[astronews] IAAS Monthly Astronomy Newsletter

  • From: Burness Ansell <ki0ar@xxxxxxxxx>
  • To: Astronomy Newsletter <astronews@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>
  • Date: Sun, 31 Jul 2011 17:39:32 -0700 (PDT)

IAAS Monthly Astronomy Newsletter
August 2011

The International Association for Astronomical Studies provides this newsletter 
as a service for interested persons worldwide.

This newsletter is published on the World Wide Web at 
http://www.ki0ar.com/astro.html - The Home of KI0AR - and is received 
nationally and internationally. A PDF formatted downloadable version of the 
newsletter is at http://www.ki0ar.com/current_nl.pdf.

This newsletter is now available as an iTunes podcast. Visit 
http://www.apple.com, download and install iTunes (for either Mac or Windows). 
Search for "IAAS" and subscribe to the podcast. You may also go to 
http://www.ki0ar.com/astro.html and click on the Subscribe/RSS link. Update 
your iPod or mp3 player and listen to the newsletter at your leisure. Since 
this is a new feature, comments and constructive criticisms are greatly 

An Open Invitation - For amateur radio operators and scanner enthusiasts, when 
in the Denver metro area, please join the Colorado Astronomy Net on the Rocky 
Mountain Radio League's (http://rmrl.hamradios.com/) 146.94 MHz repeater on 
Tuesday nights at 7 P.M. local time.

Special Notice to Denver, CO area residents and visitors to the area: The 
Plains Conservation Center in Aurora hosts Full Moon Walks every month, weather 
permitting, on or near the night of the full Moon. Visit 
http://www.plainsconservationcenter.org for more information and directions.

Excerpts from JPL mission updates are provided as a public service as part of 
the JPL Solar System Ambassador / NASA Outreach program.

In This Newsletter...

* The Moon
* The Planets
* Astronomical Events
* Planetary/Lunar Exploration Missions
* Web Sites of Interest
* Acknowledgments and References
* Subscription Information

The Month At-A-Glance at http://www.ki0ar.com/ataglance.html
A calendar displaying the daily astronomical events.

The Moon

* First Quarter Moon occurs on the 6th.
* Full Moon occurs on the 13th.
* Last Quarter Moon occurs on the 21st.
* New Moon occurs on the 28th.

* The Moon is at Perigee on the 2nd, 227,273 miles from Earth.
* The Moon is at Apogee on the 18th, 251,755 miles from Earth.
* The Moon is at Perigee on the 30th, 224,227 miles from Earth.

Moon/Planet Pairs:
* The Moon passes 1.5° south of Mercury on the 1st.
* The Moon passes 8° south of Saturn on the 4th.
* The Moon passes 6° north of Neptune on the 14th.
* The Moon passes 6° north of Uranus on the 17th.
* The Moon passes 5° north of Jupiter on the 20th.
* The Moon passes 3° south of Mars on the 25th.
* The Moon passes 3° south of Mercury on the 27th.
* The Moon passes 7° south of Saturn on the 31st.

For reference: The Full Moon subtends an angle of 0.5°.

The Planets & Dwarf Planets
Planetary Reports are generated by "TheSky" software. 
(http://www.ki0ar.com/planrpts.html) These reports provide predicted data for 
the planets on the first of each month for the current year. The rise and set 
times for the Sun and the Moon for each day of the month are also included in 
the reports. These reports have been optimized for the Denver, Colorado 
location, however, the times will be approximate for other locations on Earth.

(All times are local unless otherwise noted.)
* Planetary Highlights for August - Look for Saturn in the early evening skies. 
Pluto, Neptune, Ceres, Uranus and Jupiter follow in the late evening and very 
early morning. Mars is visible before sunrise. The Perseids meteor shower peaks 

* Mercury - Is stationary on the 2nd. Mercury is in inferior conjunction on the 
16th. Mercury is stationary again on the 25th. Mercury sets about 8:55 p.m. on 
the 1st and rises about 4:59 a.m. by month's end. Mercury disappears from the 
evening sky during the first week of August only to reappear in the morning sky 
during the last week of this month. Mercury is in the constellation of Leo this 
month shining at magnitude 0.3.

* Venus - Is in superior conjunction on the 16th. Venus is not visible this 
month. Venus will return to the evening sky in late September.

* Earth - N/A.

* Mars - Rises at 2:46 a.m. on the 1st and about 2:16 a.m. by month's end. Mars 
moves from the constellation of Taurus into Gemini this month shining at 
magnitude 1.4.

* Jupiter - Is stationary on the 30th. Jupiter rises at 11:57 p.m. on the 1st 
and about 10:00 p.m. by month's end. Jupiter dominates the early morning sky as 
it is the brightest object in the sky at this time and is best viewed after 
midnight. Jupiter is in the constellation of Aries this month shining at 
magnitude -2.5.

* Saturn - Sets at 11:01 p.m. on the 1st and about 9:05 p.m. by month's end. By 
the time the Sun sets, Saturn is sitting about 20° above the western horizon. 
Saturn is in the constellation of Virgo shining at magnitude 0.9.

* Uranus - Rises at 10:29 p.m. on the 1st and about 8:25 p.m. by month's end. 
Uranus is in the constellation of Pisces shining at magnitude 5.8.

* Neptune - Is at opposition on the 22nd rising as the Sun sets. Neptune rises 
at 9:05 p.m. on the 1st and about 7:01 p.m. by month's end. Neptune is at its 
best viewing for the year. Neptune is in the constellation of Aquarius shining 
at magnitude 7.8.

Dwarf Planets
* Ceres - Rises at 11:22 p.m. on the 1st and about 9:21 p.m. by month's end. 
Ceres is in the constellation of Cetus this month shining at magnitude 8.1.

* Pluto - Sets at 3:40 a.m. on the 1st and about 1:36 a.m. by month's end. 
Pluto is in the constellation of Sagittarius shining at magnitude 14.0.

As always, good luck at spotting these two, a large telescope and dark skies 
will be needed.

Astronomical Events

Meteor Showers
* The Northern Delta Aquarids extends from July 16 to September 10. Maximum 
occurs on August 13. The hourly rates reach a high of 10.

* The Perseids meteor shower is generally visible between July 23 and August 
22. Maximum occurs during August 12/13. The hourly rate typically reaches 80, 
although some years have been as low as 4 and as high as 200. The meteors tend 
to be very fast, possess an average magnitude of 2.3 and leave persistent 

Unfortunately, the Full Moon falls on the same day that the Perseids peak, so 
only the brightest of meteors will be seen. However, if you can find a spot 
where the moon light is blocked, you may be able to see some of the dimmer 
ones. You may want to start observing between First Quarter Moon and Last 
Quarter Moon on any clear evening during this 2 week period to catch at least a 
few meteors streaking through the heavens. The best time to observe meteor 
showers will still be around 2-3 a.m. but any clear summer evening is a good 
time to spot meteors.

* For more information about Meteor Showers, visit Gary Kronk's Meteor Showers 
Online web page at http://meteorshowersonline.com/.

* Comet C/2009 P1 Garradd passes within 1° of the bright globular cluster M15 
in Pegasus on the 1st and 2nd. A 5-inch telescope, using high magnification 
should be able to resolve these two objects. During the nights of August 18th, 
19th and 20th, the tail of the comet turns edge-on and appears as a streak. On 
the evening of the 26th, Comet Garradd nearly occults M71, another gorgeous 
globular cluster in the constellation of Sagitta.

* For information, orbital elements and ephemerides on observable comets visit 
the Observable Comets page from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics 

* For more information about Comets, visit Gary Kronk's Cometography.com web 
page at http://cometography.com/.

* No eclipse activity this month.

Observational Opportunities
* Comet Garradd passes near M15 on the 1st/2nd.
* The Perseids Meteor Shower peaks on the 12th/13th.
* Neptune is at its best on the 22nd.
* Comet Garradd passes near M71 on the 26th.
* Asteroid Vesta becomes visible to the naked eye this month. 

Asteroids (From west to east)
* Pallas is in the constellation of Aquila.
* Metis is in the constellation of Sagittarius.
* Vesta is at opposition on the 5th in the constellation of Capricornus.
* Nausikaa is in the constellation of Aquarius.
* Eunomia is in the constellation of Perseus.

* Information about the Minor Planets can be found at 
http://www.minorplanetobserver.com the Minor Planet Observer web site.

* Information on various occultations can be found at 
http://lunar-occultations.com/iota/iotandx.htm , the International Occultation 
Timing Association's (IOTA) web site.
Planetary/Lunar Exploration Missions
(Excerpts from recent mission updates)

* Cassini - July 18, 2011
A Major Variation on a Theme

"Saturn's invisible radiation belts are like much of the rest of the planet's 
system - unique. NASA's Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft found gaps in the belts 
at distances from Saturn that match the orbits of some of Saturn's moons, 
suggesting the moons were sweeping up the particles. If current explanations of 
radiation belt behavior are correct, there is a mystery: Saturn's radiation 
belts should have disappeared long ago.

Saturn has been recognized as a standout since Galileo first pointed his 
telescope at it. The beauty of the rings immediately draws attention. But 
Saturn's invisible radiation belts are special too. Trapped in Saturn's 
magnetosphere, the volume of space controlled by the planet's magnetic field, 
the radiation belts are only present between zones limited by the orbital 
distances of the planet's moons. The radiation disappears where the moons orbit 
because the particles collide with the moons. The radiation belts themselves 
should have disappeared long ago because the particles slowly spiral in towards 
the planet. But the belts are still there!

A recent paper in the Journal of Geophysical Research by Cassini scientists 
working with an energetic particle detector on the spacecraft's magnetospheric 
imaging instrument provides an explanation: Saturn's radiation belts are 
regularly replenished through the collision of galactic cosmic rays coming from 
outside the solar system with atoms in Saturn's atmosphere and its rings. This 
phenomenon, known as cosmic ray albedo neutron decay, makes Saturn unique in 
the solar system and gives scientists a better understanding of the behavior of 
Saturn's belts and their differences from Earth's.

Saturn's magnetosphere, like those of the other planets, contains radiation 
belts. These belts consist of ions (atoms that have lost one or more electrons, 
primarily by collisions or excitation by ultraviolet or x-ray radiation from 
the sun) and electrons that cycle back and forth along the field lines 
connecting the north and south magnetic poles. (The ions are mostly the nuclei 
- single protons - of hydrogen atoms.) After visits by NASA's Pioneer 11 and 
Voyager spacecraft, scientists observed that Saturn's rings and inner 
satellites absorb these ions and electrons as they orbit around Saturn, 
clearing zones in the radiation belts. How, then, do the belts maintain 
themselves over time when the particles slowly drift in, and therefore across 
the orbits of the satellites?

Roussos and colleagues have found that the rain of local radiation on the moons 
is maintained by the combination of cosmic rays streaming in from our Milky Way 
galaxy and the nuclear physics of the cosmic ray collisions at Saturn. Although 
these kinds of cosmic ray collisions also occur at Earth (and possibly at 
Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune), the radiation belts of those planets may receive 
energetic particles through many different mechanisms. At Saturn, cosmic ray 
collisions appear to be the only process providing high-energy particles, 
making its radiation belts a unique, filtered reservoir of cosmic ray products 
from our galaxy."

Cassini Imaging Team's website - http://ciclops.org.

For the latest mission status reports, visit 
http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/home/index.cfm. The speed and location of the 
spacecraft can be viewed on the "Present Position" web page.

* New Horizons - July 20, 2011
Fourth Moon Adds to Pluto's Appeal

"On the anniversary of the first landing of men on our moon, New Horizons 
mission team scientists have announced the discovery of a fourth moon around 
Pluto - adding to the scientific treasure trove that awaits NASA's Pluto-bound 
New Horizons when it arrives in 2015.

"Could this planet get any more interesting?" says New Horizons Principal 
Investigator Alan Stern, of the Southwest Research Institute, Boulder Colo. "We 
already know that when New Horizons provides the first close-up look at Pluto 
in July 2015, we'll see planetary wonders we never could have expected. Yet 
this discovery gives us another hint of what awaits us in the Pluto system, and 
we're already thinking about how we want to study this new moon with New 
Horizons. What a bonus for planetary science and for New Horizons!"

A Hubble Space Telescope observing team led by Mark Showalter of the SETI 
Institute, Mountain View, Calif., and Douglas Hamilton of the University of 
Maryland, College Park, detected the new moon in five sets of Hubble Space 
Telescope images taken over the past two months. Astronomers are still trying 
to better peg orbital details on the object, designated "S/2011 P1" or "P4" 
until it receives a permanent name. They've put its diameter at between 8 and 
21 miles (13 to 34 kilometers) and estimate that it travels on a circular, 
equatorial orbit nearly 37,000 miles (about 59,000 kilometers) from Pluto - 
placing the new moon between the orbits of the moons Nix and Hydra."

New Horizons gallery http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/gallery/sciencePhotos/.

For more information on the New Horizons mission - the first mission to the 
ninth planet - visit the New Horizons home page: http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/.

* Dawn - July 28, 2011
NASA's Dawn's Spacecraft Views Dark Side of Vesta

"Dawn took this image over Vesta's northern hemisphere after the spacecraft 
completed its first passage over the dark side of the giant asteroid. It is 
northern hemisphere winter on Vesta now, so its north pole is in deep shadow.

The Dawn science team is working to determine the significance of the distinct 
features in this image, which include large grooves or ridges extending for 
great distances around Vesta.

This image was taken by Dawn's framing camera on July 23, from a distance of 
3,200 miles (5,200 kilometers)."

For more information on the Dawn mission, visit the Dawn home page: 

* MESSENGER - July 27, 2011
MESSENGER Makes Another Successful Orbit Adjustment

"The MESSENGER spacecraft continued to fine-tune its orbit around Mercury 
yesterday afternoon when mission controllers at the Johns Hopkins University 
Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) in Laurel, Md., successfully executed the 
second orbit-correction maneuver of the mission.

The 3-minute, 8-second engine burn stretched the spacecraft's orbit around the 
innermost planet from 11 hours 48 minutes to a precise 12 hours. This second of 
an expected five maneuvers planned for the mission's primary orbital phase 
began at 5:20 P.M. EDT, and used approximately 1.9 kilograms of fuel.

"MESSENGER's first orbit-correction maneuver, which took place in June, reset 
the periapsis altitude of the orbit to 200 kilometers, but also shortened the 
orbital period. This second maneuver has reset the period to its nominal value 
of 12 hours," says APL's Peter Bedini, MESSENGER project manager.

MESSENGER Mission Systems Engineer Eric Finnegan, of APL, said the engine burn 
was "on target and a sweet success. We're precisely where we need to be to 
continue to capture amazing data from Mercury's surface." The next 
orbit-correction maneuver is scheduled for September 7 and will lower the 
periapsis altitude from about 470 kilometers back to 200 kilometers."

For more information on the MESSENGER mission, visit the MESSENGER home page: 

* Pack Your Backpack
Calling all explorers! Tour JPL with our new Virtual Field Trip site. Stops 
include Mission Control and the Rover Lab. Your guided tour starts when you 
select a "face" that will be yours throughout the visit. Cool space images and 
souvenirs are all included in your visit.
+ http://virtualfieldtrip.jpl.nasa.gov/ ;
* Past, Present, Future and Proposed JPL Missions - 

* For special JPL programs and presentations in your area visit the JPL Solar 
System Ambassador web site at http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/ambassador/index.html.

Mars Missions

* Mars Odyssey Orbiter - No new news since December 15, 2010
NASA's Odyssey Spacecraft Sets Exploration Record on Mars

"PASADENA, Calif., -- NASA's Mars Odyssey, which launched in 2001, will break 
the record Wednesday for longest-serving spacecraft at the Red Planet. The 
probe begins its 3,340th day in Martian orbit at 5:55 p.m. PST (8:55 p.m. EST) 
on Wednesday to break the record set by NASA's Mars Global Surveyor, which 
orbited Mars from 1997 to 2006.

Odyssey's longevity enables continued science, including the monitoring of 
seasonal changes on Mars from year to year and the most detailed maps ever made 
of most of the planet. In 2002, the spacecraft detected hydrogen just below the 
surface throughout Mars' high-latitude regions. The deduction that the hydrogen 
is in frozen water prompted NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander mission, which confirmed 
the theory in 2008. Odyssey also carried the first experiment sent to Mars 
specifically to prepare for human missions, and found radiation levels around 
the planet from solar flares and cosmic rays are two to three times higher than 
around Earth."

Global Martian Map: http://www.mars.asu.edu/maps/?layer=thm_dayir_100m_v11.

"A simulated fly-through using the newly assembled imagery is available online 
at http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/mars/missions/odyssey/20060313.html.

The fly-through plus tools for wandering across and zooming into the large 
image are at http://themis.asu.edu/.";

Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) web site: 

The Odyssey data are available through a new online access system established 
by the Planetary Data System at: http://starbrite.jpl.nasa.gov/pds/ ;

Visit the Mars Odyssey Mission page at 

* Mars Exploration Rover Mission (Spirit and Opportunity) - July 28, 2011

SPIRIT UPDATE: Spirit Remains Silent at Troy - sols 2621-2627, May 18-24, 2011:

"No communication has been received from Spirit since Sol 2210 (March 22, 2010).

More than 1,300 commands were radiated to Spirit as part of the recovery effort 
in an attempt to elicit a response from the rover. No communication has been 
received from Spirit since Sol 2210 (March 22, 2010). The project concluded the 
Spirit recovery efforts on May 25, 2011. The remaining, pre-sequenced 
ultra-high frequency (UHF) relay passes scheduled for Spirit on board the 
Odyssey orbiter will complete on June 8, 2011.

Total odometry is unchanged at 7,730.50 meters (4.80 miles)."

OPPORTUNITY UPDATE: Opportunity Completes Four Drives: Studies Rock Outcrop - 
sols 2663-2669, July 22-28, 2011:

"Opportunity is less than 500 meters (0.31 miles) from "Spirit Point," the 
first landfall on the rim of Endeavour crater.

The rover drove four times in the last week on Sols 2663, 2664, 2667 and 2668 
(July 22, 23, 26 & 27, 2011), totaling over 460 meters (0.29 miles) of drive 
distance. The right-front wheel currents remain behaved. On Sol 2669 (July 28, 
2011), Opportunity paused in her driving to collect a microscopic imager (MI) 
mosaic of the surface and an overnight alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) 
spectrum of exposed outcrop. The rover also performed a diagnostic test of the 
MI poker. The results of that test will be received later today. The plan ahead 
is more driving.

As of Sol 2668 (July 27, 2011), solar array energy production was 413 
watt-hours with an atmospheric opacity (Tau) of 1.01 and a solar array dust 
factor of 0.587.

Total odometry is 32,973.44 meters (32.97 kilometers, 20.49 miles)."

Landing sites link - http://marsoweb.nas.nasa.gov/landingsites/ ;

Visit the Mars Exploration Rover page at

* Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission - No new news since April 21, 2011
NASA Orbiter Reveals Big Changes in Mars' Atmosphere

"PASADENA, Calif. -- NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has discovered the 
total amount of atmosphere on Mars changes dramatically as the tilt of the 
planet's axis varies. This process can affect the stability of liquid water, if 
it exists on the Martian surface, and increase the frequency and severity of 
Martian dust storms.

Researchers using the orbiter's ground-penetrating radar identified a large, 
buried deposit of frozen carbon dioxide, or dry ice, at the Red Planet's south 
pole. The scientists suspect that much of this carbon dioxide enters the 
planet's atmosphere and swells the atmosphere's mass when Mars' tilt increases. 
The findings are published in this week's issue of the journal Science.

The newly found deposit has a volume similar to Lake Superior's nearly 3,000 
cubic miles (about 12,000 cubic kilometers). The deposit holds up to 80 percent 
as much carbon dioxide as today's Martian atmosphere. Collapse pits caused by 
dry ice sublimation and other clues suggest the deposit is in a dissipating 
phase, adding gas to the atmosphere each year. Mars' atmosphere is about 95 
percent carbon dioxide, in contrast to Earth's much thicker atmosphere, which 
is less than .04 percent carbon dioxide."


All of the HiRISE images are archived here:

More information about the MRO mission is available online at 

* Mars Missions Status - New Mars missions are being planned to include several 
new rover and sample collection missions. Check out the Mars Missions web page: 
http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/missions/ and the Mars Exploration page: 

Links and Other Space News
(If you have a link you would like to recommend to our readers, please feel 
free to submit it.)

* Astronomy A-Go-Go - http://astronomy.libsyn.com/
In the car, at work or under the night time sky astronomy goes where you go! 
(This page has not been updated since September 2010)

* "TheSky" Software - http://www.bisque.com ;

* A Short Guide to Celestial Navigation - http://www.celnav.de/ ;

* Astrogirl Homepage - http://www.astrogirl.org ;

* Astronomical Lexicon - http://www.ki0ar.com/astrolex.html ;
Many of the astronomical terms used in this newsletter are defined here.

* Astronomy Picture of the Day - http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/astropix.html ;

* Black Hole Encyclopedia - http://blackholes.stardate.org/ Excellent site from 
StarDate - University of Texas McDonald Observatory 

* Celestron Telescopes - http://www.celestron.com/c2/index.php - New beta 

* Cloudbait Observatory, Guffey Colorado - http://www.cloudbait.com - Submit 
your fireball reports here. Interesting, knowledgeable site.

* The Constellations and Their Stars - 
http://www.astro.wisc.edu/~dolan/constellations/constellations.html ;
Good site for finding out more about the 88 constellations and their associated 

* Denver Astronomical Society - http://www.denverastrosociety.org ;

* Distant Suns - http://www.distantsuns.com/ ;
Desktop Astronomy package for PCs.

* Eric's Black Sun Eclipse website -
http://www.ericsblacksuneclipse.com ;

* Green Laser - http://www.greenlaser.com
If you're looking for a reasonably priced laser pointer that is great for 
astronomy work, visit this site.

* Groovy Adventures - http://www.groovyadventures.com ;
Unique adventures and vacations including astronomy related vacations.

* The International Dark-Sky Association - http://www.darksky.org
To preserve and protect the nighttime environment and our heritage of dark 

* JPL Solar System Ambassador Program -

* JPL Solar System - http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/solar_system/ ;

* Meade Advanced Products Users Group - http://www.mapug-astronomy.net/ - 
Mapug-Astronomy Topical Archive & information resource, containing a massive 
335 page archive of discussions about Meade equipment, and much more: 
observatories, observing lists, permanent piers, equatorial wedges, remote 
operations, software, eyepieces, etc.

* My Stars Live - http://www.mystarslive.com/ ;
Interactive Star Chart

* NASA Science News - http://science.nasa.gov/ ;

* Northern Colorado Astronomical Society - http://ncastro.org/ ;

* Sangre Stargazers - http://sangrestargazers.skymtn.com/ - New astronomy club 
in the Wet Mountain Valley of Custer County (about 45 miles due west of Pueblo, 

* Sky and Space - http://www.skyandspace.com.au/public/home.ehtml ;
Astronomy from Down Under - The Southern Hemisphere's first astronomy and space 

* Skymaps.com - http://www.skymaps.com/

* Skywatch Sightings from NASA - 
http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/realdata/sightings/ ;
This site gives you the best times to watch the ISS pass over or near your 

* Southern Colorado Astronomical Society - http://www.scasastronomy.info/

* Space.com - http://space.com ;
Interesting space and astronomy articles.

* Space.com - Sky Watch Calendar -
http://www.space.com/spacewatch/sky_calendar.html ;

* Spaceflight Now - http://spaceflightnow.com/ ;

* "SpaceRef.com" - http://www.spaceref.com/ - SpaceRef's 21 news and reference 
web sites are designed to allow both the novice and specialist alike to explore 
outer space and Earth observation.
This site includes links to planetary updates such as Mercury Today, Venus 
Today, Earth Today, Moon Today, Mars Today, Jupiter Today, Saturn Today, Pluto 
Today, etc.

* Stellarium - http://www.stellarium.org
Free, downloadable planetarium/astronomy software.

* Universe Today - http://www.universetoday.com

* Wikisky - http://www.wikisky.org
WIKISKY is a non-commercial project. The main purpose of WIKISKY is to 
consolidate astronomical, astrophysical and other information about different 
space objects and astrophysical facts.

Acknowledgments and References

Much of the information in this newsletter is from "Astronomy Magazine" 
(Kalmbach Publishing), JPL mission status reports, "Meteor Showers - A 
Descriptive Catalog" by Gary W. Kronk and other astronomical sources that I 
have stashed on my book shelves.

The author will accept any suggestions, constructive criticisms, and 
corrections. Please feel free to send me any new links or articles to share as 
well. I will try to accommodate any reasonable requests. Please feel free to 
send questions, comments, criticisms, or donations to the email address listed 
below. Enjoy!
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Keep looking UP!
73 from KI0AR

Created by Burness F. Ansell, III

COO, Director of Aerospace Technologies, IAAS
JPL Solar System Ambassador, Colorado
Last modified: July 31, 2011

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