known x-rays. 
  "With the foregoing in mind it is easily conceivable that some kinds of 
matter may have atoms or simple molecules or complex molecules of occasional 
vibration frequency corresponding with some gravitation wave frequency, whereby 
fortuitous resonance can, for brief instants, be established at various points. 
This would result in a slight increase of vibrational activity and a cumulative 
rise of general temperature.   "A body of such matter, with some thermal 
insulation, would become and remain permanently warmer than a
 neighboring body similarly circumstanced, but not endowed, or less endowed 
with the permissive heat-generating quality".   A carefully designed 
calorimeter is illustrated and described in the paper (1926), and details of 
many experiments given. These resulted in the discovery that some rocks and 
minerals did generate an easily observable amount of heat.   In April 1927, I 
presented another paper on "Persistent Generation of Heat in Some Rocks & 
Minerals" (Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. LXVI). This is a continuation of the 1926 
paper. It describes a new and different calorimeter, built in the spring of 
1926, and since known as the "Ice Calorimeter". It has been in almost 
continuous use down to the present time (April 1928) and has proved very 
satisfactory. With this calorimeter it has been found that some of the natural 
heat-generating materials, and some of the artificial silicates hereafter 
described, have retained their heat-generating activity unimpaired; and none of 
these
 substances is more than minutely radioactive. Quoting from the 1927 paper:   
"It is notable that all the materials which appear to be endowed with 
persistent heat generating activity are complex silicates".   There follows a 
description of the preparation, in the wet way, of many complex silicates, and 
their preliminary testing for heat generation. A silicate of the protoxide of 
nickel and cobalt showed very large activity, larger than either silicate 
alone: and this now appears to be permanent. Nickel and cobalt are almost 
identical in atomic weight, and differ but one unit in atomic number. Quoting 
again from the 1927 paper:   "In the absence, at present, of other explanation, 
it is thought that persistent heat generation in some rocks and minerals is due 
to isotropic ether waves of great penetration; very great indeed, if the 
generation goes on in the interior of the sun and planets as it does at the 
surface of the earth". Quoting now from the 1928 paper (Ref. 6):   "It
 is now believed that the class of isotropic ether waves postulated as the 
cause of persistent generation of heat in some substances, is the same class, 
perhaps of very wide range of frequency, postulated as the cause of 
gravitation.   "Conversion into heat of some of the energy of the gravitation 
ether waves, however little, might be expected to impair to some extent the 
falling velocity of a heat generating substance; and all such substances thus 
far tested have clearly shown impairment.   "I have yet found no exception to 
this remarkable phenomenon, though I have already tested many natural and 
artificial minerals. Substances which have shown no generation of heat in the 
calorimeter show no impairment of their falling velocity when compared with 
lead. Substances exhibiting small, moderate or large generation of heat have 
shown comparatively small, moderate or large impairment of the gravitational 
acceleration.   "In making the above indicated comparisons of falling
 velocities I have largely used the method and apparatus described and 
illustrated in my 1923 paper on "Some New Experiments in Gravitation" (Proc. 
Am. Phil. Soc. LXII, No. 3; See also the 1924 paper of the same title: Proc. 
Am. Phil. Soc. LXIII, No. 1)   "Two aluminum containers are used, alike in 
size, shape, weight and smoothness of surface, and dropped simultaneously, side 
by side, through exactly the same distance (about 122 cm).   "Each container, 
at he end of its journey, breaks an electric circuit. But the breaks of both 
containers are in series in the same circuit, so that the break which occurs 
first produces a bright spark while the belated break gives no spark because 
its circuit is already open   "When the containers are equally loaded with the 
same metal, there is no visible spark at either break, or a very feeble spark 
at one or the other indifferently. But when they are equally loaded with 
certain different metals, one container persistently produces a
 bright spark, though containers are always reversed in position for each 
trial. From this it seems clear that the container giving the spark falls a 
little faster than the other. This sparking condition is clearly manifested 
when the faster container reaches the end of its free path as little as 0.0125 
mm. ((0.0005 inch) in advance of its neighbor.   "The 1923 paper also describes 
how approximate quantitative measurements are made. These are very tedious, 
especially when falling velocity differences are large.   "To facilitate 
estimation of the larger falling velocity differences I am perfecting a 
photographic method of observation. After falling about 110 cm the small lower 
ends of the containers are photographed in silhouette against a white 
background having many horizontal lines, and illuminated by a very bright 
electric spark".   Then follows several pages of text, with figures and pates, 
describing the apparatus admits operation, too lengthy to quote here. Resuming
 quotation from last year?s paper (1928):   "The camera lens is located about 
37 cm in front of the white surface, and the photographic plate about an equal 
distance behind the lens; so that the image is about equal in size to parts 
photographed.   "The plate holder moves vertically in guides, and rests on a 
pin in one of eight equally spaced holes 1.6 cm apart in the backboard of the 
camera. This backboard has a horizontal opening 1.4 cm wide, which limits the 
exposed portion of the plate to a strip of this width. Thus eight pictures of 
the falling container tips are made on one plate. The containers are reversed 
in right and left position after each exposure.   "Plate III shows a series of 
photographs. Each container weighted approximately 30.6 grams. One was marked 
with a white spot on its top for identification. This one, lettered S on the 
plate, was filled with silicate of nickel and cobalt, which weighed 13.6 grams, 
or about 30.8 % of the total weight of the loaded
 container. The unmarked container was loaded with lead sawdust, held tightly 
in the lower end by a short closely fitting cork above it, until it very 
closely equaled the marked container in weight.   "Each of the eight 
photographs on the plate, when magnified, clearly shows the S container 
(Silicate) slower than its companion. Six more similar plates have been made 
with the same loaded containers, and all show the same effect. It will be 
noticed that the amount of retardation of the S container varies considerably 
in the eight exposures of Plate III. This was principally due to small lateral 
air currents in the room which acted unequally on the two containers when one 
shielded the other; as was demonstrated with another plate by purposefully 
increasing the lateral air currents. I shall eliminate lateral air currents in 
future work.   "Of course I tried exchange of loads in the containers, but 
without observably affecting the result; the container holding the silicate was
 always slow.   "The observed retardation o the silicate container must be due 
to impaired gravitational acceleration of the silicate as compared with the 
lead sawdust in the other container; and as the silicate constitutes only 30.8% 
of the total mass undergoing acceleration, we must multiply the observed 
retardation by 3.25 to find the full impairment of the silicate alone.   "In 
the apparatus as set up, the centers of the container tips are about 1.6 cm in 
front of the lined background; hence tips and lines cannot both be sharply in 
focus of the camera lens. In Plate III the focal plane of the camera was about 
half way between the tips and the lines. Sharpness of lowest part of the curve 
of the tips was greatly enhanced by permanently covering all of the camera lens 
except a horizontal strip 2 mm wide across its center.   "The comparison lines 
in Plate III are spaced one mm apart between centers. I am installing another 
white background with very much finer lines spaced
 only half a mm apart, and far better adapted to micrometer measurement of 
container tip differences of level.   "The Bureau of Standards, with a 
calorimeter of its own design, is working with some of the heat-generating 
substances for the purpose of checking my findings."   Since writing the 1928 
paper I have continued work on the fascinating subject of "Correlation of 
continual generation of heat in some substances and impairment of their 
gravitational acceleration". These phenomena appear to be related as cause and 
effect. I have gathered considerable new evidence, all affirmative, so that I 
now feel justified in dismissing doubt.   In the quest for more evidence, 
however, I have reversed the order of procedure; i.e., instead of hunting more 
or less at random, for new substances exhibiting generation of heat in the 
calorimeters, which is a very slow and tedious process, I have first tested 
many new substances for impaired gravitational acceleration, which is
 comparatively rapid and easy. In these tests I have made more than 50 new 
plates, and feel well rewarded for the labor.   In my former experiments it had 
appeared that silicates of the iron group of metals exhibited much greater 
impairment of acceleration than silicates and compounds of the metals of lower 
atomic weight. So I chose silicates and other compounds of metals of still 
higher atomic weight, viz., Barium, Lead and Bismuth as most promising 
materials to work with.   In all the artificial silicates there was some sodium 
silicate. Lead silicate gave a moderate effect, but after ignition none. 
Bismuth silicate behaved in the same way. Lead acetate gave a moderate effect.  
 The barium compounds were found very interesting, and were more fully 
investigated. Barium hydroxide, Ba(OH)2, 8H2O gave rather large effect, but 
required lining of the container on account of its powerful corrosive action on 
metallic aluminum. BaO (anhydrous; effect moderate. BaO, 8H2O, effect
 small but certain. BaCl2, 2H2O, effect small. BaBr2, 2H2O, effect very small 
if any. BaSO4; effect very moderate. Ba3(PO4)2; effect small. Ba(SCN)2, 2H2O; 
effect very small if any.   The Barium Aluminates were the most interesting of 
all the compounds examined. Three grades were prepared: (BaO)2Al2O3, BaO, Al2O3 
and BaO(Al2O3)2. All, after air drying to constant weight, lost several % of 
hydroscopic moisture when dried at 100o C. and several more % of combined water 
when gently ignited. After ignition they were but very slightly hygroscopic. 
The BaO, Al2O3, dried at 100o C., gave largest effect; but after ignition the 
effect was somewhat reduced.   Plate I shows the impairment of gravitational 
acceleration in the BaO, Al2O3, not ignited, as compare with lead in the usual 
way. The upper two of the usual eight photographic strips are omitted, in order 
to permit enlargement of the remaining six strips about 50%. The black lines on 
the white background against which the lower
 tips of the two falling containers are photographed, are spaced exactly half a 
millimeter apart between centers, and are as fine as it was found practicable 
to make them. As before explained, neither the lines nor the tips of the 
rapidly falling containers are sharply in focus of the camera lens. The tip of 
the container holding the Barium Aluminate is marked S (slow) on the plate; and 
the containers were reversed in position after each dropping as indicated. As 
easily seen on the plate, the S container is unevenly slow in the six 
photographs, and even very slightly fast in the first. This unevenness is 
attributable to variation in the exceedingly slight friction of the containers 
in their guiding tubes during the first millimeter of their fall. The 
containers are perfectly free after that.     S  For accurate measurement of 
falling velocity differences of the containers in all plates, I have used a 
binocular microscope of low magnifying power, having a very large stage
 provided with a high-precision micrometer specially designed and built for 
this purpose.   In finding the average impairment of gravitational acceleration 
of the S container in the six photographs of Plate I, all were measured with 
the micrometer, the five affirmative values were added together, the slight 
negative value o the first one subtracted from the sum, and the remainder 
divided by six. This gave the mean slowness of the S container -- 0.099 mm, say 
one tenth of a millimeter. This is one part in 11,000 of the distance fallen 
(110 cm). But the Barium Aluminate constituted only 40.3 % of the total weight 
of the loaded container. Hence, impairment of falling velocity of the barium 
Aluminate alone, as compared with equal weight of lead in the other container, 
was one part in 4450. When a companion plate was made with the container loads 
exchanged (as customary in all tests), slowness of the Barium Aluminate was 
found closely the same.   Of the several compounds
 described and tested for impairment of falling velocity, only two have been 
tested in the ice calorimeter for continual generation of heat. Barium 
Sulphate, the first of these, was chosen because of its undoubted stability, 
although it had shown but very moderate impairment of falling velocity. It 
exhibited very moderate but steady and satisfactory generation of heat during a 
long run in the calorimeter. The second calorimeter test was made with barium 
Aluminate like that used for Plate I; but after preparation it was only air 
dried at room temperature, to avoid any unstability that might arise from hot 
air-drying, or ignition. The specimen was prepared about two months ago, and 
has been in the calorimeter during the last six weeks, where it continues to 
show rather large and steady generation of heat. It appears to be quite stable. 
  More than a year ago the Bureau of Standards very kindly offered to repeat 
some of my experiments on "continued generation of heat in some
 substances". A special ice calorimeter, quite different from mine, was 
designed and built for the purpose. After much time spent in perfecting and 
calibrating the calorimeter, a specimen of the air-dried Sandusky clay describe 
din some of my earlier papers, was tested during the last few months; and I 
have very recently received official announcement that this substance does 
continually generate a measurable amount of heat. The Bureau is about to 
commence testing the comparatively active Nickel-Cobalt Silicate described in 
my last two papers.   Correlation of continual generation of heat in some 
substances and impairment of their gravitational acceleration, is regarded as  
very strong evidence in support of the kinetic theory of gravitation; and we 
seem now well on the way of finding out something definite about the nature of 
gravitation, which has been by far the greatest of all outstanding physical 
problems.     
---------------------------------
    Bibliography   Dictionary of American Biography, Suppl. 1,2; p. 29   
Science (March 10, 1911)   Nature 86 (2160): 130-132 (March 23, 1911); ibid.,  
86 (2161) (March 30, 1911); Letter, Sir Oliver Lodge   Proc. Royal Soc. (Series 
A) 93 (1917); ibid., 95 (with Sir Robert A. Hadfield & S.A> Main)   Proc. Amer. 
Philos. Soc. 50 (3), 1926; ibid., 53 (213), Jan.-May, 1914; ibid., 54 
(May-July, 1921; ibid., 60 (2): 43-61 (1921); ibid., 62 (3): 75-89 (Sept. 29, 
1923); ibid., 63 (1): 57-61 (1924); ibid., 66 (3): 251-166 (1927); ibid., 67 
(2): 105-117 (1928); ibid., 68: 55-68 (May 1929)   Amer. J. Sci. 88: 118-128 
(Jan.-May 1914)   J. Franklin Inst. 206 (1232): 143-150 (Aug. 1928)   Phys. 
Rev. 9 (2), 1917   US Patents: 
 #337,299 (Battery) 
#1,698,669 (Jan. 8, 1929), Piezo-electric crystals 
# 1,823,864 (Sept., 1915) 
   
   
   
   
  

Allen Daves <allendaves@xxxxxxxxxxxxxx> wrote:
    Robert in Bold Purple...... ME IN BOLD BLUE
   
  1.       What graphic editor is producing your diagrams, Allen? 
  Power Point.. convert  to JPEG? I know I don?t do good spell check there 
eitherJ
  2.       Why can?t the ?pushing and squeezing? be the result of continuous 
aether flow radially inward, rather than vibrations? 
  I don?t see how you can have Continuous flow radially indefinitely in a 
elastic membrane 
   
  Your model is an elastic membrane, mine is a stream of fluid. The source of 
the flow is Daniel 7:10 , as expounded in Chap 11 of GWW. 
   
  I don?t have a problem with a stream of fluid maybe I misunderstood you about 
the elastic membrane, but in any case flow from a higher pressure to a lower 
one would only be possible if  it had someplace to go and could do that for 
6000 + years?I dont calim your model cant be true but in essence the differnece 
is in where you make the divison of the supernatural to the "natural" you just 
do at a diferent point then I do....but  streams themselves can?t account for a 
natural attraction of grav nor would pressure not nearly as easily as 
Vibrations. Dan 7:10 could justa s eaisily be the source for any number of 
aspects of the Fermement and may have nothing to do with any kind of radial 
flow of anything to do with grav.. Im not saying that it could not be just that 
there is not enough data in the text to even imply that. On the other hand the 
text does state specificaly that   Hebrews 11:3. Through faith we understand 
that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that
 things which are seen were not made of things which do appear.
  2Peter 3: 7. But the heavens and the earth, which are now, by the same word 
are kept in store,
  I could just as well make the case that since all energy , work and light 
move and have being in vibrations and God spoke the worlds in to existence and 
when you speak you in essence create vibrations and we are in the image of God 
that the fundamental foundation is to be found in vibrations as energy force 
and light. 

  ( not to mention the problem of where does it go and what happens to it and 
?the where it came from? once it gets to where it is going)???
  Good questions?. TBD
  ??.Simply adding pressure via a elstic membrane does not create gravity nor 
would it  make you haevier any more then increasing the atmospheric pressure in 
a chamber would. If the elastic  membrane were the cause of gravity then it 
would have to affect all exposed surfaces to the aether with the same ?elastic 
pressure?.. hence when I jumped up I would then be weightless??.All you do with 
a elastic membrane is create pressure not a downward force just as in a 
atmospheric chamber other wise the analogy has no bases in observable reality 
?????? I do see how a continuous vibration would indefinitely create a downward 
?force?  attracting bodies to bodies indefinitely as long as the vibration is 
powered?..
  How does vibration cause a continuous(constant) force? 
   
    Same as sound board if the vibration is turned off the particles will keep 
their existing position of the board but any introduction of a particle will 
not yield the effects of the attraction as seen when the board is turned on? as 
long as the vibration is active the "tuning fork effect" will be manifest  More 
on this latter but ref to this i think is found in some of Maxwells and Teslas 
work as it might relate to grav

  3.       How do the aether vibs know that they are near an object and should 
compress- or where they should start to compres ? the boundary? 
  Know? The same way the ripples in a pond do or any waves in a fluid medium 
do.. the only difference is the properties of the fluid medium with wave forms 
travailing in it not the mechanics? 
  4.        Is it reflection from the mass surface?  Then why isn?t there an 
interference pattern, instead of a continuous density variation? 
  How could you say/ Know  that there is no interference pattern?? 
  Because interference patterns are variations in intensity, not a continuous 
density variation
  Garvity is a demonstration of variations of intensity...? vibrations 
themslevs folow a inverse square relationship... Maxwell even talks about this 
under Gravity  in the Britanica 1889 9th eddition im working on specific 
references
  You can't measure the vibrations  directly speed are near instantaneous as I 
said before you could not construct a physical apparatus to measure vibrations 
and as a consequence  interference patterns either traveling at those speeds 15 
billion ly per 10-44 sec all would be imperceptible one and the same thing 
although in reality  effects at and on different scales..
   
  I suggest that the interference patterns are the causes of the Alias effect 
among other things?. There has not been enough experimentation to know those 
things exactly but what has been done shows fluid ? yes - and wave ?? 
properties?..That is my point the wave properties have not been exhausted. Your 
question is good but the available data is lacking to make a case on that issue?
  5.       Why is the compression variation exponential?  Truthfully it seems 
more like an elastic medium, which compresses when continuously pushed against 
solid matter?? which is the aether flow model. 
  I would suggest that an elastic medium is not only unnecessary when 
vibrations can accomplish the same thing but the grav slingshots; Gyroscope 
effect and Aspned ; aether flow can not be explained in a elastic membrane 
certainly not gravity ..
  Agreed, But then why are you using an elastic membrane model?
   
  Maybe I keep getting that mixed up with yours ..? but you did state 
"Truthfully it seems more like an elastic medium", but then again i understand 
that better now that Martin covered this in his Lecture.. the issue is not so 
much the elasticness of but rather the fact that pressure alone will not yeild 
grav.. elastic or not that would not prevent my point although i think of it as 
noncompresable like water not realy elastic.. but that may not be a issue 
either way at least right now
   but flow as in a current in a fluid can all while still prorogating grav 
aetheral waves.. including the ones that ripple and compress when they confront 
mass ? the feed back of the previous effects indicate that aether affects mass 
and mass affects aether as in  vortices that are the cause of Aspned effect 
which is essentially the same effect for gravity slingshots because only a 
?current?/ vortices  could explain that .. then there is also the Gyroscopic 
effect makes perfect sense using the same mechanics as grav slingshots and 
Aspned effects..
   
  6.       How many types of aether are there?  RB Biblical model has 3 types. 
  I can live with that for now??I?m not trying to sort out all the different 
types until we can even ascertain or settle on what must be accomplished first 
in general by the aether or aether(s) ( take your pick at this point although I 
would argue for a singular firmament but in any case, other then scriptural 
interpretations , that issue I would suggest is a non issue at this point?.. im 
open to ideas on that) Once we can establish and how and what work is to be 
done then I will focus more on how many and which ones do what..
  7.       How does your model explain the zero gravity zone ? the 
GeoStationary Distance? 
  As I stated before there is a clear ?division of labor? between local and 
universal gravity effects  (same basic ?force? Vibrations) the difference is 
one of scale?.Effects on the macro v effects on the micro scale ..The moon is 
in grav influence with the earth geostat by definition is inertialy neutral  as 
I have discussed earlier if it is due to balance between the moon and earth 
there is a lot of problems with that  every time the moon moves over head and 
if the moon is responsible for tides???.and thus any model must be able to 
explain how grav can affect earth/moon but not affect satellite orbit every 
time moon orbits earth .. 
  Why do you reject/ignore the model of counter-rotating fluids..  which 
predict zero gravity at the boundary?
    I don?t , I?m only pointing out that direct measurement of where that 
boundary is starts and ends has not been done (ieMM) as a result you cant 
depend on a boundary to explain a given phenomena where 1. There is no 
objective measurement of its physical dimensions 2.inherently unstable in a 
fluid for the reasons that follow (tieds and grav influence at greater 
distances) 3. Even if there was such a boundary, (I think there is for the 
reasons I gave and give aspend effect ect) it does not indicate your 
explanation of grav ?   you are going to run into great difficulties in 
invoking radial flow in a dynamically active (currents) fluid to account for 
grav effects 1. you cant be sure it is elastic rather then incompressible ( 
although this is really a minor issue at best since most of this is theoretical 
extrapolation anyway however my model is not dependent on that) 2. currents 
themselves will not allow for the transfer of radial flow through currents of 
presumably varying
 densities even if it is elastic?Why? ....The radial flow itself is a 
current??. you are in essence attempting to create simultaneous currents that 
traverse each other at 90 0 angles at different speeds and varying densities?I 
don?t see how that is possible at all. However vibrations can do this same work 
without any of those difficulties even with variable densities and direction of 
currents, vibrations can traverse currents at 90 degrees or even diametrically 
in the opposite direction of any current itself.. I think in the short term you 
have a big problem and in the long term that model is too restrictive. 
Vibrations are the way to go, interacting with mass that is travailing via 
currents in the aether this I believe is the stronger model.

    
  Further, what I think you Miss is the fact that even with a counter rotating 
fluid in your explanation (not mine) of zero grav at the geostat distance, the 
moon and sun are still exerting Grav influence at their distance ??. If you 
argue that their grav influence is direct then you can?t claim zero at geosat 
distance and if you claim it is indirect as I do you have no mechanism to 
account for it?.. this is the significance of the Alias effect in any model.
??. in my model there are two primary forces at work one is fluid flow which 
accounts for grav slingshots and aspeden effect and gyroscopic effects  and 
the/ any counter rotaion of aether below geosat distance,......the other is 
vibration as the prime force of grav with different effects at different 
scales?However these two are independent.  Your model does not make a 
distinction which I think is going to cause a lot of problems namely with 
gravitational anomalies and how local and universal grav relate....you still 
have a DM&DE problem to address. Becuse, even if you assume the inverse square 
law  in your model for local gravity it would not account for any large scale 
structures at least not using gravity..,  then you too will be forced to either 
accept DM & DE to account for anything as big or bigger then galaxy structures 
or simply invoke just as an arbitrary limit on the extent of grav influence 
because the alias effect demonstrates that the moon and sun are in
 gravitational influence with the earth the only question, point and 
explanation I raise is how and specifically  that although the grav influence 
is real it is a secondary variable not a primary one due to position , ?   but 
where do you draw the line at real grav influence and how arbitrary is your 
boundary limits not to mention the inherent instability of such a boundary, I 
think...?Your radial flow will not account for any macro gav effects.. I know 
some would say the problem is created by MS because they evoke eons of stellar 
evolution. However, the issue of time as a argument is not a good one because 
2Peter 3:5. For this they willingly are ignorant of, that by the word of God 
the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of the water and in the 
water:
??. mine can account for all that without compromising scripture in any shape 
fashion or form.  
  I believe my ripples in the pond can demonstrate how a large body/satellite 
at a given distance will only bob up and down in the water while a 
closer/smaller satellite/body will be drawn to the boat via wave compressions 
against the boat? 
  Good. When does the ?can demonstrate? become ?will demonstrate??
  I would argue that my model is far  less arbitray certainly not more 
so........You can perform this in any pond as long as the ripples are 
continuously powered ??This has already been done with tuning forks and mass 
attraction deriving a inverse square relationship of attraction...a Lot more on 
this to come .......Maxwell and others ?..Im working on more detailed specific 
ref,... ....the basic mechanics is one of a tuning fork .. size and mass of 
object determines harmonics/ the interacting effects.
     
    I model the force for CB mechanics is two fold one is the smaller motions 
of the bodies driven by currents the other is the structure of the currents and 
bodies themselves driven by a Grav vibrations..... local gravity is due to 
micro effects of vibrational wave compression against a CB where overall 
structure of universe is macro effects of the Grav vibration......grav 
slingshots and orbital mechanics are primarily driven by currents not gravity 
although the grv vibrations would affect the currents as in any fluid the two 
are symbiotic but function independently as well. 


  8.       How does your model explain the counter-rotating aether on either 
side of the GSD boundary? 
   
  Counter rotating aether is a theoretical construct based on aether flow that 
is yet to be definitively shown experimentally (Ie MM type ) 
  Not true Allen.  All CBs from the Moon out rotate westward; all artificial 
satellites at less than GSD rotate eastward. This is an experimental fact which 
we have discussed before and Paul D has even partially graphed. Why do you 
prefer speculation to experimental proof?I have cited experimental reasons not 
sure what speculation i am depening on......... I'm not aruging those facts 
about satilites only pointing out the weakness in actual measurments of  any 
suposed counter rotation. Martin pointed out at the conference that no one has 
actualy ever measured any gradiant for aetheral rotation... I firmlybelive it 
is there but that is speculation that in any case should hold true in your 
model as well.......I dont see it as a big problem since it is one of 
incomplete/lack of data/ experimentation rather then conflicting data, which is 
a real problem.......   In My model i do prefer proof over speculation and have 
experiment to back up my explanations...I would argue far more
 so then in any other model......One is the aspend effect the earth drags 
aether as aether rotates against it ( created current)...just as in the case of 
the motor and gyroscopes do, the difference is that since the earth is 
stationary the aether drag is opposite of the direction of the aether rotation 
where in CBs that rotate also appear to drag it in the direction of their 
apparent spin ...That dragging creates a current and the current that accounts 
for grav slingshots in the direction of the CB?s spin and even the 
aether/earth?s relative spin???.Currents are real but they are not gravity and 
gravity cant be explained very believably to me via a current only (radial 
flow).....
but having said that even if it were true ( I kinda think it could be)  AVGM 
does not in any way deny or prevent flow as in currents on the contrary it 
demands them but to support a non fluid elastic aether poses far more problems 
for that issue then a dynamic fluid with vibrations as the cause of large scale 
structure on the macro scale and a kind of ?surface tension? due to ripple or 
wave compression against mass at the micro scale.. Scripture only affirms the 
bodies set or placed in the firmament it does not go into any detail as to how 
or why they hold or were set/ put into those positions in the first place.. 
that is the point of discovery here.
      My question is why did God create the CBs first and then the firmament to 
put them in? Where were they after being first created but before being set in 
the firmament?

  The only other case of creation and then relocation is Adam himself. He was 
created before being placed in Eden.  Is there some deep significance to these 
two creation and relocation events ?  What meaning is intended by this reversal 
of sequence? 
  Maybe Robert S or Martin S (aka Martian) has the exegesis. 
  Robert B 
  Why do you prefer speculation to experimental proof? 
    
 
   Why do you think the CBs were created first somewhere else?.... I could just 
as well say that I built my ceramic shop made some potery and placed them in it 
?????.this does not demand that the potery was made in some other location then 
the shop itself.   We might consider the natural sequence in at least what we 
observe in our everyday lives as  shop to pottery?.. but not shop poterey 
somewhere else then into shop......
  Because...... 
  Gen 1: 6.  And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, 
and let it divide the waters from the waters. 7.  And God made the firmament, 
and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which 
were above the firmament: and it was so.
 8.  And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and the morning were 
the second day.14. And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the 
heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for 
seasons, and for days, and years:
  Clearly implies the firmament was already there becuse God spoke them into 
existance into the fimament...... well if He spoke them into the fimament then 
either the firmament was already there or created at the same 
time....??Creation day events were of Speech not physical process??The Issue 
here may be perhaps an attempt to draw to much based on too little. You can 
argue a couple of different ways and my point is, you can't make the case you 
put forward using just the text without assumtions. The construct does not 
demand that they were created in some other location then the location in which 
they were spoken into existance, which was the fimament..I don't see how you 
can make that argument. 
   
   Gen 2:8.  And the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he 
put the man whom he had formed.
  man was formed on the earth, not in the garden, the garden was planted after 
the earth was created ......again a natural sequence of events.....foundation/ 
frame work to finished product
   
  I would say your question assumes an imperative that does not exist.



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