[boost-doc-zh] r344 committed - [No log message]

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Revision: 344
Author: shomnia
Date: Sun Nov  8 05:41:50 2009
Log: [No log message]
http://code.google.com/p/boost-doc-zh/source/detail?r=344

Modified:
 /trunk/more/writingdoc/structure.html

=======================================
--- /trunk/more/writingdoc/structure.html       Sat Sep 12 01:00:21 2009
+++ /trunk/more/writingdoc/structure.html       Sun Nov  8 05:41:50 2009
@@ -3,459 +3,1119 @@
 <html>
 <head>
   <meta http-equiv="Content-Language" content="en-us">
-  <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=us-ascii">
+  <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
   <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="../../boost.css">

   <title>Writing Documentation for Boost - Documentation Structure</title>
+       <style>
+<!--
+div.Section1
+       {page:Section1;}
+ table.MsoNormalTable
+       {mso-style-parent:"";
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+       font-family:"Times New Roman";
+       }
+span.GramE
+       {}
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+       {mso-style-parent:"";
+       margin-bottom:.0001pt;
+       font-size:12.0pt;
+       font-family:"Times New Roman";
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+</style>
 </head>

 <body link="#0000FF" vlink="#800080">
-  <table border="0" cellpadding="7" cellspacing="0" width="100%" summary=
-  "header">
-    <tr>
-      <td valign="top" width="300">
- <h3><a href="index.html"><img height="86" width="277" alt="C++ Boost"
-        src="../../boost.png" border="0"></a></h3>
-      </td>
-
-      <td valign="top">
-        <h1 align="center">Writing Documentation for Boost</h1>
-
-        <h2 align="center">Documentation Structure</h2>
-      </td>
-    </tr>
-  </table>
-  <hr>

   <dl class="page-index">
-    <dt><a href="#introduction">Introduction</a></dt>
-
-    <dt><a href="#standards-conforming">Standards Conforming
-    Documentation</a></dt>
-
-    <dd>
-      <dl class="page-index">
-        <dt><a href="#elements">Document elements</a></dt>
-
-        <dd>
-          <dl class="page-index">
-            <dt><a href="#summary">Summary</a></dt>
-
-            <dt><a href="#requirements">Requirements</a></dt>
-
-            <dt><a href="#detailed-specs">Detailed specifications</a></dt>
-
-            <dt><a href="#ref-cpp">References to the Standard C++
-            library</a></dt>
-
-            <dt><a href="#ref-c">References to the Standard C
-            library</a></dt>
-          </dl>
-        </dd>
-
-        <dt><a href="#other">Other conventions</a></dt>
-
-        <dd>
-          <dl class="page-index">
-            <dt><a href="#type-descs">Type descriptions</a></dt>
-          </dl>
-        </dd>
-      </dl>
-    </dd>
-
-    <dt><a href="#more">More Information</a></dt>
-
-    <dd>
-      <dl class="page-index">
-        <dt><a href="#function-semantic-explanations">Function semantic
-        element explanations</a></dt>
-
-        <dd>
-          <dl class="page-index">
-            <dt><a href="#requires">Requires</a></dt>
-
-            <dt><a href="#effects">Effects</a></dt>
-
-            <dt><a href="#postconditions">Postconditions</a></dt>
-
-            <dt><a href="#returns">Returns</a></dt>
-
-            <dt><a href="#throws">Throws</a></dt>
-
-            <dt><a href="#complexity">Complexity</a></dt>
-
-            <dt><a href="#rationale">Rationale</a></dt>
-          </dl>
-        </dd>
-      </dl>
-    </dd>
-
-    <dt><a href="#web">Web Reference Documentation</a></dt>
-
-    <dt><a href="#footnotes">Footnotes</a></dt>
+<HTML>
+<BODY link=blue vLink=purple>
+<DIV class=Section1>
+<TABLE
+style="WIDTH: 100%; mso-cellspacing: 0cm; mso-padding-alt: 5.25pt 5.25pt 5.25pt 5.25pt" +class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 width="100%" id="table1">
+  <TBODY>
+ <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 0; mso-yfti-firstrow: yes; mso-yfti-lastrow: yes">
+    <TD
+ style="PADDING-BOTTOM: 5.25pt; PADDING-LEFT: 5.25pt; WIDTH: 225pt; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.25pt; PADDING-TOP: 5.25pt"
+    vAlign=top width=300>
+ <H3><SPAN style="mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'" lang=EN-US>
+               <A
+ href="../../../&#26032;&#24314;&#25991;&#20214;&#22841;/boost_doc/more/writingdoc/index.html" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single"><SPAN
+      style="TEXT-DECORATION: none; text-underline: none">
+               <IMG id=_x0000_i1025
+ border=0 alt="C++ Boost" src="../../../&#26032;&#24314;&#25991;&#20214;&#22841;/boost_doc/boost.png" width=277
+      height=86></SPAN></A><o:p></o:p></SPAN></H3></TD>
+    <TD
+ style="PADDING-BOTTOM: 5.25pt; PADDING-LEFT: 5.25pt; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.25pt; PADDING-TOP: 5.25pt"
+    vAlign=top>
+      <H1 style="TEXT-ALIGN: center" align=center><SPAN
+      style="mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'" lang=EN-US>Writing
+               Documentation for Boost</SPAN></H1>
+               <H1 style="TEXT-ALIGN: center" align=center>
+               <SPAN
+ style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+               为</SPAN><SPAN
+      style="mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"
+      lang=EN-US>Boost</SPAN><SPAN class=GramE><SPAN
+ style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">库写文档 </SPAN></SPAN><SPAN
+      style="mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"
+      lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></H1>
+      <H2 style="TEXT-ALIGN: center" align=center><SPAN
+      style="mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"
+      lang=EN-US>Documentation Structure</SPAN></H2>
+               <H2 style="TEXT-ALIGN: center" align=center>
+               <SPAN
+ style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+               文档结构</SPAN><SPAN
+      style="mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"
+      lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></H2></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
+<DIV style="TEXT-ALIGN: center" class=MsoNormal align=center><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+<HR align=center SIZE=2 width="100%">
+</SPAN></DIV>
+<P class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+<A
+href="#introduction" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+Introduction</A></SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;</SPAN></P>
+<P class=MsoNormal><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"> +<a href="#introduction" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+介绍</a></SPAN></P>
+<P class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+<A href="#standards-conforming" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+Standards Conforming Documentation</A>&nbsp;&nbsp;</SPAN></P>
+<P class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>&nbsp;</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><a href="#standards-conforming" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">标准 一致性文档</a></SPAN></P>
+<P style="MARGIN-LEFT: 36pt" class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+<A
+href="#elements" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+Document elements</A> </SPAN></P>
+<P style="MARGIN-LEFT: 36pt" class=MsoNormal><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"> +<a href="#elements" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+文档元素</a></SPAN></P>
+<P style="MARGIN-LEFT: 36pt" class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+<A
+href="#summary" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+Summary</A>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></P>
+<P style="MARGIN-LEFT: 36pt" class=MsoNormal><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"> +<a href="#summary" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+总结</a></SPAN></P>
+<P style="MARGIN-LEFT: 36pt" class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+<a href="#requirements" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+requirements</a> </SPAN></P>
+<P style="MARGIN-LEFT: 36pt" class=MsoNormal><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"> +<a href="#requirements" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+需求</a></SPAN></P>
+<P style="MARGIN-LEFT: 36pt" class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+<A
+href="#detailed-specs" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+Detailed specifications</A> </SPAN></P>
+<P style="MARGIN-LEFT: 36pt" class=MsoNormal><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"> +<a href="#detailed-specs" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+详细设计</a></SPAN></P>
+<P style="MARGIN-LEFT: 36pt" class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+<A
+href="#ref-cpp" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+References to the Standard C++ library</A> </SPAN></P>
+<P style="MARGIN-LEFT: 36pt" class=MsoNormal>
+<a href="#ref-cpp" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single"><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>C++</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">标准库参考</SPAN></a></P>
+<P style="MARGIN-LEFT: 36pt" class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+<A
+href="#ref-c" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+References to the Standard C library</A> </SPAN></P>
+<P style="MARGIN-LEFT: 36pt" class=MsoNormal>
+<a href="#ref-c" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single"><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>C</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">标准库参考</SPAN></a></P>
+<P style="MARGIN-LEFT: 36pt" class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+<A
+href="#other" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+Other conventions</A> </SPAN></P>
+<P style="MARGIN-LEFT: 36pt" class=MsoNormal><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"> +<a href="#other" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+其他约定</a></SPAN></P>
+<P style="MARGIN-LEFT: 36pt" class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+<A
+href="#type-descs" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+Type descriptions</A></SPAN></P>
+<P style="MARGIN-LEFT: 36pt" class=MsoNormal><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"> +<a href="#type-descs" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+类型描述</a></SPAN></P>
+<P class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+<A href="#more" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+More Information</A>
+</SPAN></P>
+<P class=MsoNormal><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"> +<a href="#more" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+更多信息</a></SPAN></P>
+<P style="MARGIN-LEFT: 36pt" class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+<A
+href="#function-semantic-explanations" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+Function semantic element explanations</A></SPAN></P>
+<P style="MARGIN-LEFT: 36pt" class=MsoNormal><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"> +<a href="#function-semantic-explanations" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+函数语义元素解释</a></SPAN></P>
+<P style="MARGIN-LEFT: 36pt" class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+<A
+href="#requires" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+Requires</A> </SPAN></P>
+<P style="MARGIN-LEFT: 36pt" class=MsoNormal><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"> +<a href="#requires" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+需求</a></SPAN></P>
+<P style="MARGIN-LEFT: 36pt" class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+<A
+href="#effects" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+Effects</A> </SPAN></P>
+<P style="MARGIN-LEFT: 36pt" class=MsoNormal><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"> +<a href="#effects" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+效果</a></SPAN></P>
+<P style="MARGIN-LEFT: 36pt" class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+<A
+href="#postconditions" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+Postconditions</A></SPAN></P>
+<P style="MARGIN-LEFT: 36pt" class=MsoNormal><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"> +<a href="#postconditions" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+后置条件</a></SPAN></P>
+<P style="MARGIN-LEFT: 36pt" class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+<A
+href="#returns" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+Returns</A> </SPAN></P>
+<P style="MARGIN-LEFT: 36pt" class=MsoNormal><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"> +<a href="#returns" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+返回</a></SPAN></P>
+<P style="MARGIN-LEFT: 36pt" class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+<A
+href="#throws" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+Throws</A> </SPAN></P>
+<P style="MARGIN-LEFT: 36pt" class=MsoNormal><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"> +<a href="#throws" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+抛出</a></SPAN></P>
+<P style="MARGIN-LEFT: 36pt" class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+<A
+href="#complexity" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+Complexity</A> </SPAN></P>
+<P style="MARGIN-LEFT: 36pt" class=MsoNormal><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"> +<a href="#complexity" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+复杂性</a></SPAN></P>
+<P style="MARGIN-LEFT: 36pt" class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+<A
+href="#rationale" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+Rationale</A> </SPAN></P>
+<P style="MARGIN-LEFT: 36pt" class=MsoNormal><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"> +<a href="#rationale" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+原理说明</a></SPAN></P>
+<P class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+<A href="#footnotes" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+Footnotes</A>
+</SPAN></P>
+<P class=MsoNormal><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"> +<a href="#footnotes" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+脚注</a></SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P>
+<H2><A id=introduction0 name=introduction0><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>Introduction</SPAN></A></H2>
+<H2><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+介绍</SPAN></H2>
+<P><SPAN lang=EN-US>Boost itself does not require any specific documentation +structure. The C++ Standard, however, has very explicit requirements for the +description of library components (Section 17.3). So for Boost libraries likely
+to be proposed for inclusion in the standard, it is highly desirable to
+structure documentation in a way that meets the requirements of the <SPAN
+class=SpellE>the</SPAN> standard. Doing so eliminates the need to rewrite the
+documentation for standardization.</SPAN></P>
+<P><SPAN lang=EN-US>Boost </SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+本身不需要任何特别的文档结构。</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>C++</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">标准,对库组件有明确的显示需求 </SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>(17.3</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">节</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>)</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">。目前为止</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>Boost</SPAN><SPAN class=GramE><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">库可能</SPAN></SPAN><SPAN +style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">被提议列入标准,因此有很强的需求采 用一种方式结构化文档,满足标准的要求。这样做是为了标准化之后消除重写文档的需 要。</SPAN></P> +<P><SPAN lang=EN-US>Library developers should remember that for a library to be +accepted as part of the C++ Standard Library, the proposal must include full
+wording. The committee will not do that work for you.</SPAN></P>
+<P><SPAN class=GramE><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+库开发</SPAN></SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">则应该记住纳入</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>C++</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">标准库的库,提议必须包含完整的措 辞。标准委员会不会为你做这个工作。</SPAN></P> +<P><SPAN lang=EN-US>Beyond that, the documentation structure required for the +standard is an effective way to communicate the technical specifications for a +library. Although terse, it is already familiar to many Boost users, and is far
+more precise than most ad hoc documentation structures.</SPAN></P>
+<P><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"> +除此之外,标准需要的文档结构是一个与库的技术规范进行沟通的有效方式。它虽然 简洁,但是已经被很多</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>Boost</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">用户熟悉,比专有的文档结构更精确。 </SPAN></P>
+<P><SPAN lang=EN-US>The following description is for the structure of
+documentation required by the standard. Boost libraries should also provided +additional documentation, such as introductory, tutorial, example, and rationale
+material.</SPAN></P>
+<P><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+下面的描述针对标准对文档结构化的需要。</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>Boost</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">库也提供了额外的文档,如介绍、教 程、例子和原理资料。</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P>
+<H2><A id=standards-conforming0 name=standards-conforming0><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>Standards Conforming</SPAN></A><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+Documentation</SPAN></H2>
+<H2><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+标准一致性文档</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></H2>
+<H3><A id=elements0 name=elements0><SPAN lang=EN-US>Document elements</SPAN></A></H3>
+<H3><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+文档元素</SPAN></H3>
+<P><SPAN lang=EN-US>Each document contains the following elements, as <SPAN
+class=GramE>applicable</SPAN><A href="#footnote1" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">(1)</A>:</SPAN></P>
+<P><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+每个文档包含下面的元素,适用于</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US><A href="#footnote1" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">(1)</A>:</SPAN></P>
+<UL type=disc style="margin-bottom: 0cm">
+  <LI
+ style="mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l3 level1 lfo1"
+  class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+       <A
+ href="#summary" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single"> + Summary</A>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
+  </SPAN><SPAN
+ style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"> + <a href="#summary" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+       摘要</a></SPAN>
+
+  <LI
+ style="mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l3 level1 lfo1"
+  class=MsoNormal>
+       <p align="left"><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+       <A
+ href="#requirements" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+       Requirements</A>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
+  </SPAN><SPAN
+ style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"> + <a href="#requirements" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+       需求</a></SPAN>
+
+  <LI
+ style="mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l3 level1 lfo1"
+  class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+ <A href="#detailed-specs" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+       Detailed specifications</A> </SPAN><SPAN
+ style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"> + <a href="#detailed-specs" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+       详细规范</a></SPAN>
+
+  <LI
+ style="mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l3 level1 lfo1"
+  class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+ <A href="#ref-cpp" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+       References to the Standard C++ library</A>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
+ <a href="#ref-cpp" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+       C++</a></SPAN><SPAN
+ style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><a href="#ref-cpp" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">标准库参考 </a></SPAN>
+
+  <LI
+ style="mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l3 level1 lfo1"
+  class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+ <A href="#ref-c" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single"> + References to the Standard C library</A>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
+       <A
+ href="file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/xwh/&#26700;&#38754;/more/writingdoc/~CP5E.htm#ref-c" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+       C</A></SPAN><SPAN
+ style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><a href="#ref-c" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">标准库参考 </a></SPAN><SPAN
+  lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN> </LI></UL>
+<H4><A id=summary0 name=summary0><SPAN lang=EN-US>Summary</SPAN></A></H4>
+<H4><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+摘要</SPAN></H4>
+<P><SPAN lang=EN-US>The Summary provides a synopsis of the category, and
+introduces the first-level <SPAN class=SpellE>subclauses</SPAN>. Each <SPAN
+class=SpellE>subclause</SPAN> also provides a summary, listing the headers
+specified in the <SPAN class=SpellE>subclause</SPAN> and the library entities
+provided in each header.</SPAN></P>
+<P><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"> +摘要提供了一个类别纲要,介绍了第一级条款。每个条款包含一个摘要,列出了子条 款的头文件和在每个头文件中的库实体。</SPAN></P> +<P><SPAN lang=EN-US>Paragraphs labeled &quot;Note(s):&quot; or &quot;Example(s):&quot; are
+informative, other paragraphs are normative.</SPAN></P>
+<P><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+标注</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>&quot;Note(s):&quot;</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">或</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>&quot;Example(s):&quot;</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">的段落富含有用信息,其它段落是规范 章节。</SPAN></P> +<P><SPAN lang=EN-US>The summary and the detailed specifications are presented in
+the order:</SPAN></P>
+<P><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+摘要和详细规范按如下顺序呈现:</SPAN></P>
+<UL type=disc style="margin-bottom: 0cm">
+  <LI
+ style="mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l1 level1 lfo2"
+  class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>Macros<SPAN
+  style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN><SPAN
+ style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+       宏</SPAN>
+
+  <LI
+ style="mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l1 level1 lfo2"
+  class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>Values<SPAN
+  style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN><SPAN
+ style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+       值</SPAN>
+
+  <LI
+ style="mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l1 level1 lfo2"
+  class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>Types<SPAN
+  style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN><SPAN
+ style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+       类型</SPAN>
+
+  <LI
+ style="mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l1 level1 lfo2"
+  class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>Classes<SPAN
+  style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN><SPAN
+ style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+       类</SPAN>
+
+  <LI
+ style="mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l1 level1 lfo2"
+  class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>Functions </SPAN><SPAN
+ style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+       函数</SPAN>
+
+  <LI
+ style="mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l1 level1 lfo2"
+  class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>Objects<SPAN
+  style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN><SPAN
+ style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+       对象</SPAN><SPAN
+  lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN> </LI></UL>
+<H4><A id=requirements0 name=requirements0><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>Requirements</SPAN></A><SPAN lang=EN-US> </SPAN></H4>
+<H4><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+需求</SPAN></H4>
+<P><SPAN lang=EN-US>The library can be extended by a C++ program. Each clause, +as applicable, describes the requirements that such extensions must meet. Such
+extensions are generally one of the following:</SPAN></P>
+<P><SPAN class=GramE><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+这个库能被</SPAN></SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>C++</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">程序扩展。</SPAN>
+<SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"> +每个条款,在适用范围内,描述这些扩展应满足的需求。这些扩展一般是下面的情形 之一:</SPAN></P>
+<UL type=disc style="margin-bottom: 0cm">
+  <LI
+ style="mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l4 level1 lfo3"
+  class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>Template arguments<SPAN
+  style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN><SPAN
+ style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+       模板参数</SPAN>
+
+  <LI
+ style="mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l4 level1 lfo3"
+  class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>Derived classes<SPAN
+ style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
+  </SPAN></SPAN><SPAN
+ style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+       派生类</SPAN>
+
+  <LI
+ style="mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l4 level1 lfo3"
+  class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>Containers, <SPAN
+  class=SpellE>iterators</SPAN>, and/or algorithms that meet an interface
+       convention</SPAN><SPAN
+ style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">容器,迭代器或满足接口惯例的算法 </SPAN>
+  </LI></UL>
+<P><SPAN lang=EN-US>Interface convention requirements are stated as generally as +possible. Instead of stating &quot;</SPAN><CODE style="font-family: Courier New"><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt"
+lang=EN-US>class X</SPAN></CODE><SPAN lang=EN-US> has to define a member
+function </SPAN><CODE style="font-family: Courier New"><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt" lang=EN-US>
+operator+<SPAN
+class=GramE>+(</SPAN>)</SPAN></CODE><SPAN lang=EN-US>,&quot; the interface requires +&quot;for any object </SPAN><CODE style="font-family: Courier New"><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt"
+lang=EN-US>x</SPAN></CODE><SPAN lang=EN-US> of </SPAN>
+<CODE style="font-family: Courier New"><SPAN
+style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt" lang=EN-US>class X</SPAN></CODE><SPAN lang=EN-US>,
+</SPAN><CODE style="font-family: Courier New"><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt" lang=EN-US>
+++x</SPAN></CODE><SPAN
+lang=EN-US> is defined.&quot; That is, whether the operator is a member is
+unspecified.</SPAN></P>
+<P><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+接口惯例需求应当尽可能通用。相比</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US> “class X”</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">应当定义一个成员函数</SPAN><CODE style="font-family: Courier New"><SPAN
+style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt" lang=EN-US>operator++()</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Courier New'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Courier New'">,接口需要对任何类</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt" lang=EN-US>X</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Courier New'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Courier New'">的对象</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt" lang=EN-US>x</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Courier New'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Courier New'">,定义</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt" lang=EN-US>++x</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Courier New'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Courier New'">。这里操作符是否是一个成员函数是不确定的。</SPAN></CODE></P>
+<P><SPAN lang=EN-US>Requirements are stated in terms of well-defined
+expressions, which define valid terms of the types that satisfy the
+requirements. For every set of requirements there is a table that specifies an +initial set of the valid expressions and their semantics. Any generic algorithm +that uses the requirements is described in terms of the valid expressions for
+its formal type parameters.</SPAN></P>
+<P><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"> +需求列成定义明确的表达式,它定义了符合要求的有效条款。对于每一个需求集,有 一个对应的表描述了一个初始的有效表达式及其语义集。</SPAN></P> +<P><SPAN lang=EN-US>Template argument requirements are sometimes referenced by
+name.</SPAN></P>
+<P><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+模板参数需求有时根据名字来引用。</SPAN></P>
+<P><SPAN lang=EN-US>In some cases the semantic requirements are presented as C++
+code. Such code is intended as a specification of <SPAN
+class=SpellE>equivalance</SPAN> of a construct to another construct, not
+necessarily as the way the construct must be implemented.<A
+href="#footnote2" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">(2)</A></SPAN></P>
+<P><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+在一些情况下语义需求使用</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>C++</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">代码描述。这样的代码是旨在作为一个 结构到另一个结构的等价构造,这样的结构不一定需要实现。</SPAN><SPAN +lang=EN-US><A href="#footnote2" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">(2)</A><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P>
+<H4><A id=detailed-specs0 name=detailed-specs0><SPAN lang=EN-US>Detailed
+specification</SPAN></A><SPAN lang=EN-US> </SPAN></H4>
+<H4><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+详细规范</SPAN></H4>
+<P><SPAN lang=EN-US>The detailed specifications each contain the following
+elements:</SPAN></P>
+<P><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+这个详细规范包含如下元素:</SPAN></P>
+<UL type=disc style="margin-bottom: 0cm">
+  <LI
+ style="mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l2 level1 lfo4"
+  class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>Name and brief description </SPAN><SPAN
+ style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+       命名和简要介绍</SPAN>
+
+  <LI
+ style="mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l2 level1 lfo4"
+  class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>Synopsis (class definition or function
+       prototype, as appropriate)</SPAN><SPAN
+ style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">总<SPAN
+  class=GramE>览</SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US>(</SPAN><SPAN
+ style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">类定义或函数原型,视情况而定 </SPAN><SPAN
+  lang=EN-US>)</SPAN>
+  <LI
+ style="mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l2 level1 lfo4" + class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>Restrictions on template arguments, if any</SPAN><SPAN + style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">如果有模板参数的话,对模板参数的限 制</SPAN>
+
+  <LI
+ style="mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l2 level1 lfo4"
+  class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>Description of class invariants<SPAN
+  style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </SPAN></SPAN><SPAN
+ style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+       类的不变量说明</SPAN>
+
+  <LI
+ style="mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l2 level1 lfo4"
+  class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>Description of function semantics
+  </SPAN><SPAN
+ style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+       函数语义说明</SPAN>
+  </LI></UL>
+<P><SPAN lang=EN-US>Descriptions of class member functions follow the order (as +appropriate<SPAN class=GramE>)</SPAN><A href="#footnote3" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">(3)</A>:</SPAN></P>
+<P><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+类成员函数的描述遵守如下顺序</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>(</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">酌情而定</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>)
+<A href="#footnote3" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+(3)</A>:</SPAN></P>
+<UL type=disc style="margin-bottom: 0cm">
+  <LI
+ style="mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo5" + class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>Constructor(s) and destructor </SPAN><SPAN + style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+       构造函数和<SPAN
+  class=GramE>析构</SPAN>函数</SPAN>
+  <LI
+ style="mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo5" + class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>Copying and assignment functions</SPAN><SPAN + style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">拷贝和复制构造函数</SPAN>
+
+  <LI
+ style="mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo5"
+  class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>Comparison functions </SPAN><SPAN
+ style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+       比较函数</SPAN>
+
+  <LI
+ style="mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo5"
+  class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>Modifier functions </SPAN><SPAN
+ style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+       修改函数</SPAN>
+
+  <LI
+ style="mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo5"
+  class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>Observer functions </SPAN><SPAN
+ style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+       观察者函数</SPAN>
+
+       &lt;&lt;&lt;&lt;&lt;&lt;&lt; .mine
+  <LI
+ style="mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo5"
+  class=MsoNormal><SPAN lang=EN-US>Operators and other non-member functions
+  </SPAN><SPAN
+ style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+       操作符和其它非成员函数</SPAN>
+  </LI></UL>
+<P><SPAN lang=EN-US>Descriptions of function semantics contain the following
+<A
+id=function-elements0 name=function-elements0>elements</A> (as appropriate<SPAN +class=GramE>)</SPAN><A href="#footnote4" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">(4):</A></SPAN></P>
+<P><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+函数语义的描述包含如下元素</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>(</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">酌情而定</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>)
+<A href="#footnote4" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+(4):</A></SPAN></P>
+<P class=MsoNormal><B><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+<A
+href="#requires" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+Requires:</A></SPAN></B><SPAN lang=EN-US> the preconditions for calling the
+function</SPAN></P>
+<P class=MsoNormal><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><STRONG> +<a href="#requires" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+需求</a></STRONG>:调用函数的前置条件</SPAN></P>
+<P class=MsoNormal><B><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+<A
+href="#effects" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single"> +Effects:</A></SPAN></B><SPAN lang=EN-US> the actions performed by the function </SPAN></P>
+<P class=MsoNormal><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><STRONG> +<a href="#effects" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+效果</a></STRONG>:函数执行产生的效果</SPAN></P>
+<P class=MsoNormal><B><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+<A
+href="#postconditions" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+Postconditions:</A></SPAN></B><SPAN lang=EN-US> the observable results
+established by the function </SPAN></P>
+<P class=MsoNormal><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><STRONG> +<a href="#postconditions" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+后置条件</a></STRONG>:由这函数建立的可观察的结果</SPAN></P>
+<P class=MsoNormal><B><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+<A
+href="#returns" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single"> +Returns:</A></SPAN></B><SPAN lang=EN-US> a description of the value(s) returned
+by the function </SPAN></P>
+<P class=MsoNormal><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><STRONG> +<a href="#returns" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+返回值</a></STRONG>:函数返回值的描述</SPAN></P>
+<P class=MsoNormal><B><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+<A
+href="#throws" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single"> +Throws:</A></SPAN></B><SPAN lang=EN-US> any exceptions thrown by the function,
+and the conditions that would cause the exception</SPAN></P>
+<P class=MsoNormal><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><STRONG> +<a href="#throws" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+抛出</a></STRONG>:函数抛出的异常和造成异常的条件。</SPAN></P>
+<P class=MsoNormal><B><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+<A
+href="#complexity" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single"> +Complexity:</A></SPAN></B><SPAN lang=EN-US> the time and/or space complexity of
+the function</SPAN></P>
+<P class=MsoNormal><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><STRONG> +<a href="#complexity" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+复杂性</a></STRONG>:函数的时间和空间复杂度</SPAN></P>
+<P class=MsoNormal><B><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+<A
+href="#rationale" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single"> +Rationale:</A></SPAN></B><SPAN lang=EN-US> the rationale for the function&#39;s
+design or existence </SPAN></P>
+<P class=MsoNormal><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><STRONG> +<a href="#rationale" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+合理性</a></STRONG>:函数设计或存在的合理性</SPAN></P>
+<P><SPAN lang=EN-US>Complexity requirements specified in the library clauses are
+upper bounds, and implementations that provide better complexity guarantees
+satisfy the requirements.</SPAN></P>
+<P><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"> +库条款中的复杂性需求指的是复杂性上界,具体的实现提供更好的保障满足复杂性需 求。</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P>
+<H4><A id=ref-cpp0 name=ref-cpp0><SPAN lang=EN-US>References to the C++ Standard
+library</SPAN></A></H4>
+<H4><SPAN lang=EN-US>C++</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">标准库参考</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></H4>
+<H4><A id=ref-c0 name=ref-c0><SPAN lang=EN-US>References to the C Standard
+library</SPAN></A></H4>
+<H4><SPAN lang=EN-US>C</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">标准库参考</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></H4>
+<H3><A id=other0 name=other0><SPAN lang=EN-US>Other conventions</SPAN></A></H3>
+<H3><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+其它惯用法</SPAN></H3>
+<P><SPAN lang=EN-US>These conventions are for describing implementation-defined
+types, and member functions.</SPAN></P>
+<P><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+这些惯用法为了描述<SPAN
+class=GramE>由实现</SPAN>环境决定的类型和成员函数。</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P>
+<H4><A id=type-descs0 name=type-descs0><SPAN lang=EN-US>Type descriptions</SPAN></A><SPAN lang=EN-US> </SPAN></H4>
+<H4><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+类型描述</SPAN></H4>
+<P><SPAN lang=EN-US>The Requirements <SPAN class=SpellE>subclauses</SPAN> may +describe names that are used to specify constraints on template arguments.</SPAN></P>
+<P><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+需求条款可以说明用于限制模板参数的名字。</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P>
+<H2><A id=more0 name=more0><SPAN lang=EN-US>More Information</SPAN></A></H2>
+<H2><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+更多信息</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></H2>
+<H3>
+<A id=function-semantic-explanations0
+name=function-semantic-explanations0><SPAN lang=EN-US>Function semantic element
+explanations</SPAN></A><SPAN style="mso-spacerun: yes" lang="EN-US">&nbsp;
+</SPAN></H3>
+<H3><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+函数语义元素解释</SPAN></H3>
+<P><SPAN lang=EN-US>The function semantic element description
+<A
+href="#function-elements" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single"> +above</A> is taken directly from the C++ standard, and is quite terse. Here is a
+more detailed explanation of each of the elements.</SPAN></P>
+<P><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"> +<a href="#function-elements" style="color: blue; text-decoration: underline; text-underline: single">
+上述的</a>函数语义元素描述直接从</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>C++</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">标准而来,非常简洁。这里是一个对每 个元素的更详细的解释。</SPAN></P>
+<P><SPAN class=GramE><SPAN lang=EN-US>Note the use of the </SPAN>
+<CODE style="font-family: Courier New"><SPAN
+style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt" lang=EN-US>&lt;code&gt; ... &lt;/code&gt;</SPAN></CODE><SPAN lang=EN-US> +font tag to distinguish actual C++ usage from English prose.</SPAN></SPAN></P>
+<P><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+注</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>,</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">使用</SPAN><CODE style="font-family: Courier New"><SPAN +style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt" lang=EN-US>&lt;code&gt; ... &lt;/code&gt;</SPAN><SPAN +style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Courier New'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Courier New'">字体标签从英语句法的角度区分实际的</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt" lang=EN-US>C++</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Courier New'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Courier New'">用法。</SPAN></CODE><SPAN
+lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P>
+<H4><A id=requires0 name=requires0><SPAN lang=EN-US>Requires</SPAN></A><SPAN
+lang=EN-US> </SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+需求</SPAN></H4>
+<P><SPAN lang=EN-US>Preconditions for calling the function, typically expressed +as predicates. The most common preconditions are requirements on the value of
+arguments, often in the form of C++ expressions. For example,</SPAN></P>
+<P><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"> +调用函数的前条件,通常表示为谓词。最常用的前置条件是参数值的需求,经常表示 出</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>C++</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">表达式的形式。如,</SPAN></P> +<PRE style="tab-stops: 45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt; font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Courier New; margin-left: 0cm; margin-right: 0cm; margin-top: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></PRE> +<PRE style="tab-stops: 45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt; font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Courier New; margin-left: 0cm; margin-right: 0cm; margin-top: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US> </SPAN></PRE> +<PRE style="tab-stops: 45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt; font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Courier New; margin-left: 0cm; margin-right: 0cm; margin-top: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt"><SPAN class=GramE><CODE style="font-family: Courier New"><SPAN lang=EN-US>void</SPAN></CODE></SPAN><CODE style="font-family: Courier New"><SPAN lang=EN-US> limit( <SPAN class=SpellE>int</SPAN> * p, <SPAN class=SpellE>int</SPAN> min, <SPAN class=SpellE>int</SPAN> max );</SPAN></CODE></PRE>
+<P
+style="tab-stops: 45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt"
+class=MsoNormal><B><SPAN lang=EN-US>Requires:</SPAN></B><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+</SPAN><SPAN class=GramE><CODE style="font-family: Courier New"><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt" lang=EN-US> +p !</SPAN></CODE></SPAN><CODE style="font-family: Courier New"><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt" lang=EN-US>=
+0 &amp;&amp; min &lt;= max<o:p></o:p></SPAN></CODE></P>
+<P
+style="tab-stops: 45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt"
+class=MsoNormal>&nbsp;</P>
+<P
+style="tab-stops: 45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt"><SPAN +lang=EN-US>Requirements already enforced by the C++ language rules (such as the
+type of arguments) are not repeated in <SPAN class=GramE>Requires</SPAN>
+paragraphs.</SPAN></P>
+<P
+style="tab-stops: 45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt"><SPAN +style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+已经被</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>C++</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">语言规则限制了的需求</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>(</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">如参数类型</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>)</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">不在需求段落部分重复</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P>
+<H4
+style="tab-stops: 45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt">
+<A
+id=effects0 name=effects0><SPAN lang=EN-US>Effects</SPAN></A><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>&nbsp;</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">效果</SPAN></H4>
+<P
+style="tab-stops: 45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt"><SPAN +lang=EN-US>The actions performed by the function, described either in prose or
+in C++. A description in prose is often less limiting on <SPAN
+class=SpellE>implementors</SPAN>, but is often less precise than C++ code.</SPAN></P>
+<P
+style="tab-stops: 45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt"><SPAN +style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+该函数执行的操作,以英语句法或</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>C++</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">语言的形式描述。英语句法形式的描述 经常对实现者限制更少,但是没有</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>C++</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">代码描述精确。</SPAN></P>
+<P
+style="tab-stops: 45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt"><SPAN +lang=EN-US>If an effect is specified in one of the other elements, particularly
+<SPAN class=SpellE><I>postconditions</I></SPAN>, <I>returns</I>, or
+<I>throws</I>, it is not also described in the <I>effects</I> paragraph. Having +only a single description ensures that there is one and only one specification,
+and thus eliminates the risk of divergence.</SPAN></P>
+<P
+style="tab-stops: 45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt"><SPAN +style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"> +如果一个效果用其它元素规范列出,特别是后置条件,返回值或抛出,则它将不被放 置在效果段落中描述。仅有一个单独的描述确保有一个且仅有一个规范,这也避免了分 歧。</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P>
+<H4
+style="tab-stops: 45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt">
+<A
+id=postconditions0 name=postconditions0></A><SPAN class=SpellE>
+<SPAN
+lang=EN-US style="mso-bookmark: postconditions">Postconditions</SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US> </SPAN><SPAN +style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+后置条件</SPAN></H4>
+<P
+style="tab-stops: 45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt"><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>The observable results of the function, such as the value of
+variables. <SPAN class=SpellE>Postconditions</SPAN> are often expressed as
+predicates that are true after the function completes, in the form of C++
+expressions. For example:</SPAN></P>
+<P
+style="tab-stops: 45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt"><SPAN +style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+函数可以看得见的结果,如变量的值。当函数完成后,后置条件以</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>C++</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">表达式的形式表示为真。例 如:</SPAN></P> +<PRE style="tab-stops: 45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt; font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Courier New; margin-left: 0cm; margin-right: 0cm; margin-top: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></PRE> +<PRE style="tab-stops: 45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt; font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Courier New; margin-left: 0cm; margin-right: 0cm; margin-top: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US> </SPAN></PRE> +<PRE style="tab-stops: 45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt; font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Courier New; margin-left: 0cm; margin-right: 0cm; margin-top: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt"><SPAN class=GramE><SPAN lang=EN-US>void</SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US> <SPAN class=SpellE>make_zero_if_negative</SPAN>( <SPAN class=SpellE>int</SPAN> &amp; x );</SPAN></PRE>
+<P
+style="tab-stops: 45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt"
+class=MsoNormal><SPAN class=SpellE><B><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>Postcondition</SPAN></B></SPAN><B><SPAN lang=EN-US>:</SPAN></B><SPAN +lang=EN-US> </SPAN><CODE style="font-family: Courier New"><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt" lang=EN-US>
+x &gt;= 0
+</SPAN></CODE></P>
+<H4
+style="tab-stops: 45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt">
+<A
+id=returns0 name=returns0><SPAN lang=EN-US>Returns</SPAN></A></H4>
+<H4
+style="tab-stops: 45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt"><SPAN +style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+返回值</SPAN></H4>
+<P
+style="tab-stops: 45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt"><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>The value returned by the function, usually in the form of a C++
+expression. For example:</SPAN></P>
+<P
+style="tab-stops: 45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt"><SPAN +style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+函数返回的值,通常使用</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>C++</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">表达式的形式。例如</SPAN></P> +<PRE style="tab-stops: 45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt; font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Courier New; margin-left: 0cm; margin-right: 0cm; margin-top: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt"><SPAN lang=EN-US><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></SPAN></PRE> +<PRE style="tab-stops: 45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt; font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Courier New; margin-left: 0cm; margin-right: 0cm; margin-top: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt"><SPAN class=SpellE><SPAN class=GramE><SPAN lang=EN-US>int</SPAN></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US> sum( <SPAN class=SpellE>int</SPAN> x, <SPAN class=SpellE>int</SPAN> y );</SPAN></PRE>
+<P
+style="tab-stops: 45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt"
+class=MsoNormal><B><SPAN lang=EN-US>Returns:</SPAN></B><SPAN lang=EN-US>
+</SPAN><CODE style="font-family: Courier New"><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt" lang=EN-US>
+x + y</SPAN></CODE></P>
+<P
+style="tab-stops: 45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt"><SPAN +lang=EN-US>Only specify the return value; the type is already dictated by C++
+language rules.</SPAN></P>
+<P
+style="tab-stops: 45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt"><SPAN +style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+仅规定返回值;类型已经被</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US>C++</SPAN><SPAN
+style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">语言规范指定。</SPAN><SPAN
+lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></P>
+<H4
+style="tab-stops: 45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt">
+<A
+id=throws0 name=throws0><SPAN lang=EN-US>Throws</SPAN></A></H4>
+<H4
+style="tab-stops: 45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt"><SPAN +style="FONT-FAMILY: SimSun; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">
+抛出</SPAN></H4>
+<P
+style="tab-stops: 45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt"><SPAN +lang=EN-US>Specify both the type of exception thrown, and the condition that
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